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by: N3koKikyu

STUDY GUIDE FOR EXAM 1 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002

GPA 3.5
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)

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Hey guys here is the Study Guide for Psychology 100 Exam 1. The Exam is set for next Tuesday 9/29/15. Good Luck! Happy Studying!
Basic Concepts in Psychology
Keith D Renshaw (P)
Study Guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by N3koKikyu on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 70771 - PSYC 100 - 002 at George Mason University taught by Keith D Renshaw (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Basic Concepts in Psychology in Psychlogy at George Mason University.

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Date Created: 09/25/15
Tuesday September 22 2015 Psych 100 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapter 1 History 1879 WILHELM WUNDT constructed what is known as the first psych lab How are people reacting to certain things and how fast or slow 39 1890 s Structuralism basic elements of the mind Functionalism purpose of the mind Chapter 2 Research Understand why research is necessary common sense and anecdotal evidence don t work CONFIRMATION BlAS gt tendency to search for interpret favor and recall information that confirms one s beliefs or hypotheses while giving less attention to information that contradicts it Statistical Significance Find all the information that helps us prove what we already believe Availability Heuristic Heuristic is the rule of thumb or guideline of the mind Be able to identify examples Understand the process of Scientific method 12 Observation Hypothesis Understand the difference between Conceptual and Operational Variables Examples Conceptual Variable gt an idea EX Laziness depression physical ability Operational Variable gt How are we going to measuredefine it Tuesday September 22 2015 34 Design amp Conduct Generalizability gt how your sample compares to the outside real world Random sampling gt doesn t work too well 4 Analyze Data Draw Conclusions Statistics tell you about the population or sample that you are working with you can start to look into how things relate to one another Conclusions based on statistical results Evaluate Conclusions Report Findings Disseminate information Replicate findings Revise hypothesis and theory if you can t replicate the findings figure out WHY Understand types of study and their advantagesdisadvantages DESCRIPTIVE CORRELATION Association between two variables The correlation coefficient gt range from 1 to 1 the number equals strength the further away from O the stronger the relationship ADVANTAGES cheaper easier natural setting higher generalizability DISADVANTAGES you cannot infer causation EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH Manipulation of independent variable independent variable cause dependent variable effect Random Assignment confounds confounding variables gt other variables that could be causes Tuesday September 22 2015 ADVANTAGES causeeffect we CAN infer causation more control DISADVANTAGES unnatural setting lower external validity can t answer some ques ons CASE STUDY indepth study of one individual ADVANTAGES rare situation a lot of info about it not generalizable DISADVANTAGES generalizability potential bias external validity external validity how much does your study seem like the real world internal validity how much control you have over experiment CONSITERATION Experimenter bias researcher s expectation can affect outcome Participant Bias participants expectations can affect outcome Doubleblind experiment neither experiment NOR participant knows what group the participant is in Statistical Significance How likely something is to happen or not likely Ethics in Research must consider effects on participants potential benefits should outweigh potential costs check in book institutional review board informed consent confidentiality debne ng Tuesday September 22 2015 Chapter 3 Biological Bases of Behavior Neurons lsnontis L A NEURON Jani Axonencuw inyrluishra i w K eH Dudv Dendrites gt takes in information from any neuron it is touching Soma gt cell body Axon myelin sheath terminal buttons axon terminus gt link up wither other dendrites DO NOT TOUCH leaves a tiny bit of space Synapse gt the tiny space between the terminal buttons and the dendrites of another neuron Neuron Firing resting potential negative axon is at rest graded changes in charge that make firing moreless likely action negative to positive axon fires Neurotransmitters chemicals used in brain to transmit signals from one neuron to another stored in synaptic vesicles in terminal buttons of axon produced released connect to receptors reuptake Tuesday September 22 2015 Nervous System Peripheral VS Central Peripheral Somatic voluntary muscles arm movements Automatic involuntary muscles beating heart sweating Sympathetic gt uses energy Parasympathefic gt conserves energy Central Spinal cord immediate reflexes Brain innerlower parts most basic Specialization gt different parts of the brain are responsible for different things Brain stem base of brain basic functions breathing Forebrain largest inner portion emotion memory outer reasoning thinking Cerebral Cortex Cerebrum Outer layer rightleft hemisphere Right controls left side artistic visualspatial Left controls right side verbal logical reading language math FourLobes Occipital Vision Temporal Hearing Parietal balance spatial tasks touch Frontal muscle movement executive functions Plasticity flexibility in functions of brain areas brain compensates for damage 39 TWIN STUDIES Tuesday September 22 2015 Monozygotic identical twins SAME GENES Dizygotic fraternal twins DIFFERENT GENES lf raised together same environment Chapter 4 Sensation amp Perception Sensation input from sense organs Perception selection organization and interpretation Absolute Threshold gt smallest magnitude that is detectable 50 of the time Sensory Adaptation Habituation gt we get used to something and when we get used to it we notice it less Signal Detection Theory gt We are most likely to perceive things that are relevant or important Cocktail Party Effect gt You are at a party and you are with a group and chatting there is noise everywhere and you hear your name being called and your attention is towards who said it Difference Threshold gt the amount of change that occurs for you to notice the amount of change is proportional to how big it is Vision System l Retina Cones color receptors Fovea center of Retina Rods blackwhite receptors Trichromatic Theory Three types of receptors for different wav Tuesday September 22 2015 Differential firing in each of these types of receptors causes COLOR SENSATION Colorblindness Type of cone might be missing Opponent Process Theory Afterimages gt complementary colors 3 groups of receptors RedGreen BlueYellow WhiteBlack Perception Bottom up processing gt building from the bottom up no availiable heuristics to understand and interpret information Expectations gt perceptual set GESTALT PRINCIPLES perceive things as a whole FigureGround gt see things as something is the focus and then something in the background Closure gt if things have holesbreaks in them our brain will fill it up lllusory Contours gt our Brain will put imaginary boundaries on things if it has holes Similarity gt objects look similar to one another so the Brain percieves them as a group or pattern Continuation gt eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object Proximity gt when elements are placed close together they are perceived as a group Depth Cues Binocular Retinal Disparity images from each eye differ slightly Tuesday September 22 2015 Similar to stereo sound Monocular Muscle control of each eye Pictorial cues Perceptual Constancy gt Things we see don t change size Chapter 5 Consciousness Automatic vs Controlled Process Automatic gt very little effort and attention Controlled gt actions that require a lot of conscious effort and concentration Day Dreaming Why do we do it pleasure rehearsalpractice maintain arousal Circadian Rhythms Natural fluctuation in bodily processes Includes alertness temperature hormones ect Natural Circadian Clock 24 hours affected by ZEITGEBERS environmental cues Suprachiasmatic Nucleus SCN light from retina to SCN inhibits production of melatonin Fluctuations Nighttime alertness temperature blood pressure drops melatonin rises Understand possible disruptions like shift work and jet ag Sleep Tuesday September 22 2015 FIVE STAGES Stage 1 light falling asleep theta waves Stage 2 transition Stage 34 Slowwave sleep delta waves Stage 5 REM Rapid Eye Movement Progress gt 90120 minutes per cycle REM SLEEP Replaces Stage 1 in progress Characterized by near muscle paralysis very difficult to wake up dreams It s not restorative but it s necessary KNOW SLEEP DISORDERS EX sleep walking night terrors insomnia Understand Theories of Dreams Psychodynamic Dreams are symbolic wish fulfilling they all have meaning Cognitive The minds way to organize and problem solve Activationsynthesis Random neuron firings that happen and brain tries to make sense of them Drugs and Hypnosis Theories Drugs earning Based on reward gt do something once get good results do it again Psychodynamic reduce unconscious anxiety 10 Tuesday September 22 2015 Social peerinfluence Cognitive becomes automatic habitual Hypnosis Divided Consciousness Social Cognitive Theory individuals knowledge can be directly related to observing others withint the context of social interactions experiences and outside media in uences


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