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UO / Journalism / J 201 / What are the three aspects of the industrial revolution?

What are the three aspects of the industrial revolution?

What are the three aspects of the industrial revolution?

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School: University of Oregon
Department: Journalism
Course: Media and Society
Professor: Workneh t
Term: Fall 2015
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Cost: 50
Name: J201 Final Study Guide.pdf
Description: J201 Final Study Guide
Uploaded: 09/25/2015
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Sampling 


What are the three aspects of the industrial revolution?



Census, population, random simple survey, cluster survey, systematic survey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Information Revolution and Internet 

enclosure, statistics, leading software, COBAL, microcomputers, Cerf, Kahn,  Home Brew Computer Club,  Turing test,  Jon von Neumann

The Information and Computational Revolution  

• Information Revolution  

o Two previous industrial revolutions—Britiain (steam engine, spinning jenny, metallurgy)  Germany, US ( electricity, internal combustion engine, science based chemicals, steel,  


Who designed a tabulating machine for the census bureau in 1890 which used a punch card system?



telegraph, telephone) were more about the generation and distribution of energy  

o The new revolution refers to technologies of information and communication  

o Telegraph was the first time that communication became faster than transportation ???? telegraph divorced the two and thus communication became almost instantaneous.  

• Industrial Revolution  If you want to learn more check out What exactly is inequality?

o Beginning of machine driven factor production  

• 3 aspects of the Industrial Revolution  

o Mechanization of agriculture  

o Urbanization

o Beginning of machine driven factory production  


Who is the father of information theory?



• Arthmetical Machines

o First calculation machines mechanized the basic operations of arithmetic

o William Schickard invented the very first such machine in 1623 in Tubingen, Germany  o Shortly afterwards, the philosophers Blaise Pascal and Gottfried Leibniz also invented  machines which could add, subtract, multiply and divide completely automatically  

• Human Calculators

o Napoleon wanted a rational system of property taxes and for this purpose the French  mathematician Gaspard De Prony devised a system whereby a team of people—

mathematicians as well as barely numerate people—worked on a series of steps to generate  data  

• 19th century  

o The increase in production in the 19th century led to a need for the control and management  of information  We also discuss several other topics like What is additive model?

o Bureaucracy

o Methods of information management

o Machines to manipulate information  

• Herman Hollerith

o Designed a tabulating machine for the Census Bureau in 1890 which used a punch card  system (binary)  

o Formed the Tabulating Machine Company, which later sold it and it became IBM

▪ Huge social impact  

▪ Give birth to one of the 3 or 4 most important names in computer history  

• 3 aspects of Computers

o calculating machines

o representational machines

o communicative machines

• Calculation

o Previously machines mimicked our physical capabilities…it extends human ability  ▪ Thus car mimics legs  

▪ Knife mimics nails

▪ Telescope mimics eyes  

• Claude Shannon

o Claude Shannon-“the father of information theory”

o In trying to build a machine that plays chess, he showed it was possible to build electrical  circuits equivalent to expressions in Boolean algebra  Don't forget about the age old question of What does protestantism do?

• Logical operators  

• Mimicking Thought

o Computers are machines that mimic thought  

o Here is a simple example:

▪ We say “The sky is blue AND the sea is wet”  

• Whole sentence is true if both statements are true.  

▪ Or, “Obama will win OR Romney will win”  

• Thinking circuits

o Computers “think” by means of circuits that can mimic logical operators like “and “ “or” etc. o This is possible by converting all operations into a binary code computed of 1 to 0  • Bits

o A bit is the smallest unit of info We also discuss several other topics like How many people are there in the us base on the 2010 census?

o If I had to tell someone who won the election I need one bit of info (Obama =1) o If there are three candidates I would need?  

• Digitization  

o The second revolutionary thing about computers is that they allow for the translation of any  kind of info—verbal, visual, etc….

o This allows for :

▪ Perfect copying and preservation

▪ Instant transmission

▪ Manipulation (cut and paste, photoshop)  

• Digitization 2

o Discrete info can be digitized very easily, so letters of alphabet are digitized using ASCII code  (uses 7 bits so 128 characters)  

o A=000 0001

o G=000 0111

o Byte is a series of 8 bits so can represent 256 characters  If you want to learn more check out What are the two theories that explain where regulation is and is not imposed?

• Internet

o The third great revolution was connecting computers together in networks  • Computer Theoreticians

o Von Neumann, a Hungarian mathematician, wrote a report in 1945 (A first draft report on  the EDVAC) which gave a complete logical formulation of computer architecture and was the  basis of all technological developments in subsequent years

o Turing, in a paper written in 1936 theorized the notion of computability by imagining a  machine which could carry out the operations characteristic of computers

▪ One significant property he isolated is that every computer can imitate all other  computers. Thus, every computer is known as a universal Turing machine.  

• The Hierarchy of Functional Abstraction in a Computer

o Program

o Programming lang

o Machine lang

o Memory

o Finite state machine

o Storage register

o Logic functions  

o Switches

o Bits  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the characteristics of a microbial cell?

• Harvard IBM Mark 1

o In 1944 a collaboration between IBM and Harvard University led to the creation of the ASCC  (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator).

o This machine realized Babbage’s dream of fully automatic calculation and the American  Weekly said it would “solve problems which man had no hope solving perhaps even the  problem of the origin of mankind”  

• Developments

o Shift to silicon at Texas Instruments in 1954

o Invention of the integrated circuit in 1957 by Killby and Noyce, cofounder of Fairchild o Invention of the microprocessor by Intel engineer Ted Hoff in 1971

• ENIAC

o The ENAIC (The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was first electronic  calculator, using vacuum tubes which were part of radio and TV technology  

o It was created in the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania under  the leadership of John Mauchy……  

• Transistor

o In 1947, the transistor (semiconductors or chips) was invented. This made possible the  processing of electric impulses thus enabling the coding of logic and communication with  and between machines (Bardeen, Shockey, Brattain)  

• UNIVAC

o The creator of the ENIAC—Mauchly and Eckert—then designed a more powerful computer  known as UNIVAC. Unable …  

o UNIVAC’s greatest success came when it predicted a landslide for Eisenhower in the 1952  elections (Gallup and Roper predicted a close race)  

o UNIVAC was the first commercial computer produced in the US.  

• IBM

o Soon afterwards IBM got into the action with their 701 and 702 series

o It was only with its subsequent 650 series (Watson called it computing’s Model T) that IBM  machines displaced UNIVAC as most popular computers  

o By the end of the 1950s, IBM was the #1 computer manufacurer, sharing the market with  smaller competitors like Sperry Rand, Burroughs, RCA Honeywell and GE. Its next successful  model was the 1401 which was a complete system  

• IBM system/360

o In 1964 IBM released its 360/370 mainframe and came to dominate the industry  • Minicomputers

o The Digital Equipment Corp, founded by Kenneth Olsen and Harland Anderson, developed a  simple computer—the PDP-1—which cost $125,000 (respectable computers cost $1 million  or more). Their PDP-8 minicomputer, released in 1965, cost only $18,000 and reshaped the  industry.  

• Real Time

o Until the 1960s, computers systems were mainly fast calculators

o A crucial innovation was real time computing, which meant that a system could respond to a  new inputs almost instantaneously

o The SAGE defense system was the first real time system, but this approach had its first  significant impact with the IBM American Airlines Sabre Airline Reservations system  developed in 1964

▪ Can now look up tickets and what seats were available, etc.  

o The UPC (Universal Product Code) used in supermarkets for purposes of sales monitoring  and inventory control was another important application of a real time system  

• Software

o Programming languages like FORTAN (science) and COBOL (business application ) became  widely used in the 50s and 60s

o Other innovations include the simple programming lang BASIC (which utilized the newly  developed time sharing computer system, as opposed to the old batch processing system  where users had submit input to a computer center, which then processed the info in  batches)  

o Universities had a building known as the computer center where you picked up your results  • UNIX

o Another milestone was the creation of a powerful operating system known as UNIX (1969- 74). This was created by two Bell Lab programmers: Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.  Ritchie also wrote the powerful programming language known as C

• Chips

o The single most important factor behind the personal computer was the creation of the  microprocessor (chip) at Intel—founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore. The first chip  came into being in 1971.  

o The effect of chips was felt in handheld calculators, digital watches, video games. Atari  (founded by Noal Bushnell in 1971) was the leader—its first product was an electronic table  tennis game called Pong

• Micro-processing

o The “revolution within the revolution” came with microprocessing, and in 1975 Ed Roberts  built the first small computer known as the Altair 8800, which cost $397. Cusomers had to  assemble the computer and enter programs for the machine to run

o Other entrepreneurs began to develop add-on boards for the Altair to increase memory,  create permanent data storage, etc.  

• Apple:

o Within 2 years, several small companies were producing personal computers. Among them  was Apple Computer, started by Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak (jobs was a Beatles fan  and may have named his company after their record label)  

o While Apple’s competitors—Commodore and Tandy—tried to appeal to the hobby market  (games) jobs visualized the Apple as a home/personal computer  

• Software Applications

o The advent of the personal computer meant software applications could now be marketed  directly to consumers

o The first such application was the VisiCalc spreadsheet. Developed by a Harvard MBA  student Daniel Bricklin, it became an overnight success  

o Wordprocessing applications followed-the first being WordMaster, released by Seymour  Rubenstein’s company MicroPro. That was replaced by the hugely successful WordStar • Bill Gates

o Bill Gates and Paul Allen promised IBM a suitable operating system for their forthcoming  personal computer. Gates didn’t develop the system himself, but it bought from a local  software firm—Seattle Computer Products—for $30,000.  

o This system, known as MS-DOS would be bundled with ever IBM or compatible machine and  would earn Microsoft a royalty between $10 and $30 for every copy sold  

• The Rise of Software  

o The computer industry had by the early 1980s consolidated around a few companies and a  stable version of hardware. It was now time for the software revolution  

o The first “hit” of the 80s was Lotus 1-2-3 which wiped out VisiCalc

o MS-DOS was established as the operating system for all PCs, and in 1983 Microsoft  releases Word

• Graphical User Interface (GUI)  

o MS-DOS, based on the efficient but difficult UNIX system, was hard for the ordinary user  o To transfer the document “SMITH” from a directory “LETTERS” to another directory  “ARCHIVES”, one had to type something like:  

▪ COPY A:\LETTERS\SMITH.DOCB:\ARCHIVES\SMITH.DOCDEL  

A:\LETTERS\SMITH.DOC

o Graphic User Interfaces (GUI) made things much simpler with the help of a mouse, icons  and actions like clicking and dragging

o Almost all these were developed in the Xerox-Parc facilities in the 1970s and resulted in the  first modern workstation, the Alto

o Xerox was bad at marketing however, and the Alto’s commercial version, the Xerox Star  released in 1981, was a big failure  

• Apple

o It would be Apple which would bring GUI to the masses, though not right away  o Jobs had visited Xerox-Parc and had been blown away by what he saw of the Alto  o Apple decided to create a similar product, but its first effort, Lisa, though very efficient was  paced prohibitively at $16,000 and failed in the marketplace  

• Apple Macintosh

o Apple then focused on building a cheaper version of Lisa: the Macintosh. Though heavily  marketed (including a 1984 Super Bowl ad) the Mac never really took off and could only get  about 10% of market shares

• Windows

o Soon afterwards Microsoft would release Windows and thus make all computers GUI based  

Internet:

• Revolution occurred when computers were connected together in networks  

• Origins

o How to protect information from the enemy  

o Solution: replace centralized storehouses with a distributed system so that the enemy can’t  take you down (like carrying cash in different places when traveling)  

• Packet Switching

o In order to understand how networking became possible, we need to understand the basic  concept of packet switching  

o In this system, a file is broken into numerous parts, which are sent separately through the  network and put back together by the receiver

o Parts of the file don’t all travel the same path, but rather take different routes through the  network of computers to find their destination  

o Packet switching enables the concept of distributed networks the opposite of centralized  control centers.  

o Paul Beran in the U.S. and Donald Davies in the U.K. are primarily responsible with the  development of packing switching  

o Baran and Davies had quite different reasons for developing a distributed system, though  ▪ Baran, working for the U.S. government, wanted a system that could withstand a  military attack on a specific location  

▪ Davies, motivated more by commercial interests, wanted a system that could

manage large amounts of traffic (both data and users)  

• Networks:

o A network can be a local area network (LAN) a metropolitan area network (MAN) or wide  area network (WAN)

o Sometimes it is necessary to connect two or more networks of the sae type; for example,  several bus networks can be combined to form one large bus network. To do this we use  devices like the repeater, bride or switch  

o When networks are connected via these devices, the result is one large network  • Internet

o Sometimes however, the networks to be connected have different characteristics. In that  case, what we need to build is a network of networks known as n internet, in which the

original networks maintain their individuality and continue to function as independent  networks  

o 4 layers of the internet

▪ Under TCP/IP the internet works thru 4 layers

• Application: DNS, HTTP, FTP etc.  

• Transport: permits devices on the source and destination to carry on  

conversations  

• Internet: packs data into data packets known as IP datagrams and routes  

these

• Network access: defines how data is physically sent through the network  

• Arpanet

o In the early 1960s, the Defense Department set up an Advanced Research Projects Agency,  which began exploring how to network computers. By the end of the decade, the ARPANET  was established, initially with just 4 hubs  

o Over the next decade, more hubs were added usually at major research universities  o The network kept growing in this fashion into throughout the 1970s  

• After ARPANET

o In the early 1980s, ARPANET transferred much of its role supporting the growing internet  to the National Science Foundation, which funded necessary technical infrastructure until  commercial internet service providers (ISPs) emerged in the 1990s  

• History of the internet

o World Wide Web  

▪ British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee is credited with inventing the World  Wide Web, a system of interlinked hypertext pages on the Internet, in the 1990.  ▪ Web browsers are used to access text, images, videos, and other multimedia objects  on the WWW.

Sampling 

Census, population, random simple survey, cluster survey, systematic survey

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Information Revolution and Internet 

enclosure, statistics, leading software, COBAL, microcomputers, Cerf, Kahn,  Home Brew Computer Club,  Turing test,  Jon von Neumann

The Information and Computational Revolution  

• Information Revolution  

o Two previous industrial revolutions—Britiain (steam engine, spinning jenny, metallurgy)  Germany, US ( electricity, internal combustion engine, science based chemicals, steel,  

telegraph, telephone) were more about the generation and distribution of energy  

o The new revolution refers to technologies of information and communication  

o Telegraph was the first time that communication became faster than transportation ???? telegraph divorced the two and thus communication became almost instantaneous.  

• Industrial Revolution  

o Beginning of machine driven factor production  

• 3 aspects of the Industrial Revolution  

o Mechanization of agriculture  

o Urbanization

o Beginning of machine driven factory production  

• Arthmetical Machines

o First calculation machines mechanized the basic operations of arithmetic

o William Schickard invented the very first such machine in 1623 in Tubingen, Germany  o Shortly afterwards, the philosophers Blaise Pascal and Gottfried Leibniz also invented  machines which could add, subtract, multiply and divide completely automatically  

• Human Calculators

o Napoleon wanted a rational system of property taxes and for this purpose the French  mathematician Gaspard De Prony devised a system whereby a team of people—

mathematicians as well as barely numerate people—worked on a series of steps to generate  data  

• 19th century  

o The increase in production in the 19th century led to a need for the control and management  of information  

o Bureaucracy

o Methods of information management

o Machines to manipulate information  

• Herman Hollerith

o Designed a tabulating machine for the Census Bureau in 1890 which used a punch card  system (binary)  

o Formed the Tabulating Machine Company, which later sold it and it became IBM

▪ Huge social impact  

▪ Give birth to one of the 3 or 4 most important names in computer history  

• 3 aspects of Computers

o calculating machines

o representational machines

o communicative machines

• Calculation

o Previously machines mimicked our physical capabilities…it extends human ability  ▪ Thus car mimics legs  

▪ Knife mimics nails

▪ Telescope mimics eyes  

• Claude Shannon

o Claude Shannon-“the father of information theory”

o In trying to build a machine that plays chess, he showed it was possible to build electrical  circuits equivalent to expressions in Boolean algebra  

• Logical operators  

• Mimicking Thought

o Computers are machines that mimic thought  

o Here is a simple example:

▪ We say “The sky is blue AND the sea is wet”  

• Whole sentence is true if both statements are true.  

▪ Or, “Obama will win OR Romney will win”  

• Thinking circuits

o Computers “think” by means of circuits that can mimic logical operators like “and “ “or” etc. o This is possible by converting all operations into a binary code computed of 1 to 0  • Bits

o A bit is the smallest unit of info

o If I had to tell someone who won the election I need one bit of info (Obama =1) o If there are three candidates I would need?  

• Digitization  

o The second revolutionary thing about computers is that they allow for the translation of any  kind of info—verbal, visual, etc….

o This allows for :

▪ Perfect copying and preservation

▪ Instant transmission

▪ Manipulation (cut and paste, photoshop)  

• Digitization 2

o Discrete info can be digitized very easily, so letters of alphabet are digitized using ASCII code  (uses 7 bits so 128 characters)  

o A=000 0001

o G=000 0111

o Byte is a series of 8 bits so can represent 256 characters  

• Internet

o The third great revolution was connecting computers together in networks  • Computer Theoreticians

o Von Neumann, a Hungarian mathematician, wrote a report in 1945 (A first draft report on  the EDVAC) which gave a complete logical formulation of computer architecture and was the  basis of all technological developments in subsequent years

o Turing, in a paper written in 1936 theorized the notion of computability by imagining a  machine which could carry out the operations characteristic of computers

▪ One significant property he isolated is that every computer can imitate all other  computers. Thus, every computer is known as a universal Turing machine.  

• The Hierarchy of Functional Abstraction in a Computer

o Program

o Programming lang

o Machine lang

o Memory

o Finite state machine

o Storage register

o Logic functions  

o Switches

o Bits  

• Harvard IBM Mark 1

o In 1944 a collaboration between IBM and Harvard University led to the creation of the ASCC  (Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator).

o This machine realized Babbage’s dream of fully automatic calculation and the American  Weekly said it would “solve problems which man had no hope solving perhaps even the  problem of the origin of mankind”  

• Developments

o Shift to silicon at Texas Instruments in 1954

o Invention of the integrated circuit in 1957 by Killby and Noyce, cofounder of Fairchild o Invention of the microprocessor by Intel engineer Ted Hoff in 1971

• ENIAC

o The ENAIC (The Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was first electronic  calculator, using vacuum tubes which were part of radio and TV technology  

o It was created in the Moore School of Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania under  the leadership of John Mauchy……  

• Transistor

o In 1947, the transistor (semiconductors or chips) was invented. This made possible the  processing of electric impulses thus enabling the coding of logic and communication with  and between machines (Bardeen, Shockey, Brattain)  

• UNIVAC

o The creator of the ENIAC—Mauchly and Eckert—then designed a more powerful computer  known as UNIVAC. Unable …  

o UNIVAC’s greatest success came when it predicted a landslide for Eisenhower in the 1952  elections (Gallup and Roper predicted a close race)  

o UNIVAC was the first commercial computer produced in the US.  

• IBM

o Soon afterwards IBM got into the action with their 701 and 702 series

o It was only with its subsequent 650 series (Watson called it computing’s Model T) that IBM  machines displaced UNIVAC as most popular computers  

o By the end of the 1950s, IBM was the #1 computer manufacurer, sharing the market with  smaller competitors like Sperry Rand, Burroughs, RCA Honeywell and GE. Its next successful  model was the 1401 which was a complete system  

• IBM system/360

o In 1964 IBM released its 360/370 mainframe and came to dominate the industry  • Minicomputers

o The Digital Equipment Corp, founded by Kenneth Olsen and Harland Anderson, developed a  simple computer—the PDP-1—which cost $125,000 (respectable computers cost $1 million  or more). Their PDP-8 minicomputer, released in 1965, cost only $18,000 and reshaped the  industry.  

• Real Time

o Until the 1960s, computers systems were mainly fast calculators

o A crucial innovation was real time computing, which meant that a system could respond to a  new inputs almost instantaneously

o The SAGE defense system was the first real time system, but this approach had its first  significant impact with the IBM American Airlines Sabre Airline Reservations system  developed in 1964

▪ Can now look up tickets and what seats were available, etc.  

o The UPC (Universal Product Code) used in supermarkets for purposes of sales monitoring  and inventory control was another important application of a real time system  

• Software

o Programming languages like FORTAN (science) and COBOL (business application ) became  widely used in the 50s and 60s

o Other innovations include the simple programming lang BASIC (which utilized the newly  developed time sharing computer system, as opposed to the old batch processing system  where users had submit input to a computer center, which then processed the info in  batches)  

o Universities had a building known as the computer center where you picked up your results  • UNIX

o Another milestone was the creation of a powerful operating system known as UNIX (1969- 74). This was created by two Bell Lab programmers: Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.  Ritchie also wrote the powerful programming language known as C

• Chips

o The single most important factor behind the personal computer was the creation of the  microprocessor (chip) at Intel—founded by Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore. The first chip  came into being in 1971.  

o The effect of chips was felt in handheld calculators, digital watches, video games. Atari  (founded by Noal Bushnell in 1971) was the leader—its first product was an electronic table  tennis game called Pong

• Micro-processing

o The “revolution within the revolution” came with microprocessing, and in 1975 Ed Roberts  built the first small computer known as the Altair 8800, which cost $397. Cusomers had to  assemble the computer and enter programs for the machine to run

o Other entrepreneurs began to develop add-on boards for the Altair to increase memory,  create permanent data storage, etc.  

• Apple:

o Within 2 years, several small companies were producing personal computers. Among them  was Apple Computer, started by Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak (jobs was a Beatles fan  and may have named his company after their record label)  

o While Apple’s competitors—Commodore and Tandy—tried to appeal to the hobby market  (games) jobs visualized the Apple as a home/personal computer  

• Software Applications

o The advent of the personal computer meant software applications could now be marketed  directly to consumers

o The first such application was the VisiCalc spreadsheet. Developed by a Harvard MBA  student Daniel Bricklin, it became an overnight success  

o Wordprocessing applications followed-the first being WordMaster, released by Seymour  Rubenstein’s company MicroPro. That was replaced by the hugely successful WordStar • Bill Gates

o Bill Gates and Paul Allen promised IBM a suitable operating system for their forthcoming  personal computer. Gates didn’t develop the system himself, but it bought from a local  software firm—Seattle Computer Products—for $30,000.  

o This system, known as MS-DOS would be bundled with ever IBM or compatible machine and  would earn Microsoft a royalty between $10 and $30 for every copy sold  

• The Rise of Software  

o The computer industry had by the early 1980s consolidated around a few companies and a  stable version of hardware. It was now time for the software revolution  

o The first “hit” of the 80s was Lotus 1-2-3 which wiped out VisiCalc

o MS-DOS was established as the operating system for all PCs, and in 1983 Microsoft  releases Word

• Graphical User Interface (GUI)  

o MS-DOS, based on the efficient but difficult UNIX system, was hard for the ordinary user  o To transfer the document “SMITH” from a directory “LETTERS” to another directory  “ARCHIVES”, one had to type something like:  

▪ COPY A:\LETTERS\SMITH.DOCB:\ARCHIVES\SMITH.DOCDEL  

A:\LETTERS\SMITH.DOC

o Graphic User Interfaces (GUI) made things much simpler with the help of a mouse, icons  and actions like clicking and dragging

o Almost all these were developed in the Xerox-Parc facilities in the 1970s and resulted in the  first modern workstation, the Alto

o Xerox was bad at marketing however, and the Alto’s commercial version, the Xerox Star  released in 1981, was a big failure  

• Apple

o It would be Apple which would bring GUI to the masses, though not right away  o Jobs had visited Xerox-Parc and had been blown away by what he saw of the Alto  o Apple decided to create a similar product, but its first effort, Lisa, though very efficient was  paced prohibitively at $16,000 and failed in the marketplace  

• Apple Macintosh

o Apple then focused on building a cheaper version of Lisa: the Macintosh. Though heavily  marketed (including a 1984 Super Bowl ad) the Mac never really took off and could only get  about 10% of market shares

• Windows

o Soon afterwards Microsoft would release Windows and thus make all computers GUI based  

Internet:

• Revolution occurred when computers were connected together in networks  

• Origins

o How to protect information from the enemy  

o Solution: replace centralized storehouses with a distributed system so that the enemy can’t  take you down (like carrying cash in different places when traveling)  

• Packet Switching

o In order to understand how networking became possible, we need to understand the basic  concept of packet switching  

o In this system, a file is broken into numerous parts, which are sent separately through the  network and put back together by the receiver

o Parts of the file don’t all travel the same path, but rather take different routes through the  network of computers to find their destination  

o Packet switching enables the concept of distributed networks the opposite of centralized  control centers.  

o Paul Beran in the U.S. and Donald Davies in the U.K. are primarily responsible with the  development of packing switching  

o Baran and Davies had quite different reasons for developing a distributed system, though  ▪ Baran, working for the U.S. government, wanted a system that could withstand a  military attack on a specific location  

▪ Davies, motivated more by commercial interests, wanted a system that could

manage large amounts of traffic (both data and users)  

• Networks:

o A network can be a local area network (LAN) a metropolitan area network (MAN) or wide  area network (WAN)

o Sometimes it is necessary to connect two or more networks of the sae type; for example,  several bus networks can be combined to form one large bus network. To do this we use  devices like the repeater, bride or switch  

o When networks are connected via these devices, the result is one large network  • Internet

o Sometimes however, the networks to be connected have different characteristics. In that  case, what we need to build is a network of networks known as n internet, in which the

original networks maintain their individuality and continue to function as independent  networks  

o 4 layers of the internet

▪ Under TCP/IP the internet works thru 4 layers

• Application: DNS, HTTP, FTP etc.  

• Transport: permits devices on the source and destination to carry on  

conversations  

• Internet: packs data into data packets known as IP datagrams and routes  

these

• Network access: defines how data is physically sent through the network  

• Arpanet

o In the early 1960s, the Defense Department set up an Advanced Research Projects Agency,  which began exploring how to network computers. By the end of the decade, the ARPANET  was established, initially with just 4 hubs  

o Over the next decade, more hubs were added usually at major research universities  o The network kept growing in this fashion into throughout the 1970s  

• After ARPANET

o In the early 1980s, ARPANET transferred much of its role supporting the growing internet  to the National Science Foundation, which funded necessary technical infrastructure until  commercial internet service providers (ISPs) emerged in the 1990s  

• History of the internet

o World Wide Web  

▪ British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee is credited with inventing the World  Wide Web, a system of interlinked hypertext pages on the Internet, in the 1990.  ▪ Web browsers are used to access text, images, videos, and other multimedia objects  on the WWW.

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