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Unit 1 Study Guide

by: Samantha Petrin

Unit 1 Study Guide ARH 132

Marketplace > University of Miami > Art History > ARH 132 > Unit 1 Study Guide
Samantha Petrin
Survey of Western Art II
Joel Hollander

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About this Document

Study guide with dates, photos, and artist synopses. Includes descriptions of works with background information and analyses of the works elements.
Survey of Western Art II
Joel Hollander
Study Guide
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This 69 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Petrin on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ARH 132 at University of Miami taught by Joel Hollander in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Survey of Western Art II in Art History at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 09/25/15
1 Gothic Painting Gothic A Formal Elements 1 Composition where the artist places an object or how it is arranged Stable symmetry most important figure places along central vertical axis CVA arrange forms in implicit triangular format pointed arches and golden background can be used to identify a piece from the Gothic era Dynamic emphasizes diagonal thrust virgin Mary identified with blue garment largest figure is centralized symmetrical angels arranged on sides re ects emotion C010r1 Vibrant primary colors red yellow blue secondary colors green orange purple complimentary color scheme Muted earth tones monochromatic black white and grays Use of Light and Shadow 3dimensional volume effect create volume mass and weight 1 Even Distribution 2 Dramatic Chiaroscuro Tenebrism Rembrandt Perspective gt Depthdistance a Linear Madonna Enthroned has limited linear perspective Gothic period outlook on life was mystical golden background is symbolic and transports the viewer to heaven spiritual context Bubonic plague 1350 decimates population and the feudal system collapsed new emerging aesthetic after Gothic period ends b Aerial atmospheric golden backgrounds deemphasized use of perspective in Cimabue s overlapping of subjects spatial order c Foreshortening illusion that shortens the length of a limb or torso dramatic arm gesture of figure bending over Christ figure illusion of arm extending back into space Figure a Drapery represent clothing on figure weight mass and volume of subject using clothing schematic network of lines present in Cimabue s Madonna Enthroned clothes ideal functioning not realistic parallel lines in drapery Giottos s Madonna Enthroned is depicted with formfitting clothing that still reveals the mass and shape underneath b Pose seated pose in both Madonna Enthroned difficult to show depth in seated position emphasizes lack of perspective Giotto highlights while Cimabue s piece is at with minimal highlights on a dark composition c Facial features naturalistic Giotto versus schematic Cimabue d Gesture relies on hand position and gesture to direct the eye to the Christ Child subject head tilt is more relaxed and natural in Giotto B Context Middle Ages 3 Grew after collapse of the Roman Empire 4 Feudalism agricultural economic system composed of serfs C Cimabue 1 Madonna Enthroned relies on hand position and gesture to direct the eye to the Christ Child subject a Madonna s throne recedes into space overlapping gures and halflength of prophets reinforce sense of depth b Relied on Byzantine models in composition gold background drapery of the Madonna s robe that enhances the threedimensionality of the piece D Giotto Pieces give illusion of light and shadow 1 Arena Chapel prototype of Sistine chapel Giotto painted entire room last judgement sce ne is found on furthest wa11 59quot 39 v in v 1 39 39 n a worked towards classical naturalism GrecoRoman inspiration complete rejection of paganism that revives Christianity during the medieval period i more realistic than idealized or stylized Madonna more plump her body features are more pronounced and visible breasts through fabric no golden background fresco wall painting blue is rudimentary attempt at aerial perspective represents the sky atmosphere no golden highlights in robe figures are constructed to have dimensionality and form volumes are noticeable not concealed by drapery and give the illusion of space Crucifixion primary color colorist Boldly foreshortened angels dynamic arrangement emotional complimentary colors drapery falls in an irregular pattern but still conveys weight mass and volume of figure underneath Rock formation creates sharp horizontal ledge landscape in uenced by byzantine mural at Nerezi in Macedonia Angle of rock ledge and withered tree draw the viewer s eyes to Christ and the Madonna Figures expressions and gestures are those of sorrow and grief the back view of certain figures had not been seen in the ItaloByzantine style figures have volume due to proper use of light and shadow beginnings of use of Chiaroscuro Colorist sense of naturalism naturalistic use of light and shadow believablerealistic sense of light and shadow II Eaer Renaissance Flemish Flanders A Context Political Northern European areas controlled by the Dukes of Burgundy Areas encompassing parts of modern FR Germany Belgium and Holland Context SocioEconomic Urban middleclass recovery after Bubonic Plague prosperity of merchants and crafts workers Context Cultural Overlaps with development in Florence yet independent artistic cultures patronsgt private Context aesthetic Emphasized light and shadow Naturalistic figures Religious themes and settings fully integrated with daily routine and contemporary life Robert Campin aka Master of Flemalle A Merode Altarpiece Central panel iconography Archangel Gabriel and virgin Mary have similar faces androgyny starlike symbol on Mary could be conception imagery Anachronistic against time takes places in early 15th century home rather than during bible times a Hidden symbols treated as normal part of scene religious meanings widely understood b OT prayer shawl glazed earthenware w Hebrew writing c NT lilies gtvirginity snuffed out candle gt immaculate conception wind blown pages gt Holy Spirit d Drapery metallic crisp and starched linear folds are not realistic early Flemish works depict excessive amounts of fabric textiles were major income for merchant class right panel Joseph i linear receding lines indicate depth ii aerial view into deep space elevated height signifies Joseph is on second oor view from above of village below b iconography hidden mousetraps drain board for wine 9 Eucharist realistic left panel a figures patrons kneeling gesturing W piety selfportrait versus OT prophet realistic representation of features b iconography redrose bush 9 Virgin amp the Passion c Perspective i linear ii atmospheric 111 Jan van Eyck 13901441 significance most famousinnovative Flemish painter of 15C biographyemployment 1 142224 court of John of Bavaria count of Holland at The Hague 2 1425 court painter and valet de chambre to Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy undertook several secret missions 3 142829 trip to Spain and Portugal in connection w negotiations that resulted in marriage of Philip of Burgundy and Isabella of Portugal in 1430 medium oil perfected the technique striking realism in microscopic detail permits precise objective description carefully applied blended brushstrokes built up in transparent layers slow drying process rendering b Ghent Altarpiece 1432 wing exteriors closed composition registered horizontal bands of narrative grand size upper register OT prophetssibyls middle register Annunciation Gabriel and Mary perspective aerial 9 view of city linear 9 rafters lower register donors church s patron saints John Baptist John the Evangelist kneeling realistic agedness gtgt center niche appear to be statues depicts extreme control and use of light and shadow to create a dramatic believable sense of weight and volume drapery is believable and follows rules of gravity Van Eyck Giotto Last Judgment tempera paint in Giotto s versus oil paint in Van Eyck van Eyck has more texture esh and facial hair very realistic fabric falls according to laws of gravity with irregular creases crown symbolizes offer to all people upper register open Adam and Eve aesthetic realism narrative after the Fall depiction of Cain and Abel above Adam and Eve setting niche isolated from nature figures realistic recognize their nakedness physiognomy is scrawny and malnourished musculature is realistic dramatic contrast using light and shadow of his esh and the background Adam appears dazed and confused detailing of veins and musculature Eve s hair is split and unkempt appears to be expecting swollen abdomen gazes introspective poses contrapposto lightshadow models forms to create 3d decorativeness contrast starkness to splendor of angelic musicians perspective of lower register is in aerial perspective linear perspective in middle lower register center panel depiction of Christ enthroned in heaven Madonna and St John the Baptist on each side linear perspective receding into space angels on each side playing harpsichord anachronistic did not exist during Christ s era c Wedding Portrait 1434 Textbook second wife Italian and Flemish international business van Eyck present in painting signature van Eyck was here patron Giovanni Arnolfini i prosperous Italian banker ii settled in Bruges iii contemporary Flemish upper middle class setting domestic appears to be marrying second wife could be taking an oath allowing his wife to work on his behalf while he is away composition bilateral symmetry complimentary light shadow directed d perspective lineartilted window oorboards rafters above table bed more accurate sliver of aerial perspective in mirror and sliver of window on wall convex mirror shows accurate realistic distortion distortion in mirror transforms window jamb into a symbolic cross blessing the exchange between man and wife or soontobe wife two witnesses to exchange could be linked to having to have witnesses to a marriage van Eyck included in visitors e iconography hidden i emblems of wealth piety amp married life domestic life 1 rosary beads 9 9 St Margaret Candle presence of holy spirit Fruit affording citrus symbolizes wealth sweetness symbolizes fertility and love between man and wife dog loyalty fidelity realistic depiction of fur convex mirror wife is gathering up excessive fabric from dress could be expecting as stomach appears distended could be a fashion statement similar to Merode altarpiece green compliments use of red in drapery and furnishings fur coat and broadrimmed hat worn by Arnolfini clogs holy moment or sight clogs removed typical gift of husband to wife single candle also part of wedding ceremony II Eaer Renaissance Italian Painting Early Renaissance context Humanism how can it be visualized academic studies 1 architecture with classical order of Ionic Corinthian and Doric Contrapposto a definition culturaleducational reform engaged by scholars writers civic leaders b aims to create citizenry able to speakwrite with eloquence and clarity i to persuade others to virtuous and prudent actions ii emphases on common good as well as individual nobility iii conjunction of faith amp reason c curricula revival of classical liberal arts i grammar rhetoric history poetry and moral philosophy ii study of ancient republican models of gov t iii lessons in mathematics etc revivals d developed during 14th and beginning of 15th centuries i many of upper classes received Humanist educations ii some of highest officials of Church were humanists w resources to amass important libraries iii spread northward to France Germany Holland and England e themes Christianity infused w Classical pagan culture Masaccio 14011428 5a 3514 biography Vasari s biographies compiled careers into volume The Lives of the Most Excellent Painters Sculptors and Architects a father 9 notary mother 9 daughter of an innkeeper c grew up near Florence 0 training no evidence of Medici s artistic education Renaissance painters traditionally began apprenticeship at age of 12 e M likely moved to Florence to receive training f not documented in city until joined painters guild in 1422 0 significance lSt great painter of Quattrocento g according to Vasari M best of his generation at recreating i lifelike figures ii threedimensional volumes iii linear perspectivevanishing point iv movement contrapposto poses and other classical poses A Brancacci Chapel A l a function private chapel b narratives obscure c composition registered i two 2 horizontal registers extend around chapel ii aesthetic sources figures 1 Giotto s Arena Chapel a simple grandeur b psychologically amp physically credible d Expulsion from Paradise is 7255 es i subject OT ii narrative assisted by gestures expelled from paradise Garden of Eden have already eaten fruit combination of Old and New Testament themes western artist is representing the human figure as nude which had become obsolete in the early renaissance era knowledge of their nakedness angel above gestures away from paradise expelled from paradise iii composition dynamic 1 diagonal placement of forms 2 sweeping movement of Angel s drapery 3 compliments strict verticality narrow gate linear perspective possible palm frond iv perspective linear e g gate use of aerial perspective in background v figures solidly modeled 3d effect created by correct use of light and shadow and use of shadows on the ground vi gestures foreshortening of Adam s arm to cover face and foreshortened angel s torso communicated leaning gesture drapery reveals volume shape and mass grimaced Eve crying out in despair vii light directed viii colors believable natural colors and use of primary colors Tribute Money 3quot N Parable of Christ fresco painted on plaster apostles surround Jesus and do not have money to pay tax man grouped along CVA continuous narrative beginning middle and end displayed in painting use of hand gestures guides viewer through painting use of foreshortening in the tax man s arm sort red tunic next to Jesus similar to Giotto s Lamentation Peter shes and catches a sh that 1 Composition stable grouping in center and right dynamism achieved by mountains that lead viewer s eye down to lake vibrant use of color primaries secondary earth tones but emphasis is on colorism figures are close to picture plane foreground and sharp color contrast distinguishes figures in group even distribution of light and shadow and a directed use of light from right to left folds in drapery create shape volume and weight while clinging to the figures do not atten figures like Cimabue 2 Poses tax man contrapposto compound word meaning counter poised natural pose derived from Greek prototypes weight is committed to engaged leg free leg is bent at the knee shoulder is dipped over engaged leg seen in tax man in middle and end scenes reference to humanism 3 Figures lines of sight are at same level no disruptions in scale not in hierarchical scale hierarchy most important figure is larger than secondary and tertiary characters figures found at CVA and ignoring the hierarchical scale and returning to classical themes 4 Architecture linear perspective aerial perspective mountain range becomes fainter and hazier as it moves toward the background C Holy Trinity 1425 1 Hi a composition stable i ii iii most important figures on CVA amp triangular format God the father at apex dark blue Madonna patron and Wife Who paid for piece kneeling on left standard early renaissance convention St John the Baptist found on right Christ centered in middle of triangle Large scale fresco 22X105 ft Placement of Holy trinity holy spirit is dove and are set in Roman Architectural format called the triumphal arch Corinthian capitals medallions circular form Ionic capitals volutes pilasters are squared off circular columns niche Where holy trinity is placed in vaulted ceiling barrel vault squares carved into ceiling create coffered ceiling Pantheon Constantine s Basilica etc extract masonry to make roof not as heavy Without the roof collapsing b figures hierarchically arranged drapery is accurate and shows shape volume mass i God the Father ii Jesus the Son naturalistic style use of light and shadow iii Virgin MarySt John Baptist iv Donors kneeling c linear perspective i square stone vaulting coffered ceiling extending back in space but is not completely accurate application of mathematics to depiction of space in 2d ii steps leading to niche d vanishing point i implied horizon of Christ s outstretched arms e narrative directed by gestures i Virgin 9 instructing about death of body 1 see skeleton below figure of Christ 2 Pridella grotesque appearance of skeleton shows that one should focus on spiritual themes than that of physical themes the holy trinity versus skeleton D Anunciation quot gtamp quot 1 7 a subject Gabriel appears to VM b painted by a monk commissioned to create fresco in Florence large scale representing anunciation theme similar to Flemish themes c setting porch enclosed garden i pointed arches Gothic ii Corinthian capitals d perspective linear i columns ii receding diagonal lines dynamism Gabriel kneeling towards Madonna who is seated further back in the space enlivens the scene horizontal iron bars add to sense of linear perspective iii aerial perspective on left with foliage iv chair III IV g h i Fra An figures idealized Gabriel and Madonna facial features are nearly identical androgynous representation of Gabriel mirroring each other s position and gestures drapery naturalistic pleats natural irregularity that clings to form composition stable i bilateral symmetry simple and direct guided by stable composition color pastel light directed gelico 14001455 A Resurrection II 0 I site Palazzo Communale in Tuscany narrative tone nonnatural occurrence presented stoically figures idealized through mathematical proportions symmetrical equilateral triangle roman soldiers in foreground sent to guard tomb idealized naturalism lean musculature facial expression on Christ is stoic and gazing directly at viewer grotesque element of dripping blood drapery is pastel color scheme on Christ and falls according to the laws of gravity other fabrics cling to forms and reveal mass weight and volume composition i friezelike arrangement Classical arrangement of soldiers in foreground are arranged laterally similar to classical frieze ii stable 1 CVA 2 implicit triangular format color pastel compliments amp localized primaries light shadow even distribution perspective emphasis on aerial idealized perspective Perugino s The Delivery of the Keys lsk i i quot 39 v I alignI115 1 635 Peter linear perspective one point tiling idealized atmospheric cloudscape standing figure and kneeling figure presenting an object to one another theme appears again in later times related to Perugino s piece Christ is seen is contrapposto stance drapery falls naturally and reveals shape underneath figures outfitted in 15th century Italian which is anachronistic Gestures gesturing of figure in middle follows linear perspective Humanist reference symmetrical arrangement of buildings with triumphal arches Boticelli s The Birth of Venus J r 739 Nonreligious deals with GrecoRoman themes humanism drawing female body from observation stable composition symmetrically arranged with a diagonal thrust that establishes dynamism Zephyr on left decorative patterns similar to Angelico schematic V markings are idea of waves lapping against shore schematic tree trunks Vs Greek Late Classical Aphrodite adopts pose and gestures from PraXitele s Aphrodite contrapposto stance pose is off balance second appearance of nude female gure after Eve in Massachio s Brac Chapel VI Ghirlandaio 14491494 A Giovanna Tornabuoni date c 1490 commission memorial subject character reading of aristocracy theme courtly manners pose profile facial features idealized color Vibrant brightly lit and skin appears bleached P zerhogs decorativeness pattemization of clothing H O iconography Humanism i epitaph quotes ancient Roman poet Martial vs Leonardo s High Renaissance La Bella Principessa B Old Man and Grandson 1490 a subject emotional familial bond b aesthetic i grotesque 9 old man skin deformity realism in baggy eyes and wrinkles of skin ii idealized 9 child composition dynamic diagonal gaze between old man and grandson color Vibrant amp muted lightshadow directed perspective integrates linear amp aerial WFDCLP Early Renaissance Italian Sculpture i goldsmith39s workshop ii brie y in Ghiberti s studio iii studies and excavates w Brunelleschi in Rome 1404 1407 significance Humanist enthusiasm for Roman virtue amp form poses recognized contrapposto stance principle of weight shift drapery wet i Classically derived decorative ii reveals gure s form weight amp mass a falls according to law of gravity b position amp function of each limb visible underneath the foldspleats c focuses on Greek classical lessons d meant to portray movement and accentuate the movement of the body aesthetic i early work 9 classicizing tendency ii mature phase 9 decorative iii late work 9 expressionistic St Mark the Evangelist c 141015 material marble scale over lifesize 7 9 style Classical facial features stoic amp veristic pose introduction of contrapposto stance drapery wet o voluminous yet clinging clings to upper torso 0 falls straight over engaged leg 0 irregular on free leg s push forward 0 similar to Parthenon s Three Goddesses facial features Classical 0 stoic dominating attitude With a matter of fact facial expressions Humanist source 0 veristic realism Roman I bags under eyes I older appearance ringlets of beard I hollowed cheeks o undercutting sculptor takes a ancient drilllike instrument and carves deep recesses into the stone I creates sense of decorativeness I beard ringlets I short cropped hair compare to Ghiberti s Early Renaissance St John the Baptist c 1415 39V39 I h 39 1 o facial expression stern angry eyebrows are furrowed and mouth grimaced intense emotion with sharp undercutting re and brimstone attitude 0 drapery not wet drapery sever undercutting creates excessive use of curvilinear forms guild associated with textile industry commissioned doesn t follow classical forms falls in linear patterns but still reveal form underneath without clinging to body David c 1450 O O O patron Cosimo de39 Medici material bronze style decorative extremely detailed soldiers on Goliath s helmet texture of sandals and facial hair on Goliath reinvention of classical nude narrative biblical allegory David and Goliath Goliath s beheaded head is under David s foot civic virtues triumphing over brutality and irrationality biblical text a temporal 9 afterthefact i triumphantly holds Goliath s sword and stands on Goliath s head b figure 9 portrays youthful shepherd boy c symbolic 9 unblemished spiritual perfection figure nakedness a first surviving freestanding sculptural nude since Antiquity b eg Spear Bearer c pose contrapposto stepping on Goliath s head creates engaged leg d erotic 9 hat amp footwear still shows beauty of the gods 0 compare to Polykleitos Classical Greek Spear bearer I athleticism similar to Donatello s I Donatello s body features are more youthful less mature than Polykleitos spear bearer longer hair and anachronistic placement of bonnetlike hat and soft features of face lips or to appear more youthful exaggerated hip thrust 0 Mary Magdalen c 1450 heightscale 6 2 over life size medium wood more brittle and indicates range of expertise of Donatello style expressive pose contrapposto slight sift of weight onto engaged leg and dipped shoulder figure concealed by hair narrative beautiful harlot prostitute shows that anyone can be saved controversial belief that Jesus and Mary Magdalene married at some point O became hermit upon conversion Christian no longer cares about outward beauty and focuses on internal spiritual condition committed acts of mortification allowed hair to grow for protection her hair covers her body like a garment face wrinkled skin bags under eyes skin is separating from features neck and face use of undercutting to contrast sharply with brightly lit features on face appears lost in trance sunken cheeks piety gestures contemplative clasped hands tilted head gazing outward as if lost in spiritual revelry meaning meditative inevitability of aging amp death 11 High Renaissance Italian Painting 16th century Florence and Rome Leonardo da VinCi 1452 1519 T a 7 L 3 is x 39 39 39x H 49 animal 39 pm 39 biography illegitimate son significance Renaissance man a talented in Wide range of endeavors e g art engineering b informal education in Latin geometry and mathematics training under tutelage of Verrochio c contemporary in Florence W Botticelli Perugino amp Ghirlandaio patron Duke of Milan Francis I FR style designo tradition vs colore tradition d forms amp volume 9 line amp shadow dramatic strategies of light and shadow e master of perspective aerial amp linear f less concerned W color Vitruvian Man c 14851490 H quot Ir 39 agd 39s39 amp 5 u39 464 quotquot tr s 53 ct wvf v 441 1quot 139 l P39 quotZquot Q39Fh39wrwi 744 4 Lru1 39 quot I VLIAquot w wapY qu 39 Ari 4 13 I quot R k z o Kept notebooks wrote backwards using a mirror da Vinci code VitruVius Roman architect 0 significance form established by mathematical proportions amp geometric shapes 0 i circle ii square 0 figure idealized proportions iii precedent canon of proportions 1 Egyptian 2 Roman 0 light shadow dramatic passages heavy emphasis on contour Madonna of the Rocks 1483 b rock formations as youth he discovered a cave driven by curiosity to find out What inside c composition stable i CVA ii implicit triangular format iii idealized facial features lightinfused enVironment d color muted emphasis despite localized areas of primaries e lightshadow Chiaroscuro f perspective i linear 9 no explicit use ii foreshortening iii aerial 9 View into deep space Madonna St Ann amp Christ Child g date c 15051507 h esthetic disegno tradition i technical skill of line amp drawing ii an artist s conception amp intention iii external physical manifestation of an internal intellectual idea or design Zuccaro i composition centralized III IV j lightshadow chiaroscuro i chiaro clear or light ii oscuro 9 obscure or dark 1 strong contrasts between light and shadow chest area wet drapery clings to figure 2 extraordinary sense of sculptural dimensionality k figures massive the last supper if v l 39 g 39 33 39 4quot A 1 i J closed off doorway commissioned for convent willing suspension of disbelief jesus placed along CVA implicit triangular format lunette above Christ is an implied halo expression of apostles in four groups of three but all are startled similar to Giotto s last supper characters are seated around the table versus Leonardo s where they are all on one side similar to Castagno s Last supper judas is found on other side of the table Mona Lisa 15031505 a patron Francesco de Giocondo i wealthy Florentine ii commemorating wife s entry into motherhood b narrative tone secular vs religious 0 figure idealized i facial features eyes mouth ii handsfingers d composition stable i central vertical axis ii implicit triangular format e color muted f lightshadow chiaroscuro g perspective aerial i sfumato 9 smoky hazy effect 1 creates illusion of atmosphere creates density in the atmosphere Raphael 14831520 biography father had been court painter to Duke of Urbino training workshop of Perugino significance most complete expression of High Ren ideal of harmony techniques synthesizes lessons of Leonardo amp Michelangelo a linear amp aerial perspective strong contour lines graceful figures master of Contrapposto stance Christian and Humanist re mythological themes 999 Marriage of the Virgin 1504 subject matter NT figures idealized poses contrapposto composition stable color vibrant lightshadow directed perspective combines linear amp aerial i vanishing point 1 unlike Perugino opens up horizon into deep space ii vantage point 1 lower more intimate than Perugino s 2 increases area that gures occupy W 1quotqu rho cont Deposition 1 figures idealized i faces ii musculature iii contrapposto stances wedged space inspired by Donatello s Feast of Herod in bronze where there is rationalized perspective space Leonardo s last supper could possibly have used this reference to earlier artists m gazes dramatic II lightshadow models forms to create convincing weight mass amp volume sense of Chiaroscuro effect is believable and functionally appropriate toned down more than works of Michelangelo drapery reveals form color vibrant perspective aerial vanishing point on horizon mountains and hills suggest linear perspective A x o Linepective single vanishing point 0 symbolizes the branch of knowledge of philosophy pg 494 495 Theology Law Poetry Philosophy o no religious references glorifying knowledge built during Greek times implied use of dome in middle ground barrel vault with coffered ceiling classical reference and other humanist references of Apollo and Athena sculptures o colorism and rhythmic distribution of colors receding steps Plato and Aristotle in middle CVA Galatea 1513 7 as 39 r theme mythological Galatea was being pursued by a Cyclops and is eeing him nonreligious Polyphemus celebrates human beauty and zestful love s humanism unrequited love construction of Galatea is based on Classical prototypes sculptures similar to Botticelli s birth of Venus idealized musculature and soft facial features t composition i dynamic 9 movement amp gestures ii stabilized 9 1 principal narrative figure placed along CVA 2 implicit triangular format 9 angels above u color vibrantlocalized red cloak complimented by aqua green strong sense of modesty and colorism allows location of main figure of piece localized area of primary color v figures idealized w poses dynamic i moves beyond contrapposto in Botticelli s Birth of Venus X perspective i limited use of linear perspective distance is communicated through overlapping of figures and use of foreshortening ii linear 9 established by human gures movement rather than architecture 1 overlapping 2 foreshortening iii aerial 9 view into deep space Pope Leo X 1517 aa bb figures realistic i un attering physical features portly seated in three quarter view holding a magnifying glass and is portrayed as an art collector and a man of learning ii does not falsify sitters personality composition synthetic i principal figure placed along CVA ii dynamic diagonals amp lines of sight gazes help to create dynamism in a static moment surrounded by cardinals other character is gazing off into the distance and appears suspicious loyalty vs deception possibly color vibrant rich textures different values of red hue working in a limited range of color dramatic use of light shadow variation of Chiaroscuro on shoulder of Pope and below the shifty cardinal VI Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475 1564 biography a member of distinguished Florentine family b lived as child in Palazzo Medici i home of Florentine ruler ii also an art school w celebrated collection of classical works of art iii ripe w Humanist ideas was a colorist Sistine chapel murals soot of candles rose and made imagery look dark and sooty mural is actually brightly colored style characteristics 0 line strong contours functions as boundary of figures d color bold Vibrant amp complimentary e brushwork Vigorous f musculature exaggerated hypermuscularity idealized shown in profile strong facial construction g foreshortening master i proportionately contracting in depth ii creates illusion of projection or extension in space Sistin Chapel 15081512 Finwquot 39 i 1 1 e if h site large Papal Chapel built win Vatican between 14771480 by Pope Sixtus IV i patron Pope Julius 11 i quotwarrior popequot ii Undertook aggressive campaign for political control to unite Italy under leadership of the Church j decorative program architectural framework painted faux painting i spandrels 9 curved triangles ii ribbed vaulting k program i nine 9 OT 9 ceiling ii Last Judgment NT 9 east wall Sistine Chapel 1 Last Judgment 15361541 A V r I 37 quot39 2quot 7 f i I it V i context political 1 Protestant Reformation 2 Sack of Rome ii mood somber amp turbulent iii narrative NT combined wHumanist references e g CharonHades iv composition dynamic commotion 1 loosely arranged into registers vi vii viii ix iv 2 anchored along CVA by placement of divinity color vibrant perspective aerial eve is under God s arm fabric framing god eve and cherubs formation of mantlefabric and trailing legs of angel creates idea of brain and cortex conducting autopsies and studying anatomy in uenced idea of brain shape of fabric combined religion and science Neoplatonism similar to Apotheosis of Antoninus Pius and Faustina reclining figure looking towards antiquity Greek and romans Greek depiction of Dionysos from the east pediment of the Parthenon Detail of god use of light and shadow to create believable volumes to create realistic facial features Expulsion of adam and eve exaggerated musculature High Renaissance Sculpture Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475 1564 biography member of distinguished Florentine family 0 lived as child in Palazzo Medici 0 home of Florentine ruler 0 also an art school W celebrated collection of classical works of art 0 ripe W Humanist ideas training studied W pupil of Donatello sculpture considered superior to painting process artist must find the ideaimage locked in stone 0 removal of excess stone extricates idea 0 mistrusted application of mathematical methods as guarantees of beauty in proportion style idealized o musculature exaggerated A m c 14981500 significance first masterpiece composition implicit triangular format figures idealized I anatomical accuracy I youthful faces not realistic according to bible story I stoic contained in her sorrow stoicism idealized facial features mood resignation I stoicism corresponds to Classical Greek examples texture sensitive treatment drapery sweeping forms emphasize long lines of Christ s gure light shadow undercutting to create sense of body and weight lamentation scene Madonna embracing son s dead body compare to Gothic Roettgen Pieta less humanist grotesque and realistic emaciated body of Christ DaVid c 1500 style idealized scale colossal meaning Florentine republic s readiness narrative prior to battle figure idealized heavily muscled amp anatomical age does not conform to biblical text although large hand may indicate adolescence facial features hair 9 undercut facial expression stoic pose contrapposto face idealized rotated rejects dominance of frontal vieW communicates intense moment facial expression stoic eyes pupils drilled to create illusion hair undercutting technique creates strong contrast between light amp shadow Dying Slave c 151316 theme mortality aesthetic erotic in uence of Hellenism base 9 phallic figure idealized facial features idealized composition dynamic tension between vertical orientation pose Classical contrapposto spatial order negative curvilinear forms diagonals amp Venetian Renaissance I Giorgione 14781510 a significance founder of Venetian tendency i themes Humanist allegories ii compositions stable amp unified iii landscape dominates picture iv techniques linear amp aerial perspective V figures establish scale amp mood of landscape 1 softly modeled W light amp shadow 2 simplified faces 11 Giorgione The Tempest c 1510 a composition stable b color vibrant c lightshadow even d poses contrapposto e perspective i linear 9 architecture ii aerial 1 atmospheric effects 2 lightning f narrative vague i soldier ii mother amp child Pastoral Symphony 1510 composition dynamic h color vibrant i lightshadow golden j setting idyllic k perspective aerial 1 figures allegorical m subject delight in senses i hearing 9 music ii taste 9 water 1 relate to Humanist interest in overlaying OT theme 111 Titian 1490 1576 training Bellini amp Giorgione themes religious mythological portraiture compositions dynamic color colore master brushwork painterly figures classical beauty poses new freedom of expression Madonna of the House of Pesaro 1 97 39 t date c 1525 subject commemorates naval Victory of Venetians against Turkey composition dynamic base of throne rotated breaks symmetry creates diagonal color Vibrant lightshadow evenly distributed 0 display natural effects on surfaces Assumption of the Virgin c 1525 scale monumental aesthetic colore tradition color Vibrant light luminous composition implicit registers see Michelangelo s Last Judgment gestures 0 link composition convey narrative Bacchanal c 1525 subject mythological tone relate to Giorgione s Pastoral Symphony composition dynamic amp rhythmic color vibrant lightshadow chiaroscuro figures foreshortened perspective 0 linear 9 trees vanishing point 0 aerial 9 hazy bluish forms in deep space theme reclining female nude voluptuous beauty curves amp countercurves 0 long creamy esh decorum Classical pose averted gaze Venus of Urbino c 1550 setting interior reclining nude of renaissance composition dynamic complex balancing of horizontals verticals amp diagonals perspective linear figure classical ideal beauty versus identity 0 slender graceful curves pose extended lengthy gaze engaged W viewer Rape of Europa c 1560 subject Humanist Jupiter s illicit love affair disguised as bull figures massive foreshortened composition dynamic color Vibrant light shadow dramatic brushwork painterly sky amp clouds merge Wout sharp diVision perspective aerial Charles V c 1550 genre equestrian statue subject royalty 0 most powerful man in Europe ardent Catholic composition dynamic dramatically mounted on stallion 0 horse rearing back spear pointed diagonally framed asymmetrically at left by grove of trees color Vibrant glazing amp gold inlays decorativeness lightshadow golden aspect perspective 0 linear 9 implicit use aerial 9 View into deep space Mannerism context Age of Wars of Religion c 15201600 Sack of Rome 1527 German troops under banner of Holy Roman Empire swarmed into Rome plundered tortured raped and murdered in defenseless capital of Christendom many eyewitness accounts effect 9 brought Renaissance to sudden and catastrophic end context death of Raphael 1520 painters begin to reject repudiate amp subvert some achievements of High Renaissance harmonious compositions difficult arrangement of figures is formed 0 linear amp aerial perspective understandable arrangements of figures 0 figures 9 natural proportions amp graceful pose style 9 belief that perfect beauty had to be improved upon by imagination glaring use of color amp light exaggerated perspective attenuated figures 0 illogical scale Pontormo 1494 1557 Entombment 152528 narrative deliberate ambiguity aesthetic defies numerous High Renaissance ideals figures i unnatural proportions ii elongated torsos perspective defies rational identification of planes i depth communicated only by 1 overlapping 2 foreshortening 3 singular cloud spatial order compressed composition no central motif along CVA i effect 9 disperses psychological impact color unnatural shades of pastels light shadow even distribution Parmigianino 150340 0 SelfPortrait c 1525 o format tondo 0 process convex mirror 0 Leonardo warned against false mirror effects 0 spatial orderperspective o consciously inventive o distorts form amp space 0 extreme foreshortening 0 composition stable 0 color muted o lightshadow modified chiaroscuro I Madonna W Long Neck c 1540 0 aesthetic consciously stylized 0 figures elegant o attenuated amp tapered forms 0 porcelainlike surfaces of skin 0 scale altered large vs miniscule 0 composition stable arrangement of Madonna along CVA o balanced by strong vertical of column 0 imbalanced by grouping on left 0 spatial order tension between compressed grouping of figures on left versus sliver of sky 0 perspective linear amp aerial o illusionistic tricks I Bronzino 150372 0 Allegory of Lust 1546 quotA 7 In A 0 theme eroticism narrative Father Time amp Daughter Truth expose incestuous kiss of Venus amp son Cupid spatial order compressed style extremely stylized figures I deliberately distorted poses I form subordinated to stylized beauty 0 exaggerated gestures 0 porcelainlike esh I Tintoretto 15181594 0 Last Supper 1594 o aesthetic rationality abandoned for mysteriousness o narrative protagonist lost among multiple figures nor placed along CVA 0 spatial order dramatically extended 0 figures size inverted to importance 0 composition dynamic 0 color muted 0 light supernatural dark windowless I sources instead come from candles chandelier amp halos I El Greco 15411614 biography Greek descent Crete worked for three 3 years in Venice learned to model figures in clay and wax to study elaborate poses in uence of Titian s colorism and compositional formats in uenced by Venetian works Titian s colorism in particular in Rome studied works of Raphael and Michelangelo arrived in Spain circa 1575 in order to find patronage that eluded him in Italy style selfconscious departure from natural world figures elongated amp agitated musculature stylized in musculature agitated musculature lean and muscular with stretched sinewy musculature distorted perspective creates an unstable and skewed composition settings contrived to add psychological power Burial of Count Orgaz 158688 patron El G s own parish church subject 14C legend 0 Toledan nobleman who acquired renown as religious donor 0 in 1586 parish priest initiated project to refurbish count39s burial chapel narrative dislocations of time amp space presented as contemporary event composition two zones earthly 9 funeral heavenly 9 top color Venetian heavy use of Chiaroscuro lightshadow otherworldly decorativeness relate to Mannerist portraits burial scene format is a last judgement scene heavenly zone 0 angel holding soul of dead Count bulging biceps re ects Michelangelo s musculature soul passes between intercessors 0 Mary amp John the Baptist larger than Christ antihierarchal scale Christ 9 gestures w right arm 0 receives soul into heavenly glory o earthly zone I ashen complexion on count Orgaz s face light re ecting off textures of armor sackcloth sheer fabric etc I church goers surround the count View of Toledo 159799 format recalls Giorgione s Tempest skyclouds approaching storm clouds are handled differently not as scientific nor realistic edges of clouds are jagged and stylize 0 river bisecting townscape weaving through landscape townscape augments composition natural forms of hills and trees are stylized diverges slightly from Classical forms perspective transformsrearranges topographic details spires of Gothic cathedral slope to river steeper palace moved from edge of city to center lightshadow ambiguous amp imaginative subjectsitter humanist scholar amp poet who praised El Greco s work figure agitated amp tense one hand is relaxed other is tense and clenched letter on oor communicates disturbing information that creates tense and anxious positioning perspective linear spatial order compressed by back wall composition dynamic stylized chair at oblique angle gaze sharply averted perspective seated and stabilized along CVA triangular format with face and arm position rotated body linear perspective of chair oor and tiling are skewed color vibrant patterns are elaborate and compliment the muted side of the painting along CVA lacy and vibrantly colored robe lightshadow even distribution decorativeness light re ects off satin fabric drapery metallic Northern Renaissance Hieronymous Bosch 145 0 15 16 Garden of Earthly Delights a patron aristocratic b scale monumental i center panel gt 7 X 6 ii complete work 1 four paintings on series of folding panels c outer panel 9 Creation i closed position ii narrative Third Day of Creation iii context Age of Exploration 1 Earth as sphere iV theme Humanist 1 scientific inquiry combined W religious belief den of Earthly Delights I M Gar a left interior panel a narrative Eden b old testament references c subject marriage by Christ d theme domestic harmony e figures nonClassical i exaggerated elong f landscape fantastic vs naturalistic i hugely detailed 1 fountain 9 B profession as hydraulic engineer 2 exotic animals 9 Age of Exploration composition stable h color earth tones amp pastels i lightshadow evenly distributed j perspective aerial a interior central panel a narrative allegorical b subject Sin sex procreation c theme folly i sexual promiscuity ii humans inability to save themselves iii alchemy d mood fantastical i over 1K figures ii antecedents in recent Gothic past composition top 13 symmetrical color vibrant amp complimentary lightshadow evenly distributed perspective aerial Garden of Earthly Delights creptho interior right panel narrative Hell subject Last Judgment theme sensual pleasures turned into elements of torture setting dark world of fire amp ice figures fantastical 0 hybrid forms 0 unnatural unions composition dynamic color vibrant lightshadow chiaroscuro perspective aerial night 11 Matthias Griinwald 14801528 Isenheim A1tarpiece 0 150515 r 15 tactb0993 context painted ulxo ll u lt quot an 39 eore Luther nailed y theses to door of Wittenberg Cathedral in 1517 patronage hospital dealing Wdiseases scale monumental aesthetic emotional intensity and color scheme dark exterior vs high lightshadow chiaroscuro program complex i one set of fixed Wings two sets of movable ones ii one set of small wings for predella supporting platform of human skin terrible realism keyed interior o Grunewald s Isenheim Altarpiece c 1515 Resurrection position interior Wing subject matter NT setting supernatural figures Wild gestures composition dynamic swirling drapery diagonal arrangement of forms color shocking dissonance lightshadow Chiaroscuro III Northern Renaissance term Northern Renaissance a more of a grafting or fusion of Italian innovations with local traditions difference from Italy b did not have access to Classical heritage beauty of Antique objects context Humanism c Erasmus 1466 15 36 i training studied in Paris ii resides in England amp lived three years in Italy 1506 09 iii aim to free scholarship from rigidity amp formalism of medieval traditions iv principal work In Praise of Folly 1509 IV Protestant Reformation Martin Luther 1483 1546 a trip to Rome in 1510 i shocked by corruption of clergy ii Sixtus IV 1471 1484 1 first Pope to impose license on brothels 2 special tax on priests who kept a mistress 3 sold indulgences to the dead iii Alexander V1 1492 1503 1 fathered seven children by at least two mistresses b publication of Ninetyfive Theses 1517 i north German states break away from Catholic Church of Rome ii justification by faith alone instead of by good works iii opposed false doctrines and ecclesiastic malpractice e g indulgences amp simony Albrecht Durer 14711528 o biography I godfather 9 most successful publisher in Germany I Nuremberg 9 prosperous city for publishing amp luxury trades I strong links w Italy especially Venice relatively short distance across Alps 0 significance first nonItalian artist to become int l celebrity I welltravelled e g Venice I knew leading Humanists e g Erasmus amp Bellini I introduction of classical motifs into Northern art 0 Treatises involve principles of mathematics perspective and ideal proportions o aim to draw upon Northern heritage but fuse emotionalism w Humanism 0 Four Apostles c 1525 I subject NT I title misnomer I theme support of Lutheranism 0 secondary role for Peter 0 John emphasized Christ s humanity John 11 I figures 0 left 9 John amp Peter 0 right 9 Mark amp Paul I aesthetic realism o faces 0 Attire 0 attributes c 1500 JI39 4 u L lt 7 539 medium watercolor scale small 10 X 9 meaning symbolicHumanistic aesthetic realism aim observation of nature as yielding truth textures scientifically accurate composition dynamic color naturalisticmonochromatic lightshadow even Adam and Eve c 1500 39i I is 39lt i l figures idealized Vitruvian proportions compare to Apollo Belvedere compare to Venus de Milo pose contrapposto composition bilateral symmetry lightshadow chiaroscuro perspective aerial upper right background ora amp fauna ora 9 naturalistic fauna 9 symbolic Temperaments cat 9 choleric elk 9 melancholic rabbit 9 sanguine 0 OX 9 phlegmatic


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