Study Guide for test 1
Study Guide for test 1 EDU 2100
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 70 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Thomas Nelson 92515 ILtro to Educational Psvch0102v and the Teacher s Role 0 3 applications of psychology to education 0 Provides model of teaching and learning process 0 Integrates principles of classroom management 0 Provides perspectives on causes of behavior 0 Helps teachers understand 0 How students learn What motivates students How to design instruction that maximizes learning How to assess student learning and curricular effectiveness Also assists teachers to become more aware of their thoughts and actions and understand the effects these thoughts and actions have on others 0 O O O 0 Transactional Model of the TeachingLearning Process Illustrates the many factors that combine to in uence student achievement 0 Student characteristics and behavior 0 Teacher characteristics and behavior 0 Family 0 Community 0 School policies Tvnes of Development Nature vs Nurture Bioloaical In uences The Brain 0 Cognitive Development 0 All children do not develop at the same rate 0 Development is continuous and relatively orderly 0 Learning experience and social interaction all contribute to development 0 Development is affected by heredity and environment 0 Neuron Primary cell of the brain and the nervous system All sensations movements thoughts memories and feelings are the result of signals that pass through neurons 0 3 parts of a neuron 39 Cell Body Contain nucleus I Dendrites Extend from cell body like branches of a Dendricg Paton terminal r1 lTi iiiiilcfCe body tree and rece1ve messages from other nerve cells r 39 Axon Receive signals from dendrites and transmit them to other neurons or to cells in other organs 0 Gene Small unit of chemical instruction in the form of DNA 0 Serve as blueprints for how body Will develop and as timetable for When characteristics Will emerge 0 Up to 100000 genes are dispersed among 46 chromosomes 0 Birth defects are caused by chromosomal disorders exposure to teratogens poor maternal health and complications during birth 0 Teratogens Substances that cross placental barrier and cause defects in embryo or fetus 0 Alcohol 0 Cocaine 0 Stress O Nicotine 0 Lead 0 Nature vs Nurture Debate 0 Human development due to combo of genetic amp environmental factors 0 Heredity most crucial during early periods of development 0 Environmental factors dominate develop during later stages 0 Specialization Different areas of the brain are specialized for different functions 0 Lateralization Each half of the brain controls the opposite side of the body 0 4 lobes in the cerebral cortex 0 Frontal front 0 Parietal top 0 Occipital back 0 Temporal bottom 0 2 hemispheres in the brain 0 Left Involved primarily with language and thinking 0 Right Vision spatial relations and emotions Piaget 0 Schema Basic unit necessary for mental organization and functioning 0 Adaption How an organism interacts with the environment in a relationship 0 Assimilation When someone encounters something new heshe will try to deal with it by using existing schema 0 Accommodation Modify existing schema in order to be able to understand info that would be incomprehensible with existing schema 0 Equilibration Carrying out processes assimilation or accommodation in efforts to restore equilibrium 0 Intelligence Combo of all of individual s schemata result of assimilations and accommodations more like procedural knowledge than declarative knowledge 0 4 stages of development 0 Sensorimotor 02 years Acquisition of language I Primary circular reactions 1 4months Focus is on infant s own body and directed toward manipulation of some object I Secondary circular reactions 4 8 months dropping toy Making interesting sights last I Goal directed behavior 8 12 months Coordination of schemata and intentional actions I Tertiary circular reactions 12 18 months Inventions of new means to accomplish ends I Symbolic problem solving 18 24 months Learn how to talk and is able to represent objects and events mentally I Object Permanence Capstone recognizing objects exist even when out of sight and hearing 0 Preoperational 27 years Ability to form ideas with symbols and signs I Egocentrism Preoccupation with oneself and one s own particular POV I Centration Child focuses on only one aspect or dimension at a time I Nontransformational Reasoning Focuses on elements in sequence not changes in the states I Irreversibility Inability to reverse thought back to where or how it started I Conservation Capstone realization that the amountquantity of something stays the same even when its shape or arrangement is changed 0 Concrete Operations 711 years Logical operations 0 I Inversion Application of reversibility to problems of order ping pong ball example I Compensation Logic of 1D compensating equally for another height for width with liquid I Seriation Ability to mentally arrange a set of elements in increasingdecreasing order along dimension size weight volume I Classification Ability to put together objects that are alike such as geometric shapes Formal Operations 11 years Abstract thought I Concrete Correspondence Correlation between what is done and what results from what is done I Separation of Variables Testing one variable at a time while holding all others constant in attempt to confirm or reject a hypothesis 0 Practical Implication of Theory 0 O O 0 Discovery learning and learning by exploration handson activities play Learner centered orientation provide students with choices Focus on themes rather than discrete subject matter Ask students to explain reasoning and assumptions 0 Foster development of higher level thinking skills Vygotsky 0 Sociocultural Perspective Importance of society and culture in promoting children s cognitive growth 0 Social interaction with adults helps children learn about the meanings and cultural interpretations associated with objects events and experiences 0 Zone of Proximal Development ZPD Range of tasks that lie between actual development and potential development 0 Scaffolding Assistance provided by others that enables children to proceed through their zone of development Ex A teacher helping a student solve a puzzle 0 Techniques for teaching and working with children 0 Provide learners with challenging tasks 0 Have learners work cooperatively on tasks 0 Provide learners with cognitive models 0 Provide learners with opportunities to work on tasks likely to be encountered in the real world 0 Relate your instructional style to the cultural background of learners 0 Both theories include language and social interaction as factors of cognitive growth 0 Piaget emphasized individual development and had developmental stages 0 Vygotsky emphasized social contexts for development and thought there was continuous growth Language 0 Language Development 0 Phonology Production and comprehension of speech sounds 0 Meaning Relationship between words and what they describe what a person is trying to express Grammar Syntax Ordering of words into sentences 0 Communication Ultimate purpose of language combo of other 3 apsects I Speech Verbal means of communication gt Articulation How speech sounds are made wabbit and rabbit gt Voice Use of vocal folds and breathing to produce sounds O misuse or overuse can result in hoarseness or loss of voice gt Fluency Rhythm of speech Hesitations or stuttering 0 Expressive Language Difficulty sharing thoughts feelings and ideas completely 0 Receptive Language Difficulty understanding others 0 Pragmatics Social conventions of conversations 0 Register Understand use of different languagepronunciation in different environments 0 Basic manner children develop language 0 Ability to memorize chunks of language I Rising intonations in words Bite I Rising intonations in pattern Bite dogs do Cookie mommy I Realize order has to change Do dogs bite 0 By 5 years old mastered grammar O Metalinguistic Awareness Knowledge of language 0 Around 6 years old children know one word can have multiple meanings Intelligence 0 3 different definitions 0 Ability to solve problems and adapt to environment 0 One s teachability or ability to learn 0 Re ection of process of learning I General Mental Capacity 0 Binet 1908 defined intelligence as combo of following I Reasoning and judgement I Maintenance of a definite direction of thought I Comprehension I Adaption of thinking to attainment of a desirable end I Finding one s own mistakes 0 Intelligent was a single process I General Factor g 0 Spearman 1927 agreed with Binet that intelligence was a single process but took it further 0 Intelligence General ability to solve mental problems 0 Based on overlap in performances between different intelligent subtests 0 Triarchic Theory 0 Sternberg 1985 O 3 related aspects I Analytic I Creative I Practical O Componential Intelligence Analytical and reasoning skills valued in school 0 Experiential Intelligence Creative ways to solve problems or approach situations 0 Contextual Intelligence Ability to deal with day to day issues effectively 0 Multiple Intelligences O Psychologist and Harvard professor Howard Gardner 0 Intelligence Ability to create an effective product or offer a service that is valued in culture A set of skills that make it possible for a person to solve problems in life Potential for finding or creating solutions for problems 0 All people have multiple intelligences it depends which one they decide to strengthen O 9 intelligences I Linguistic Use of words Writer I Logical Mathematical Deductive reasoning and use of numbers Scientist I Spatial Manipulation of images and organizing objects in 3D space Architect I BodyKinesthetic Graceful movement and balance Dancer or gymnast I Musical Producing sounds and rhythms Musician I Intrapersonal Understanding own needs feelings and thoughts Spiritual leader I Interpersonal Understanding others needs feelings and thoughts Politician or salesperson I Naturalist Living harmoniously with the environment Explorer or meteorologist I Existentialist Ability to see big picture of human existence by asking philosophical questions about the world 0 Intelligence Quotient IQ Student s mental age divided by their chronological age and then multiplied by 100 0 Average IQ range is 85115 0 Average IQ is 100 0 Deviation IQ Computed on basis of how a child scores compared directly to children of different ages 0 Discrepancy Analysis Looks at differences between child s potential IQ and performance on school related tasks achievement tests I Should be around the same score if not there might be a learning disability 0 If a child has an IQ score under 70 heshe has an intellectual disability Information Processing and Memory I Semantic Encoding Longterm memory storage process Meaningfulness The more meaningful info is the easier it is to remember 0 Substitute more familiar concrete words for less familiar abstract ones Serial Position Words coming first and last are most remembered 0 Primacy Effect Items that come first tend to be remembered best 0 Recency Effect Items that come last tend to be remembered best 0 Spend the same amount of time studying each word on the list Practice The more you practice the more you remember 0 Distributed Practice Practice spread out over time 0 Massed Practice Cramming Organization Organizing info into blocks enables you to remember more 0 Chunking Combining an entire list into a meaningful chunk so it can be remembered along with 6 or 7 more chunks O Rehearsal Repetition O Elaboration Adding more onto info Transfer and Interference Transfer is the effect of prior learning on new learning Interference is the effect of new learning on prior learning 0 Positive Transfer New info is easier to learn when old info is similar to it 0 Negative Transfer New info is harder to learn when old info con icts with it 0 Retroactive Interference New info interferes with old info causing old info to be remembered incorrectly 0 Proactive Interference Old info interferes with new info causing new info to be remembered incorrectly Mnemonic Devices Techniques or tricks for helping memory through association 0 3 methods I FirstLetter Method Every Good Boy Does Fine EGBDF gt music notes I Peg Method Rhyming words for numbers Keyword Method Fitting words with images and definitions
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