Exam 1 Study Guide (chpt 1-6)
Exam 1 Study Guide (chpt 1-6) ANTH 160 D2
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ANTH 160 D2
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by kathleen Dunleavy on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 160 D2 at University of Arizona taught by Matthew J. Rowe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see Origins of Human Diversity in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
ANTHROPOLOGY EXAM 1 KEY TERMS CHAPTERS 16 Natural Selection The most critical mechanism of evolutionary change first articulated by Charles Darwin refers to genetic change in the frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential reproductive success between individuals Reproductive success number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age an individual39s genetic contribution to the next generation Results in directional changes for a population Differential reproductive success in a specific environment has resulted in a change in allele frequencies A population adapts which leads to speciation Competition amp selection foragainst particular traits via environmental pressures can lea to the change in the form of a species Natural selection acts on the individual but evolution occurs at the level of the population Scientific An approach to research whereby a problem is identified a hypothesis or Method hypothetical explanation is stated and that hypothesis is tested through the collection and analysis of data Evolution A change in the genetic structure of a population from one generation to the next This term is also used to refer to the appearance of a new species modern genetic definition a change in the frequency of alleles from one generation to the next 4 Forces of Evolution Natural Selection 2 Gene Flow 3 Genetic Drift 4 Mutation Adaptation also called an adaptive trait is a trait with a current functional role in the life history of an organism that is maintained and evolved by means of natural selection Classification Classificatory schemes help us under the world The ordering of organisms into categories such as orders families and genera to show evolutionary relationships Mitosis Simple cell division the process by which somatic cells divide to produce two identical daughter cells one cell produces 2 new identical daughter cells Somatic cells code for body tissues muscle bone skin nerves heart brain Contain 46 chromosomes in each cell 23 pairs Meiosis Cell division is specialized cells in ovaries and testes Involves two divisions and results in 4 daughter cells each containing only half the original number of chromosomes These cells can develop into gametes produces 4 daughter cells with half the original amount of chromosomes Recombination aka crossing over occurs This shuffles the genetic composition so no chromosomes stay the same from generation to generation Gametes sex cells eggsperm Contains 23 chromosomes in each cell Cladistics Weighs the relative importance of certain derived homologous characteristics to construct clades groups of organisms sharing a common ancestor HiJ HJJ HLI Aoade Li II No a clade Not a clade Heterozygous Having different alleles at a particular locus on the members of a chromosome pair Aa Homozygous Have the same allele at the same locus on both members of a chromosome pair AA homozygous dominant aa homozygous recessive Func onal Morphology Understanding behavior through sllteletal morphology In general functional morphology is the analysis of the mechanical and evolutionary relationship of anatomical form to organismal behavior and dynamics Fitness A measure of the relative reproductive success of individuals Can be measured by an individual s genetic contribution to the next generation compared with that of other individual The terms genetic fitness reproductive fitness and differential reproductive success are also used Species A group of organisms that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring Members of one species are reproductively isolated from members of all other species can t mate wthem to produce fertile offspring Genus the usual major subdivision of a family or subfamily in the classification of organisms usually consisting of more than one species KING PHILIP NEVER HAD GOOD SEX Kingdom phylum class order family genus species Genotype The genetic makeup of an individual Can refer to an organism s entire genetic makeup or to the alleles at a particular locus Phenotype Observable or detectable physical characteristics of an organism detectable expressions of genotypes Physical traits Speciation the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise The biologist Orator F Cook was the first to coin the term 39speciation39 for the splitting of lineages or quotcladogenesis Allopatric Peripatric Parapatric Sympatric Original population Initial step of speCIatIon Barrier New niche New niche Genetic formation entered entered polymorphism Evolution of reproductive Isolation In isolation In isolated In adjacent Within the niche niche population New distinct species after equnlibration of new ranges Mendelian Traits Characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus Examples include many blood types ABO earlobes achondroplasia Many genetic disorders sicklecell anemia and Tay Sachs disease are Mendelian traits Ecological Niche the role and position a species has in its environment how it meets its needs for food and shelter how it survives and how it reproduces A species39 niche includes all of its interactions with the biotic and abiotic factors of its environment Race Concept Adaptive a process in which organisms diversify rapidly into a multitude of new forms Radiation particularly when a change in the environment makes new resources available creates new challenges or opens new environmental niches Ex Darwin s finches Lamarckian Lamarck proposed that characteristic that developed in one generation could be Evolutionary Theory passed to the next Giraffes neck Homologous Structures Similarities that are based on descent from a common ancestor certain characters Form is related to descent and function Humerus Radius Ulna Carpals Metacarpals Phalanges Human Cat Whale Copyright D 2006 Pearson Educalon Inc publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cumm ngs Intraspecific Variation Within species refers to variation seen within the same species Seen within every biological species Interspecific Between species refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to Variation include additional aspects seen between 2 or more different species Represents difference bt reproductively isolated groups Analogous Body part in different species that is similar in function but not in structure that Structures evolved in response to a similar environmental challenge Analogous Structures analogous Comparative Anatomy The coloured bones are homologous The thin membrane of an insect39s wing is analogous to feathers or leathery flesh Mutation A change in DNA Can refer to changes in DNA bases as well as changes in chromosome number or structure Can involve single base pair substitutions or the replacement of large strands of DNA THIS IS THE ONLY WAY OF INTROUDUCING NEW GENETIC VARIATION INTO A SPECIES Acclimatization is the process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment such as a change in temperature humidity photoperiod or pH allowing it to maintain performance across a range of environmental conditions uniformitarianism The theory that the earth s features are the result of long term processes that continue to operate in the present as they did in the past Elaborated on by Lyell this theory opposed catastrophism and contributed strongly to the concept of immense geological time deep time Charles Lyell is considered the founder of modern geology He was a geologist and Darwin s friend and mentor His highly praised book was Principles ofGeoogy He recognized modern processes are the same as past processes and that the world is in constant change Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs An animal or machine that usually moves in a bipedal manner is known as a biped meaning quottwo feetquot Brachiation or arm swinging is a form of arboreal locomotion in which primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms During brachiation the body is alternately supported under each forelimb Vertical clinging and leaping 6 r W is a type of arboreal locomotion seen most commonly among the strepsirrhine primates Ouadrupedalism a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs An animal or machine that usually moves in a quadrupedal manner is known as a quadruped meaning quotfourfeetquot Allele Alternate forms of a gene They occur at the same locus location on paired chromosomes and thus govern the same trait Because they are different their action may result in different expressions of that trait Allele is sometimes used interchangeably w gene Ribosome a complex of over 50 proteins plus its own complement of RNA often denoted rRNA There are free ribosomes that are suspended in the cytoplasm of the cell but many of them are attached to the rough endoplasmic reticulum associated with the nuclear envelope of the cell RNA A molecule similar in structure to DNA Three different single stranded forms of RNA are essential to protein synthesis Nucleus An organelle found in all eukaryotic cells Contains chromosomes nuclear DNA Chromosomes discrete structures composed of DNA and protein found only in the nuclei of cells They are visible only under magnification during certain stages of cell division Gene flow Exchange of genes between populations Gene pool The total complement of genes shared by the reproductive members of a population Genetic drift Evolutionary changes changes in allele frequencies produced by random factors Genetic drift is a result of a small population size When specific traits are not selected for or against allele frequencies can randomly fluctuate Genetic bottle neck A chance event greatly reduces the size of the population Initial population has equal frequencies of the alleles The surviving individuals have quotallelequot frequencies different from those of the original population which generates a new population with a strong dominance of one over the other Founder effect Type of genetic drift form of bottlenecking allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from larger populations Occurs when a population migrates or bottlenecks resulting in a change in allele frequencies unrelated to selection Culture All aspects of human adaption including technology traditions language religion and social roles Culture is a set of learned behaviors it is transmitted from one generation to the next through learning and not by biologicalgenetic means Polygenic traits Traits influenced by genes at 2 or more loci skin color stature eye color Many polygenic traits are also influenced by environmental factors Anthropology The field of inquiry that studies human culture and evolutionary aspects of human biology includes 1 cultural anthropology 2 archaeology 3 linguistics 4 physicalbiological anthropology Principle of Genes alleles occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs During gamete production the members of each gene pair separate so that each gamete contains segregation one member of each pair During fertilization the full number of chromosomes is restored and members of gene pairs alleles are reunited Each allele is inherited from each parent they are separately inherited Principle of The distribution of one pair of alleles into gametes does not influence the independent distribution of another pair The genes controlling different traits are inherited assortment independently of one another Biocultural The mutual interactive evolution of human biology and culture the concept that evolution biology makes culture possible and that developing culture possible further influences the direction of biological evolution a basic concept in understanding the unique components of human evolution Genes environment culture Macroevolution is evolution on a scale of separated gene pools Macroevolutionary studies focus on change that occurs at or above the level of species in contrast with microevolution which refers to smaller evolutionary changes typically described as changes in allele frequencies within a species or population Genera In biology a genus plural genera is a taxonomic ranllt used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms In the hierarchy of biological classification genus comes above species and below family Heterodont Having diverse tooth morphology different kinds of teeth Many other vertebrates also have heterodont tooth morphology Heterodonty results from unspecialized diets humans for example Homodont Teeth are all the same all sharp all molars Fossil species Fossil genera phylogeny Linnaean taxonomic system reflects the evolutionary phylogenetic relationship of organisms Need to Know I Archaeologists do not study dinosaurs I Four subfield approach to anthropology I Significance of primate studies I Linnaean classification system I Twotrait punnett square 0 Used to represent possible genotypes and phenotypes in the next generation 0 Uses principle of independent assortment different traits are not inherited together ex height amp color of plants not assorted together I Geologic time scale 0 PALEOZOIC 540 220 MYA I Cambrian campbells I Ordovician ordinary I Silurian soup I Devonian does I Mississippian make I Pennsylvanian people I Permian pleased o MESOZOIC 230 65 MYA I Triassic I Jurassic I Cretaceous o CENOZOIC 65 MYA to Present I Paleocene put I Eocene eggs I Oligocene on I Miocene my I Pliocene plate I Pleistocene 2 MYA 2000 BP please I Holocene honey Anatomical directions Fig 12 Copyright 0 Tho McGreriI Win Inc Puniulon mod lot reproduction or dsplay 39 superior medial proximal superficial ll anterior ventral i posterior I i v inferior lateral distal deep anterior ventral Sexual reproduction O O O Creates new combinations of genetic material Positive assortment based on sexual characteristics can occur These may result in more evolutionary fit individuals and speciation events Recombination O New combinations of traits are generated during meiosis Primate classification Darwinian theory of evolution O O O O O Variation exists within the individuals of the same species Variation may increase the fitness of certain individuals Fitness means that the probability the individual will survive reproduce and pass on those traits increases Over time traits that are selected for become more frequent in the population Environment dictates the value of an adaption I Because the environment changes through time the value of adaptations also can change Traits must be heritable EVOLUTION IS NOT LINEAR NOR IS IT DIRECTED Population genetics Know the Characteristics New World monkeys OOOOOOOO 2133 dental formula about 70 species all expect one are diurnal most are quadreupedal they have prehensile tails claws instead of nails usually give birth to twins live in social groups consisting of a mated pair or a female and 2 adult males with their offspring Old world monkeys 00000 O 2123 dental formula about 133 species ALL belong to family Cercopithecidae They are divided into cercopithecines and colobines They have tails Have ishial callosities Prosimians Chimpanzees O Have ishial callosities Anthropoids O Suborder of primates that includes monkeys apes and humans o 10 characteristics larger average body size larger brain reduced reliance on smell increased reliance on vision greater degree of color vision bony plate at back of eye socket blood supply to the brain fusion of the mandible generalized dentition longer gestation and maturation periods increased prenatal care more mutual grooming Gibbonssiamangs Hominoids 0 Members of the primate superFamily includes apes and humans Gorillas Lemurs o Suborder Strepsirhini More quotprimitivequot 0000 Have a I Homo sapiens Bonobos Greater reliance on olfactory sense Eyes further to the side Shorter gestation and maturation periods rhinarium Moist naked sun ace around nose
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