Study Guide - test 1
Study Guide - test 1 SOCIOL 3100 - 01
Popular in Recent Theories in Sociology
SOCIOL 3100 - 01
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Popular in Sociology
SOCIOL 2950 - 01
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This 22 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Twehous on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to SOCIOL 3100 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Kara McGhee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Recent Theories in Sociology in Sociology at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Review Questions What is a commodity What is latent vs manifest function What does avery gordon mean of having to know where we39ve been before we can understand where we are Dubois and double consciousness Describe conflict theory and its origins Essay Describe the two types of social solidarity organic and mechanic How would Marx explain capitalism its roles Compare and contrast the perspective of Marx Weber and Durkheim on religion in society How does each theorist contribute to the iron cage What are the points of departure between Marx and Weber Describe two theorist39s ideas on capitalism with two examples Pick one social theorist and describe their work theories and ideas Which categories do they fall under and why Compare and contrast theories of all the ppl How does each theorist conceptualize class to the role of the state Focus points of the test Dubois Weber status Look at chart handout What is each theorist concerned with What questions do they focus on What does these theories really tell us and why are they important Format 1 essay 2 short answers 3x5 note card 827 Notes week 1 Ghostly Matters by Avery Gordon What is a haunting Both individual and societal pasts individual experiencespast world events We39re all quothauntedquot by social arrangements and instutions and how the affect us quotWe need to know where we live in order to imagine living elsewherequot 483 How social life is actually constructed subjectivity how we define ourselves as people in the modern world ex I39m a woman from America Construction of social reality how are we defining ourselves with the places and resources in the world How is social reality constructed How should social scientists go about defining this Positivism scientific method and empiricisism the rise of the scientific method rejecting mythicism departure from religion religious leaders are not giving us the truth science is by measurement if it can39t be measured we39re not concerned with it this is a big step for humans because it has brought us a lot of good studies even though there have been bad ones too soc and psych trying to prove their validity Ontology relation between knowledge experience and power these all influence each other what can we know and how can we know it and how does power impact that the academy at large has not recognized a lot of theories ex race is a social construction until that conclusion is found is certain ways of knowing it isnt recognized ontology is how do you operationalize your variable ex quothow satisfied are you with yourjobquot does not predict quotmeasurement of moitvationquot Epistemology how do we know things How can we know things How can we verify information Complex Personhood 0 structure and agency structure is institutions agency is their own choices Are we going to study people as a product of of institutions or based on their own choices 0 opposite of rational choice theory quotpeople make decisions based on self interestquot 0 complex personhood is more messy people have goals BUT there39s a lot of reasons they do what they do 0 Decart says Humans are special quotI think therefore I amquot Karl Marx made us think about humans differently quotI am therefore I thinkquot Individual specialness is a lot less important than your class in terms of how your life turns out He believe your class position is the biggest factor in your life Your class position defines who you are your consciousness is rooted in your class That39s why Marx39s basically invented sociology o ModernismPostmodernism periods or eras of thought theories go under them post modernism is the endless possibilities to obtain media we39re not really linked to geology small town people aren39t necesarily ignorant to the world We no longerjust look to see how the structure affects people but also how people affect the structure 0 lnvisibilityHypervisibility hypervisiblity what we think we see and know about people invsibility is the feelings and thoughts of a person that we don39t actually see 0 Dialectic there39s always another side of the coin o captialism would be considered invisiblehypervisible complex personhood It39s difficult to study society without considering the impact of what was missed and ignored quothuntingquot is Avery39s way of trying to include what has been forgotten and lost in the past that have affected our society today 93 Notes week 2 Marxist Philosophy Overview We are moving from a local point of view to a worldwide Profit and accumulation of capital is associated with progress Crisis of abundance vs Crisis of scarcity having too much of something is a different set of problems that is new whereas having too little of something had been the societal trend until this time Marx talks about the rise of production and the end of feudalism Marx is focused on capitalism as a progress Feudalism A man would work on a farm and work for a small pay Everybody had their place there wasn39t much movement Owners would make a profit off of their workers Enclosure Movements when we made this shift to industrial capitalism there were many misplaced workers this movement was the closing of manors Land that people use to share and use communally was now going to be owned by the government Industrial Revolution 17501900 Ecolooical Location 0 Scientists have named and catalogued 13 million species 0 An estimated of 87 mllion species on the planet 0 Species a group of living organisms consisting of similar individuals capable of exchanging genes or interbreeding o 1900 biomass of wild mammals was about to equal to human biomass o 97 of vertebrate biomass is now the form of humans and their domesticated animals World Population has continually grown since we eliminated infant mortalities and made sure that most everybody can live longer Growth is seen more in less developed countries in certain societies children are an incentive or a deincentive for economic growth Per Capita Annual Energy Consumption we consume most energy besides canada but we39re not the largest or fastest growing Wealth and Ecology Wealth and affluence among nations are highly correlated with environmental degradation Critical Advocacy Research the researcher participates in social change efforts while also collecting data Progress is measured in terms of gdpprofit but the countries with those highest gdps are doing most damage to earth 0 Therefore progress is correlated with environmental degradation Epicurus Greek philosopher 341 BC 270 BC 0 Marx wrote his dissertation from Epicurus39 ideas of materialism Hegel German philosopher 17701831 0 his theory was idealism Marx disagreed with idealism I idealism is that perception is reality whatever the mind decides it is is This is true but Marx argued this because he said that thoughts are material because people are material Enlightenment 1600s1700s 0 Bacon Descartes Locke Voltaire Kant people that Marx was in conversation with Marxist Philosophy Ecology sociology economics he helped shape those into what they are today Historical materialism how Marx tries to explain social change Dialectic materialism reality comes from material condition The quotfacts of lifequot humans all experience life death reproduction we have a dependence on the biosphere Metabolic functions the evolving relationship between humans and nature Evolution DanNin wrote at the same time as Marx biological evolution vs Marx historical evolution Philosophy for whom Marx wanted to make a philosophy for the working class Estranged Labour Political economy power and resources resource distribution in society material or symbolic what is society organized around Who gets to power Commodity something that can be bought and sold on the marketplace Property ownerspropertyless power is given to those who own property Alienation comes about by the relation to the worker and their boss your labor is not your own your labor is a commodity workers are dispensable 0 Species being private property alienates us from our natural environment and our process of the facts of life life death reproduction Marx the state is there to protect private property the taking of dead wood is now conisered stealing everything EVEN TREES are a commodity industrial revolution turned things of the earth into commodities Camera Obscura 1846 o Consciousness humans thinking 0 Ideology concepts Marx would say both of these things are material how you see the world is rooted in your life experience the concepts we use has material consequences Manifesto of Class Struggle 0 What39s the worker39s catch 22 o What are the inherent contradictions of capitalism 917 Notes week 4 The Spirit of Capitalism and the Iron Cage Time is money Credit is money Money is a prolific generating nature The good paymaster is lord another man39s purse pay punctually The most trifling actions that affect a man39s credit are to be regarded We think money is most important thing but our WELL BEING is most important How is capitalism religious How do people act together weber How are people organized or divided marx When a society is industrialized a peasant becomes a worker Marx39s Conflict Theory idea of bougouisie vs proletariat both of exist within a system but have oppoosing interests because of group membershp there will be conflict we all have to imagine we39re one human community to overcome social problems Marx says about consciousness it39s their social being that determines his consciousness Marx capitalism Weber bureaucracy These theorists are not in opposition to each other Weber builds on Marx39s theory Marx Historical Materialism Weber39s Questions What are the origens of capital authority Why did modern capitalism take hold in the West doubts about modernity through science and through hard work that humans will improve themselves Religion tool of the capitalists to keep the workers working marx idea Religion more complex proletariat is not a victim but religion touched everybody39s lives Weber felt that protestantism reflected the economy here in the US Versteten idea that social scientiists should seek to understand notjudge Positivism amp Causal Explanation is hard with people in societies How does religion support capitalisim when it39s looked down upon to have too many possessions here on earth Life chances Weber came up with this concept some people will move up some down but some people will have more life chances than others based on luck and resources Weber39s main departure from marx is STATUS Weber thinks class positioned is determined by more than just yourjob but by a multitude of things Ascribed status vs Acheived status ascribed born with can39t change acheived things acheived Everything is relational you know what you are based on what you are not Most people are status consistent Weber sees alienation in specialization hyper rationality Social action based on four different motivators 1 affectual social action human response personal response to situations 2 traditional social action rituals tradition 3 value rational social action belief of the quotright wayquot to do things 4 instrumentalirrationality social action means to an end reaching a goal Iron cage of Capitalism Food is a commodity humans are only entitled to food if they have the capital to get that food society and the conception of what life could be to people metaphor for groups being stuck in things they don39t want to be doing and don39t benefit them marx describes what living in an iron cage does Relationship between ideas and interests Weber elective affinity ideas have a life of their own Marx false consciousness ideas become ideologies in class struggle they are used in benefiting the upper class in a class struggle Nietzsche cognitive dissonance ideas are used by individuals to make sense of their own realities Capitalism 0 Compulsive apparatus or o Locus of freedom Weber capitalism is freedom without equality Marx capitalism is compulsive apparatus Freedom 0 Realizing necessities Marx or 0 Making deliberate choice between open alternatives Weber Weber is focusing on individual liberties Marx is focused on how classes and groups of people are looking for freedom Weber Methodology 0 Comparitive method 0 Unique preconditions o Combats 39naturalization39 or inevitability 0 Take into account the sociohistorical situation 0 Predominant psychological state 0 Social structure 0 Meaning of an object Social Action 0 Level of cause objective conditions 0 Level of meaning subjective reality Ideal Types of Social Action 0 Tradition custom or habit o Affectual crying at a funeral o Valuerational praying to get to heaven 0 Instrumental rationality calculate most efficient way to achieve goal Dubois o Veil dominant group needs to have lifted o Doubleconsciousness people with a marx status have to deal with live in your own realm but also account for how other people see you based on your social status 0 15th amendment There are theoretical insights through LIVED experience Marx and Weberjust theorize from what they know about things not actually have lived them 98 Notes week 3 Presentation Commodity thing that satisfies human needs Use value and actual value More value to items that require more labor time average skill of work force state of science technology degree of practical application Notes Marxist Philosophy amp Economics Money is true because we believe it it is a fictitious commodity What is capitalism A mode of production in which tradecommerce are governed by a notion of private property we either have a scarcity or a crisis of abundance resource distribution causes certain classes to emerge the worker is involved with continuing the wheel of capitalism Wealth Use Value Exchange Value quot These explain how capitalism functions Marxist Philosophy quotPhilosophers have only interpreted theh world in various ways the point is to change itquot Marx Xi Theses on Feuerbach Review 0 Alienation 0 Structural workers can39t even afford the items that they make exploitation o Psychological workers feel like cogs in machines because they can39t see their finished product 0 Material conditions 0 Geography amp natural resources 0 Population density 0 Mode of production Marx recognizes 5 the tools and knowledge that we have Mode of Production 1 Primitive community huntersgatherers Slave state a few are serving others Feudal state who owns the land lord gets a share Capitalist system notion of private property includes commodities Socialist society we39re living a sustainable lifestyle environment humans W WN What is life 0 Dialectical materialism a way to theorize existence 0 materialism was important because it opposed idealism 0 Historical materialism theorizing social change throughout history offshoot of dialectical Previous opposing theories 0 Mechanistic materialism we39re all governed by certain natural laws and there39s only one way that things will go o Metaphysics considers the process of development on a quantative level Hegel 17701831 c Dialectical idealist the worker can get over their exploitation if they believe their life is great deals with the spiritual realm o Dialectical believes that things are related NOT separate interconnectedness the world isn39t black or white it39s grey Marx Roots Relationship to Methods of Production Mobility Class Branches ldeas family religion politics justice beauty Hegek Roots ldeas justice good truth relligion Mobility State Branches Individual existence Dialectic Synthesis Thesis gt opposition lt Antithesis The Dialectic in Action Thesis Feudal Lords Antithesis Serfs amp Peasants Synthesis Thesis City Life Antithesis Guilds Antithesis Proletariat Synthesis Thesis Entrepreneurs Synthesis Classless Society quotCommunismquot Exploitation 0 Relationship between capital and labor 0 worker has to be paid less than their labor is worth for profit 0 Mathematical or moral o Marx says it39s primarily a mathematical principle 0 surplus labor how profit is made workers not being paid for what they39re worth 0 laborers put in time and effort to improve their work being healthy sleeping eating improving benefits the capitalists without them being compensated for that Presentation LaborPower and Capital Marx 1867 Labor Power The capacity to do work Labor the physical act of working The abstraction of human labor into something that can be exchanged for money Labor power exists in any kind of society but on what terms it is traded or combined with means of production to produce goods and services has historically varied greatly Rules of Selling LaborPower Labor can appear on the market as a commodity only if the laborer offers it as a commodity The laborer must be the inarguable owner of his own labor Laborer and owner of capital must meet in the market and deal on the basis of equal rights quotequal in the eyes of the lawquot Laborer should sell their labor only for a definite period Avoid selling themselves slavery Rules of Selling LaborPower Laborer must offer sale only the laborpower within themselves means of production must be provided People are consumers before and while producing Labor must be able to be reproduced Supporting family basic needs food fuel shelter Must be able to reproduce conditions of work Educationtraining is a commodity Value of LaborPower quotMinimum limit of value of laborpower is determined by the value of the commoditiesquot Value fixed up on entering the market Notes Marx is obsessed with where value comes from bc a lot of people in his time focused on consumptioin and not production What is the origen of this value Not what happens to it when it39s exchanged on the market Where does value come from LABOR If the value of commodities comes from labor it is not honored by society Main points Commodity fetishism Labor power Usevalue Exchangevalue Marx would say wage labor is inherently expoitative Workers must be paid less than their product is worth in order to make profit It would be irrational for capitalists to not to maximize production with the cheapeast cost of labor Mostly because labor is paid for AFTER you do it Fetishism to associate value to an item intrinsically Money is a social construction we believe in it It39s NOT objective or intrinsic Money alienates people from each other In society there is always labor power it39s just in what form it39s a process and phenomenon that39s specific to that time and place Commodity is anything which has exchange value Humans are alienated from their own labor from the capital Labor is extracted from humans Fetization of monev happens when we forget that people have the power not the money our power and agency is not rooted in objects Capital is more highly valued than labor Great amounts of wealth are created by debter Crediters assume you are going to need the bank39s money to afford your things Debters are just as important to the system as the crediters 922 Notes week 5 Presentation Durkheim39s Mechanical and Organic Solidarity Emile Durkheim 18581917 born in France father and forefathers were rabbis wrote Social Solidarity the cohesion in society that holds it together allows individuals to feel like they are part of something How does society hold itself together when we are all individuals Mechanical Solidarity Pre modern society Shared experiences responsibilities and morals Shared commonalities similarities gt Collective Consciousness Collective Organic Solidarity Modern Society Different experiences Interdependence gt we all need each other Individualism not attached to society Division of Labor as society became more industrial and dense a division of labor surfaced specialization arises Anomie and the Modern Division of Labor Anomie lack of the usual or social ethical standards in an individual or group Division of labor range of tasks within a social system Notes Durkheim did a lot for sociology politically not so much theoretically one of the first sociologists to make us think in a statistical way helped us understand what social relations are sociology is completely different than the individual Functionalism society is made from multiple structures social facts and are necessary structures all these parts working together are vital to maintaining a social equilibrium Collective Effervescence a group of people coming together to do something is different than when they are together Marx39s conflict theory group prejudice comes from group membership because people believe that they belong to groups it causes opposing interests within a system Durkheim39s Question How is modern society held together by social cohesion he saw the change from a society of rural areas to urban areas Marx Weber Durkheim all focus on different phenomena with different conclusions Durkheim How is modern society held together by social cohesion Weber How do people get to power Marx What is history What is capitalism What is the modern society They all theorize role of government differently Marx state is there to support private property Weber state has monopoly of violence they can use violence against you but us not against each other Durkheim state is the apparatus that upholds the law there for security Functionalism tendency to naturalize things everything has a role in this natural organization it exists for a function ex there is inequality to motivate people to work harder naturalizes these functions rather than question them everything has a role and is equally important no criticism Durkheim39s data is pretty weak armchair sociologist On the contrary Weber toured the US never revisited the division of labor not a lot of utility of his theory If everyone lived in a capitalist society it would not be possible because it39s not sustainable Division of Labor modern society is held together by the dol durkheim as it encourages individualism it also encourages integration and cohesion because we depend on each other to do things the problem is that it assumes that we all share equally in what we produce people will find their meaning in life through their occupation or guild occupational groups would make people feel valued and important The Law in mechanical societies law was more repressive and now it39s more restitutive YET we have a repressive law system right now repressive chop off your hand for stealing restitutive do community service for your crime Modernity swept away the older forms of social organization family and religion It did not have salience in the industrial revolution Durkheim feels this is a problem Religion Marx religion served upper class interest Weber it constrains or enables capitalism Durkheim Society reflects religion and religion reflects society talking about the world and explaining the way the world works Durkheim39s Method no theory of causation we can39t look at multicausal arguments because it39s not scientific but then doesn39t explain uses process of elimination looks at what doesn39t work Marx class conflict Weber multiple causalities 924 Notes week 5 Presentation Durkheim39s Departure from Marx 0 Unit of analysis 0 Religion as a phenomenon o Durkheim is really close 0 Defining Religion 0 Thought and science are of religious origin 0 All religions are spiritualistic Ideas 0 With religion a man finds himself transformed and he transforms the environment 0 Religion is considered the source of everything 0 Where does religion come from Society itself 0 Morality and legality have been inextricably connected to rituals until recently Collective Sentiments o Collective sentiments and consciousness 0 Ideal World 0 One creates quotidealsquot 0 Ideal world and sacredness come about in the same way that legality and morality do 0 ldeals are necessary to society do not create tension or divergences it39s two different ideas that creates tension Religion as a social mechanism 0 Truth 0 lmpersonality and stability are the two characteristics of truth Concepts 0 Concepts are both products of society and tools used to explain society 0 Categories express concepts learned through society O Collective Representations 0 Stability of concepts 0 ex language 0 Socially collective 0 Concepts Collective Consciousness 0 Society is an individuality Merten39s Manifest and Latent Functions 0 Manifest functions the objective consequence for a specified unit known consequences Latent functions the unintended Examples in society 0 Crime 0 Manifest function O m o Educa on o Manifest function to educate students in becoming productive and well informed citizens o Latent function promoting and continuing Purpose of distinction o Directs attention to theoretical analysis of actions 0 ex business platforms vs outcomes large scale functions within society 0 A standardization practice designed to achieve an objective which one knows from factual evidence cannot be achieved 0 ex rain or fertility rituals Hawthorn Western Electric Studies 0 Changes in work behavior was a latent function of the workers being observed and not as a result of changes in light Durkheim used society as an individuality society is something separate and distinct from the individual individuals contribute to society symbolic interaction Religion as an institution used to have a lot more power
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