Exam 2 Completed Study Guide
Exam 2 Completed Study Guide BSC 215
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mallory Ivy on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BSC 215 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Jason Pienaar in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
BSC 215 Spring 2014 Exam 2 Required Reading and Studv Guide The required reading sections below include material that will be covered on exam 2 Here is an effective way to approach your required reading BEFORE EACH CLASS Read the assigned text for the chapter that is listed in the required reading Sections below For this first read it is not necessary that you attempt to understand everything in the required reading It is more important that you read for the big picture concepts and gain familiarity with terms and key words During EACH CLASS We will cover key topics of the chapter that will follow with your required reading I will provide notes online before each class so that you can follow along and take your own notes Try to use this time to grasp terms and concepts from the examples that I give We will also have several clicker activities to reinforce topics After each class Review the notes It is best to first make sure you understand the big picture concepts of each topic covered then move on to understanding details of each concept covered Once you have studied the notes go back and read the corresponding section in the textbook as you will be much more familiar with the topic after class and some review of the notes Using the studv guide questions Below I have provided some study questions below to help you assess your knowledge on certain key topics KEEP IN MIND that questions in the study guide are simply there to help you assess your strengths and weaknesses of KEY concepts However the questions are NOT an exhaustive list of everything you should know for the exam In other words the study guide can be extremely helpful in your studies but it shouldn t be relied upon as your sole study resource It is recommended that you study notes and required reading BEFORE attempting to answer these questions Then you can return to the study guide questions below to determine your areas of strength and weakness BEST PIECE OF STUDY ADVICE Keep up with class material from day one Regular review before and after each lecture will go a long way toward longterm comprehension and success Last minute cramming will not work in a class like this Regular reading review of the notes and practice questions will best prepare you for the exams Chapter 4Reguired Reading translation onwards Section 43 DNA replication the Cell Cycle Mitosis Section 44 the karyotype Genes and Alleles Sex Linkage Chapter 4 translation onwards Studv Guide Be prepared to describe the processes of Protein synthesis transcription and translation from start to finish Understand how DNA RNA organelles and enzymes are involved Understand the steps of gene regulation we will use the prolactin example in class see fig 412 Distinguish Interphase and Mitotic phase of the cell cycle Distinguish the different phases of Interphase What is happening during each phase Can you describe the phases of the Mitosis What is happening during each phase Be prepared to describe the process of DNA replication from start to finish What enzymes are involved and what do they do Describe the paired arrangement of chromosomes in the human karyotype Define allele and discuss how alleles affect the traits of an individual e g homozygosity heterozygosity Distinguish genotype from phenotype What does it mean to be a heterozygous carrier of a hereditary disease In the case of cystic fibrosis it is only expressed in offspring that are homozygous recessive rr How can this happen if parents are healthy they do not express the cystic fibrosis phenotype Be able to use a simple punnett square to estimate possible phenotype outcomes from parental genotypes Note this will be very simple similar to figure 418 on page 135 and we will do examples in class What is a sexlinked trait Why are men more likely than women to have red green color blindness Chapter 5 Required Reading Section 51 Review for basic terms Section 52 All Section 53 All Section 54 All Section 55 All Section 56 Tissue Repair Chapter 5 Studv Guide What are the 4 major tissue types and their representative locations see Table 51 EPITHELIAL MUSCULAR NERVOUS CONNECTIVE Functions and basic characteristics of epithelial tissue FORMS CRITICAL BOUNDARIES BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTS COVERS OUR BODY SURFACES ENVELOPS ORGANS AND LINES BODY CAVITIES PROTECTION ABSORPTION SECRETION EXCRETION FILTRATION AND SENSORY RECEPTION Distinguish simple and stratified squamous cuboidal and columnar SIMPLE 1 STRATIFIED 2 SQUAMOUS SCALYFLAT CUBOIDAL SYMMETRICAL WITH ROUND CENTRAL NUCLEUS COLUMNAR RECTANGULAR WITH OVAL NUCLEUS NEAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE Be prepared to describe key characteristics and functions of ALL tissues provided in the powerpoint notes Difference between endocrine and exocrine glands ENDOCRINE SECRETES SUBSTANCES INTERNALLY WHILE EXOCRINE SECRETES EXTERNALLY Function of goblet cells as unicellular glands CREATE MUCOUS Difference between merocrine and holocrine glands MEROCRINE SECRETE INTO VIA EXOCYTOSIS WHILE HOLOCRINE ACCUMULATES PRODUCTS UNTIL THEY ERUPT Main types of connective tissue CARTILAGE BLOOD CTP AND BONE Main structural elements of connective tissue GROUND SUBSTANCE FIBERS CELLS What makes up the ground substance INTERSTITIAL FLUID CELL ADHESION PROTEINS PROTEOGLYCANS Types of fibers of connective tissues ELASTIN COLLAGEN AND RETICULAR u See slide 18 on Chapter 5 Lecture notes for a good summary of connective tissue characteristics Why is blood considered a connective tissue CARRIES NUTRIENTS TO ALL PARTS OF THE BODY Major components of nervous tissue NEURONS AND NEUROGLIA Differences between skeletal smooth and cardiac muscle SKELETAL striated multinucleated long cells voluntary CARDIAC striated intercalated discs uninucleated short cells involuntary SMOOTH no striations one nucleus in center of cell Understand the serous membranes LINES CERTAIN INTERNAL CAVITIES OF THE BODIES Eszeritoneum pericardium and pleura What is a goblet cell What tissue is it most often associated with A CELLS THAT PRODUCES MUCIN combined with water forms mucus GLANDULAR EPITHELIAL TISSUE Understand the basic differences between cutaneous mucous and serous membranes CUTANEOUS surface of the skin dry membrane MUCOUS in open cavities wet surface SEROUS internal closed cavities wet surface name varies based on location Define the two types of tissue repair FIBROUS AND REGENERATION Brie y describe the three steps of tissue regeneration 1 INFLAMMATION chemical signals sent by damaged tissue macrophages and mast cells to recruit clotting factors 2 Blood supply restored granulation tissue forms fibroblasts form scab macrophages digest clot and collagen ber is deposited at wound site 3 surface epithelium begins to regenerate Chapter 6 Required Reading Section 61 All except Skin Markings Section 62 All Section 63 Sweat glands Sebaceous glands ceruminous glands Section 64 Burns Chapter 6 Studv guide What are the functions of the integumentary system PROTECTION SENSATION METABOLIC EXCRETION BODY TEMPERATURE REGULATION What are the 3 primary regions associated with the integumentary system skin EPIDERMIS DERMIS AND HYPODERMIS What type of tissue is the epidermis composed of STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM What type of tissue is the dermis composed of FIBROUS CONNECTIVE TISSUE What type of tissue is the hypodermis composed of MAINLY ADIPOSE Name the 5 main cell types associated with the epidermis Know their location and basic function KERATINOCYTES MELANOCYTES STEM CELLS TACTILE MERKEL LANGERHAN S DENDRITIC What is keratin A STIFF PROTEIN PRODUCED BY KERATINOCYTES Where do keratinocytes originate which layer of epidermis DERIVE FROM STEM CELLS IN STRATUM BASALE Do keratinocytes undergo mitosis continuously throughout their life NO Why do keratinocytes die as they move towards upper epidermis layers TOO FAR AWAY FOR NUTRIENTS TO DIFFUSE FROM DERMIS Where are melanocytes typically found IN STRATUM BASALE What is the function of melanocytes PRODUCE MELANIN WHICH PROTECT SKIN FROM UKR What is melanin and what functions does it serve A DARK PIGMENT THAT PROTECTS OUR SKIN FROM UVR Where are Merkel cells located What is their primary function in conjunction with the Merkel disc LOCATED AT JUNCTION OF EPIDERMIS AND DERMIS FUNCTIONS AS A SENSORY NERVE ENDING Where are Langerhan s cells located EPIDERMIS What is their primary function ACTIVATES IMMUNE SYSTEM What are the 4 major layers of epidermis STRATUM BASALE STRATUM SPINOSUM STRATUM GRANULOSUM STRATUM LUCIDUM STRATUM CORNEUM How would you distinguish them from one another under a microscope Which is most highly active mitotically STRATUM BASALE Above which layer do keratinocytes no longer have access to nourishment from the underlying connective tissue STRATUM GRANULOSUM What is the 5th layer that is only found in thick skin STRATUM LUCIDUM What type of tissue is the dermis composed of STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS EPITHELIUM Is the dermis vascularized Innervated DERMIS IS VASCULARIZED AND INNERVATED What type of tissue is the papillary layer of the dermis composed of AREOLAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE What are the dermal papillae EXTENSIONS OF THE DERMIS AND SERVES AS THE SUPERIOR EDGE OF THE DERMIS HOUSES SUBCAPILLARY PLEXUS AND MEISSNER S CORPUSCLES What are the dermal ridges And how do they give rise to your fingerprintsBLOOD VESSELS IN THE DERMAL PAPILLAE NOURISH ALL HAIR FOLLICLES AND BRING NUTRIENTS AND OXYGEN TO THE LOWER LAYERS OF EPIDERMAL CELLS INCREASES SURFACE AREA INCREASING THE EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN NUTRIENTS AND WASTE PRODUCTS BETWEEN THE DERMIS AND EPIDERMIS RESPONSIBLE FOR PRODUCING OUR FINGERPRINTS GENETICALLY DETERMINES Which pigments are related to skin color MELANIN EUMELANIN PHEOMELANIN Where is melanin produced IN MELANOCYTES AND THEN DISTRIBUTED IN KERATINOCYTES Do humans of different skin color have different of melanocytes SAME NUMBER OF MELANOCYTES JUST A MORE EVEN DISTRIBUTION OF MELANIN GRANULES How is Ultraviolet radiation UVR bad for humans How is UVR good for humans BAD carinogenicmutagenic breaks down folic acid GOOD incites production of Vitamin D Which parts of the body lack sweat glands NIPPLES AND EXTERNAL GENITALIA What s the difference between merocrine eccrine and apocrine sweat glands in terms of their structure location and function APROCRINE pheromone secretion via exocytosis larger lumen found in regions covered by pubic axillary or beard hair MEROCRINE secretion via exocytosis single tubular gland with coiled duct lines with simple cuboidal epithelium in dermis and keratinocytes in epidermis found on palms soles and forehead cools the body What is sweat Where is it derived and what is its function COOLING BLOOD FILTRATE Can you name two types of modified apocrine sweat glands MAMMARY GLANDS AND CERUMINOUS GLANDS What type of gland is the sebaceous gland HOLOCRINE Where are sebaceous glands located HAIR FOLLICLES Distinguish between whiteheads blackheads and acne What is hair composed of what kinds of cells DEAD EPITHELIAL What s the difference between the shaft and the root of hair SHAFT IS OUTSIDE OF THE SURFACE OF SKIN Which part of the hair contains capillaries to nourish growing cells in the hair bulb DERMAL PAPILA Which part of the hair follicle contains actively dividing cells BULGE What is the smooth muscle responsible for goose bumps ARRECTOR PILI Describe the steps of the hair cycle see fig 69 ANAGEN stem cells multiply pushing the dermal papilla deeper and forming epithelial root sheath root cells directly above the dermal papilla form the hair matrix CATAGEN mitosis of the hair matrix ceases bulb keratinizes and forms club hair follicle degenerates TELOGEN resting period What is the difference between 1 2m1 and 3rd degree burns Chapter 7 Required reading Section 71 All Section 72 All Save identification of bone structures for LAB Section 73 All Section 74 Mineral deposition and resorption Calcium Homeostasis Section 75 Fractures and their repair Deeper insight 74 page 228 Osteoporosis Chapter 7 Studv guide Where are hyaline elastic and fibrocartilages located in the body HYALINE articulations ELASTIC ear FIBROCARTILAGE meniscus What is the function of the perichondrium SURROUNDS CARTILAGE AND PREVENTS EXPANSION WHEN COMPRESSED Differentiate between appositional and interstitial growth of cartilageAPPOSITIONAL IS FROM THE OUTSIDE INTERSTITIAL IS FROM THE INSIDE Know the various functions of bone bone the organ not the tissue STRUCTURE AND SUPPORT OF INTERNAL ORGANS PROVIDE ATTACHMENT SITELEVER FOR MUSCLE TO ACT ON Difference between axial and appendicular skeletons AXIAL MEDIAL APPENDICULAR APPENDAGES BRANCHING OFF OF AXIAL Structural differences between compact and spongy cancellous bone COMPACT BONE IS VERY DENSE AND CONTAINS OSTEONS WHEREAS SPONGY BONE IS SPIKY AND IS HOME TO THE MEDULLARY CAVITY WHICH HOLDS MARROW where are these two types of bone located for instance in long bones COMPACT BONE SURROUNDS SPONGY BONE IN LONG BONES In long bone diaphysis vs epiphysis DIAPHYSIS IS THE LONG PART OF LONG BONE WHEREAS THE EPIPHYSIS ARE THE ENDS In long bone where is the yellow marrow located SHAFT Red marrow EPIPHYSES What is the medullary cavity CAVITY THAT CONTAINS MARROW In long bone what type of cartilage sits on top of the epiphysis at the joint HYALINE ARTICULAR What is the ephiphyseal line A LINE OF F IBROUS CARTILAGE IN THE EPIPHYSIS OF LONG BONE THAT PROVIDES A MOLD FOR BONE TO GROW THROUGH CALCIFICATION OF THE CARTILAGE What is the periosteum A DENSE LAYER OF VASCULAR CONNECTIVE TISSUE ENVELOPING THE BONES EXCEPT AT THE SURFACES OF THE J OINTSWhere is it locatedSURROUNDS ENTIRE BONE EXCEPT FOR AT THE JOINTS What types of cells does it house FIBROBLASTS PROGENITOR CELLS which develop into chondroblasts and osteoblasts Is it innervated and vascularized VASCULARIZED How is it secured to bone SHARPEY S FIBERS What functions does it serve OSTEOGENIC CELLS REPAIR AND LENGTHEN BONE SECURES BONE TO OTHER STRUCTURES What is the endosteum THIN VASCULAR MEMBRANE OF CONNECTIVE TISSUE Where is it located LINES THE INNER SURFACE OF ALL BONES medullary cavity How do short irregular and at bones differ in structure from long bones IRREGULAR BONES ARE NOT EVENLY SHAPED AND FLAT BONES ARE FLAT AND SANDWICH THE CANCELLOUS BONE BETWEEN TWO PIECES OF COMPACT BONEDo the former bones have a shaft or epiphyses marrow cavities DO NOT HAVE DIAPHYSES OR EPIPHYSES What is the spongy bone called in short irregular and at bones CANCELLOUS BONE Where is hematopoietic tissue RED BONE MARROW located in long bones IN MEDULLARY CAVITY Short irregular and at bones BETWEEN REGIONS OF COMPACT BONE What are the four main cell types associated With bone OSTEOBLASTS OSTEOCYTES OSTEOCLASTS OSTEOGENIC CELLS PROGENITOR CELLS Where are osteogenic cells located What do they differentiate into What is the function of the osteoblasts PRODUCE ECM Osteoclasts BREAKS DOWN CALCIFIED BONE What is the chemical composition of bone MINERALIZED CALCIUM SALTS Describe the process of intramembranous ossification BONE DEVELOPS FROM FIBROUS MEMBRANES OF EMBRYONIC SKELETON PRODUCES FLAT BONES OF SKULL AND CLAVICLE When does it occur BEGINNING IN EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT Describe the process of endochondral ossification ENDOCHONDRAL NEEDS A CARTILAGINOUS MODEL REPLACING CARTILAGE WITH BONE TISSUE When does it occur OCCURS OUTSIDE THE WOMB SUBJECT TO GRAVITY IN INFANTS Describe postnatal bone growth When does it occur Where does it occur EPIPHYSES FILL WITH SPONGY BONE CARTILAGE IS LIMITED TO THE ARTICULAR CARTILAGE AND EPIPHYSEAL PLATE EPIPHYSEAL PLATE SERVES AS A GROWTH ZONE FOR BONE ELONGATION UNTIL MID 20 s Understand calcium homeostasis and the body s response to increasing or decreasing blood calcium levels calcitriol calcitonin parathyroid hormone CALCITRIOL produced through action of PTH to correct hypocalcemia CALCITONIN corrects hypercalcemia by decreasing activity of osteoclasts and increasing activity of osteoblasts Describe negative feedback loops that correct hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia HYPOCALCEMIA calcium de ciency gtexcessive nerve excitability HYPERCALCEMIA calcium excess gtless nerve excitability leads to muscle weakness and sluggish re exes CALCITROL BEHAVES AS A HORMONE THAT RAISES BLOOD CALCIUM CONCENTRATION increases calcium absorption by small intestine increases calcium resorption from the skeleton promotes kidney reabsorption of calcium ions so less is lost in urine CALCITONIN LOWERS BLOOD CALCIUM CONCENTRATION THROUGH OSTEOCLAST INHIBITION reduces osteoclast activity so less calcium is liberated from bones AND OSTEOBLAST STIMULATION increases the number and activity of osteoblasts which deposit calcium into the skeleton PTH RAISES CALCIUM BLOOD LEVEL What is Wolff s law BONE GROWTH OR REMODELING IN RESPONSE TO DEMANDS PLACED ON IT What is osteoporosis BONE RESORPTION OCCURS FASTER RATE THAN BONE DEPOSITION RESULTS IN REDUCED BONE MASS Describe the steps of bone repair in particular What s a hematoma When does the fibrocartilaginous callus form and What does it entail HEMATOMA FORMATION BLOOD VESSELS OF BONE AND PERIOSTEUM HEMORRHAGE FIBROCARTILAGINOUS CALLUS FORMS CAPILLARIES THAT GROW INTO HEMATOMA PHAGOCYTIC CELLS THEN CLEAN UP DEBRIS bone shards AND FIBROBLASTS OSTEOBLASTS ENTER FRACTURE SITE TO BEGIN BONE RECONSTRUCTION COLLAGEN FIBERS SPAN THE BREAK CONNECTING BONE ENDS FIBROBLASTS DIFFERENTIATE Chapter 8 Required Reading Section 81 All SKIP all other sections Note Most of Chapter 8 deals with skeletal anatomy that you will be learning in lab Thus I will not be repeating chapter 8 material in detail during lecture Just make sure you are familiar with the terms and concepts below Chapter 8 Studv guide Do you know the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton If given a bone name could you determine whether it came from the axial or appendicular How many bones does a typical human body have How many bones are there in the human body at birth Why is there a difference in bone number between infant and adult skeletons What is a sesamoid bone What are sutural wormian bones
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