J1000: The News Media Exam 1 Study Guide
J1000: The News Media Exam 1 Study Guide JOURN 1000
Popular in The News Media: Journalism and Advertising in a Democratic Society
Popular in Journalism and Mass Communications
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Molly Meagher on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to JOURN 1000 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dr. Joy Jenkins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 282 views. For similar materials see The News Media: Journalism and Advertising in a Democratic Society in Journalism and Mass Communications at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
J1000 The News Media Exam 1 Study Guide What is Media Literacy Why Does it Matter I What are the media Results from the practices of media producers Represents the values of those organizations Reach a particular audience Some media messages are created consciously but most are unconscious e Media are our world social networking sites are a resource for i Political news ii Information iii Finding likeminded people on issues iv Voter outrage Media literacy vs news literacy a the ability to access analyze evaluate and create media in a variety of forms b the ability to use critical thinking skills to judge the reliability and credibility of news reports goom III VIA a Use VIA to access the reliability of news content i Veri cation Hlndependence iii Accountability b VIA helps us classify information by neighborhood L News ii Entertainment iii Advertising iv Promotion v Propaganda vi Raw information IV IMVAIN a Use IMVAIN to access accuracy of news sources i Independent sources are better than self interested sources ii Multiple sources are better than a single source iii Sources who verify are better sources than those who assert iv Authoritativelnformative sources are better than uninformed sources v Named sources are better than unnamed sources V Four challenges of media consumers a Information Overload the idea that there is more information today than ever before amp this will continue b Blurring the Lines Between Fact and Opinion who is a journalist amp who is not What is news and what is entertainment c Overcoming Your Own Bias cognitive dissonance be aware of your own bias d Crisis of Authenticity news content can also be biased which leads to a crisis of authenticity Media Criticism Major technological developments in media history a Cave drawings created a record of events gt clay tablets gt papyrus gt scrolls i Ancient ways of sharing information ii Basis of sharing information b Scribes created the early books c 1446 Printing Press i Information traveled quickly and literacy exploded ii These media were still limited by time and space cl Telegraph i Allowed information to travel over long distances at the speed of light ii Laid ground work for technological evolution e Radio i Brought news amp information amp the sound of the human voice 1 Created intimacy with audience 2 But raised concern about media affects f Television i Added moving images amp lm to radio broadcastings immediacy ii High quality ll Arrival of the internet a Major effects on media i Elimination of boundaries of geography amp time ii Lack of space constraints iii Reaching mass audiences amp serving personal needs iv Removing the barrier between media creation amp media consumption v Making media more central to our lives b Shows different ways media can shape amp change reality lll Media Development a Media shape how we think amp live i Democracy 1 Greek democracies relied on public forums 2 Printing press allowed democratic ideas to spread 3 Developed because of wellinformed public a People could make better decisions b Gave more educated opinions 4 Free press is key to modern democracies ii Capitalism 1 Media sell advertising to remain lucrative 2 Media sell us as reading and viewers to advertisers 3 Media serve economic needs while also ful lling our political social and economic needs b Is media good c Has the ride of new forms of media emphasized a greater focus on economic goals on creating new opportunities for democratic discourse IV Media Technologies a Technology isn t just how we access the media but how we connectinteract with each other b Shapes our lives personally socially culturally politically and economically V The In uence of Media Technology a Media technologies have shaped the way we understand how we interact with media b quotThe medium is the messagequot how new media affects our understanding of time and space Vl Cynical consumer vs Critical consumer a being intolerant of and dismissing media messages we don t like b thoughtfully considering media messages including how they are made and distributed an dhow we can interpret them Vll Five steps of critical process a Description i Paying close attention to media messages Taking notes and researching the message ii Should not passively watch media message but actively consider the message and what it means b Analysis i ldentify patterns 1 Story telling 2 Sub genres 3 Central characters 4 Main plots 5 Con ict 6 Central thememessage c Interpretation i What does that mean So what In reference to patters analysis ii Allows us to access broader meaning of a media message d Evaluation i Decide if something is good or bad ii Connect personal reactions to a message with our more focused critical assessment iii Create informed judgment about the value of the meanings we have identi ed e Engagement i Connect critical perspective to role as quotglobal citizensquot ii Aim to add our voices to media content Vlll Three types of media criticism a Re ectionist i Considers how media re ect the real world and if representations are accurate ii Describesdocuments themes in content rather than how it got that way iii Suggests simplest de nition of reality b Constructionist i How media shape individuals and society ii Look at ideological consequences of mediaenforcing status quo iii Suggests we are passive consumers and don t play role in constructing media meanings c Narrativist i Focuses on media as purveyors of pleasurable storytelling ii Media stories tell us who we are and what we value iii Stories can appear in multiple media forms and offer value to individuals and society lX Bene t of seeing media as narrators a Address the new and different while also referring to the reassuring and familiar b Understand the shifting relationship between production and consumption X Four issues in media criticism a The media is not a monolith and should not be lumped together i Media are diverse multiple and contradictory ii Different media have different ways of approaches b Blaming the media i Media are blamed for social problems ii Media are equated with consumer culture iii Media represent imagined reasons for problems with complex causes iv Leads to fear of media c Media attention and suspicion i Media are compared to additions ii We complain that there is not enough quotgood newsquot iii The paradox we like certain kinds of media but also suggest they have negative impacts d The thirdperson effect i We say that media haven t hurt us but they are hurting them ii People perceive that mass media messages have a greater effect on others Media Metaphors l a thing regarded as representative or symbolic of something else especially something abstract a Time is money b Love is a battle eld ll Role of media metaphors a Our concerns about and evaluations of media speak to concerns about where we are headed as a collective group b We may say media invade distract persuade c Media has a huge impact on us lll Six media metaphors a Media as lnterloper i Media comes into our lives as outside in uences ii Should not be scared of media as being foreign b Media as Information i Media are providers of information to interested citizens ii The news media news is criticized for being biased and shallow iii Not adequate to serving the in uence of market pressures advertising and technology c Media as Propaganda i Media report the interests of society s elite ii The media persuade us to do their bidding appealing to us unconsciously 1 Slogan and word approaches 2 Body language 3 Eye dilation 4 PR 5 Advertising d Media as Commerce i Media marketplace ii If we are treated like consumers we will focus on getting things for ourselves rather than serving others iii ls being treating as a consumer good or bad 1 Tom s shoes 2 GOOD e Media as Distraction i Media are forms of escape ii Trivial media vs worthwhile media iii Suggest we don t question or analyze the media we consume iv We cant assume media we like are also bad media v Leisure time can be productive f Media as Art i Mainstream media are quotlow artquot that poorly serve us ii Media are inadequate for information or education iii So much low art iv Pop culture serves as valuable role v Categorizing media into low art and high art is limiting many media IV Problems with media metaphors a Many assume negative aspects or effects of media b They will ignore new media forms c We play a role in stories d We tell stories in and through the media V Three news metaphors a Mirror i Society can see itself though the media Good and bad ii It is not how we would like reality to be but positive and negative depictions provide representative picture of society b Watchdog i Journalists bark when people in power do the wrong thing ii Journalist protect the little guy iii Hold government accountable c Marketplace L Ideas ii Place different views and causes can be shared iii Journalism offers a place for deliberation and con ict resolution iv Let all ideas complete the truth VI Four news functions a Information dissemination i Journalism informs analyzes interprets and explains ii People need information to govern themselves but the press has to make decisions about what the public needs iii Information is different from news b Accountability i People in power should be help responsible for their decision making ii Journalists investigate and con rm claims iii Independent observation and adversonal watchdog iv Hold themselves accountable c Representation i Journalists aim to serve as the voices to all citizens not just money and power ii Tone for the norm d Deliberation and Con ict Resolution i A democratic society needs forums for topics in the public interest to be debated and aired ii In covering certain topics journalists provide a public sphere for people to discuss and reach conclusions VII How metaphors and functions meet a Mirror information dissemination and representation b Watchdog accountability and information dissemination c Marketplace representation deliberation and con ict resolution VIII John Dewey vs Walter Lippmann views on the press role in a democracy a John Dewey i The Public and its Probems ii Said the press could serve as a marketplace of ideas and create dialogue and social empathy because 1 Democracy is as much about conversation as about information 2 Journalism and especially education can contribute to that conversation 3 Individuals can learn to be good citizens b Walter Lippmann i Public opinion ii Said the press cant be a mirror or a watchdog because 1 The world is too complex for most people to understand 2 The press only complicates that understanding 3 elites should govern VI What is Journalism Shoen vs Shoen and In re Madden de ning journalism a What makes journalism journalism is not its format but its content b The court focused on investigative reporting Why journalism is not a profession a There is no enforced code of professional ethics b Not a full time occupation some aren39t even paid c There is no license required to practice How citizens have become journalists a People with no journalism background education or training are breaking down journalism monopoly b With technology blogs factschecking journalist opening up journalisms conversational function c The idea of citizen contributing news content is not new Kent s and Pitts views on citizen journalism a Leonard Pitts i Tools don t make a journalist standards and ethics do b Thomas Kent i Citizen journalism and journalism go hand in hand ii journalists have mastered 3 skills over citizen journalists reporting a story an analyzing it and conveying it effectively to a broad public Carr s view on advocacy a An agenda can impair vision ideology can create a narrative b Glenn Greenwood all activist are not journalists but all real journalists are activists journalism has a value a purposeto serve as a check on powerquot Nine Elements ofjournalism a lst obligation is to the truth i Sharing facts but putting them in context to give them meaning ii Where is the good stuff b lst loyalty is to citizens i journalists have a duty to represent the news and interests of citizens c Journalism is a discipline of veri cation i journalism of assertion just repeating what people say is objective but is it the truth ii journalism of veri cation journalist sort thru and verify facts and test the veracity of claims d Must maintain independence from these who journalist cover i Appearance of con ict of interest can be as damaging as a con ict itself e Must be an independent monitor of power i Journalists should monitor power and provide a voice for the voiceless f A forum of public criticism and compromise i A journalistic exchange should be thoughtful focus on discussion and drive to a solution g Try to make the news interesting and relevant i The impetus is on the journalist to sue innovative approaches and storytelling h Keep news in proportion i Provide a full report that accurately re ects a story s importance ii Journalism as a map for citizens to navigate society i Practitioners must exercise their conscience i Journalists need to be independent but also autonomous ii The role of ethics an social responsibility Vll Class de nition ofjournalism a Journalism is a set of transparent independent procedures aimed at gathering verifying and reporting truthful information of consequences to citizens in a democracy Political Stories and Media Messages Media serve as political narrators ll Impact of Citizens United v FCC on political communication a Gave corporations and unions the same political speech rights as individuations under the 1st amendment b They could spend unlimited amounts of money on political activities as long as it is done independently lll How we respond to political messages as citizens
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