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Chapter 8 Reading Notes

by: samanthajoseph

Chapter 8 Reading Notes GEG105

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Chapter 8 Reading Notes
World Regional Geography
Thomas Boswell
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by samanthajoseph on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEG105 at University of Miami taught by Thomas Boswell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see World Regional Geography in Geography at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 03/17/16
Questions for Chapter 8 – Europe in “Diversity Amid Globalization” 1. You should know the characteristics of Europe’s 4 major landform regions: A. The European Lowland – Flat to gently rolling area ­ generally less than 500 feet elevation. It is the agricultural  heartland of Europe.  B. The Western Uplands –  2,000­8,000 feet ­ highest in Spain and in Scandinavia. Tend to be old mountain systems  that have been significantly worn down, similar to the Appalachian Mountains in the US  C. The Central Uplands –  2,000­7,000 feet in elevation ­ Similar to the Appalachian mountains in appearance.  D. The Alpine Mountain System –  7,000 ­ 14,000 feet in elevation. Mt. Blanc in France is the highest mountain in Europe  (15,781 feet). Built by plate tectonic forces (collision of three plates: European plate,  African plate, and the Hellenic plate)  2. What are fjords? Flooded valley inlets similar to the coastlines of Alaska and New Zealand 3. Where in Europe can you find a shield landscape? Sweden and Northern Finland ­ Fenno­Scandian Shield 4. Be able to describe the characteristics (including the locations) of the following climates in Europe: A. Marine West Coast –  (Cfb) No winter months average below freezing, though cold rain, sleet, and an  occasional blizzard are common. Ireland. B. The Continental Climates – (D) Average at least one month below freezing during the winter. France/Germany C. The Mediterranean Climates –  (Csa) Characterized by a distinct dry season during the summer, which results from the  warm season expansion of the Atlantic. 5. What part of Europe is particularly affected by environmental pollution? Eastern Europe 6. What are the 4 most populated countries in Europe? France, UK, Germany, Italy 7. What are the concepts of “hard borders” and “soft borders” in the geography of “Fortress Europe?” ­Hard borders ­ on the EU's perimeter, especially in Spain, Italy, Slovakia, and Poland,  foreigners and foreign goods are subject to lengthy passport checks, visa requirements, and  searches  ­Soft borders ­ within European heartland involves little more than a visual check and a wave  from the border police, if there even is a border station 8. What was the intent of the Schengen Agreement that was signed in 1985? Gradual reduction of border formalities for travelers moving between EU countries. Though  reduced border formalities within western Europe seemed like reasonable and desirable goals in  1985, today the situation is much more complicated because of the large number of illegal  migrants from the former Soviet lands, Africa, and South Asia 9. What was it that was built in Berlin in 1961 and then torn down 28 years later in 1989? Berlin Wall ­ used to prevent the East Berlin population from fleeing East Germany 10. There are few very tall buildings in Paris, France. What is the reason for this? The city is build on catacombs ­ Making the foundations for large buildings are very unstable.  11. What are some of the Germanic languages spoken in Europe (see the map on page 354)? German, English, Dutch, an Finnish 12. What are some of the Romance languages spoken in Europe? French, Spanish, and Italian 13. What are some of the Slavic languages spoken in Europe? Polish, Czech, Slovakian 14. What was the Great Schism that occurred with the religions in Europe in 1054? Western and Eastern Christianity churches split from Rome. Eastern church splintered into  orthodox sects. 15. When did the Protestant Revolt (Reformation) occur in Europe? Split between Catholicism and Protestantism. This division arose in Europe during the 16th  century and has divided the region ever since, although with the exception of the Troubles in  Northern Ireland, tensions today between these two major groups are far less problematic than in  the past 16. What was the Jewish Pale in Europe? With the invitation from the Kingdom of Poland, Jews settled in cities and small villages in what  is now eastern Poland, Belarus, western Ukraine, and northern Romania. They hoped to find a  permanent homeland in Europe 17. What is the political and religious situation in Northern Ireland? Barbed wire fences and concrete barriers separate Protestant and Catholic neighborhoods in an  attempt to reduce violence between warring populations. Religious affiliation influences where  people live, work, attend school, shop...  18. Why do the authors of your textbook refer to France as the “... poster child for the antiglobalization struggle...?” High density apartments of French Muslims cause discrimination. Leaders wanted to ban head  scarf, which is important to Muslim women 19. What is the goal of the German skinheads? Exclude immigrants from their country. Want to embrace "pure and true" Aryan values. 20. According to your textbook, the Cold War ended in 1989. What was the event that ended this so­called war? When east and west Berliners joined forces to rip apart the Berlin Wall with jack hammers and  hand tools 21. After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles in 1918 redrew some of the borders of Europe. What were some of these border changes and what were some of the new countries that were created by this Treaty? ­Original: new states were Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia, Poland was reestablished, as were  the Baltic states of Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania  ­After: Yugoslavia divided, Czechoslovakia became Czech Republic and Slovakia 22. Why does your textbook refer to the Balkans as Europe’s Geopolitical Nightmare? It's a troublesome area with their complex mixture of languages, religions, and ethnic  allegiances, which, throughout history, has led to a political and often changing mosaic of small  countries 23. What does the term balkanization mean? Used to describe the geopolitical process of small­scale independence movements based upon  ethnic fault lines  24. Where did the industrial revolution start in Europe (what country and in what region of this country)? England­ The flanks of Pennine Mountain ­ between 1730 and 1850 25. London developed into the largest city of Great Britain despite the fact that it was far removed from the coal and iron deposits of the Pennine Mountains of north central England. What were some of the qualities that allowed London to emerge as the preeminent city of the United Kingdom? Railway networks and subways 26. By the 1820s, the world’s first industrial landscapes had appeared in the English Midlands and the Scottish Lowlands of the island of Great Britain. Where are the English Midlands located? (Figure 8.36 on page 380). Middle of the UK 27. During the early 1800s the industrial areas that developed in continental Europe (not Great Britain) developed near what main natural resource? (See Figure 8.34 on page 378). Coal 28. By the second half of the 1800s Europe’s dominant industrial center had shifted to what area in continental Europe? Ruhr district in northwestern Germany near the Rhine River 29. What was logic behind the creation of the European Union (EU)? That is, why has it been created? To create a larger European common market that would encourage the free movement of goods,  labor, and capital.  30. What are the 3 western or northern European countries that are not members of the European Union (EU)? Norway, Switzerland, Serbia, Bosnia, and Herzegovina 31. Why did some of the countries of Europe decide to form a Monetary Union called Euroland? Members increased the efficiency and competitiveness of both domestic and international  business. 32. After the Second World War, the economic path followed by eastern Europe was decidedly different from that of the more prosperous western and northern European countries. What happened in the countries of Eastern Europe that was different? They had a Soviet­dominated economic planning of the postwar period. It was an attempt to  develop eastern Europe's economy by coordinating resource usage in a way that also served  Soviet interests. When the Soviets took control of Eastern Europe, their goal was complete  economic, political, and social integration through a command economy, one that was centrally  planned and controlled. However, the collapse of that centralized system in 1991 threw many  eastern European countries into deep economic, political, and social chaos that has handicapped  the region 33. According to your textbook, a troublesome pattern of dual economies had emerged in eastern Europe. What does this mean? After Soviet Union collapse, some nations( like Yugoslavia and Poland) kept land in the hand of  private owners. In Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary, most land was converted to state­owned  farms. Soviet Union chose heavy industry like steel instead of consumer goods. The lack of  consumer goods have made eastern Europe struggle, unlike Western Europe.


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