Unit 2 Study Guide
Unit 2 Study Guide FAD2230
Popular in Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach
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Popular in Child and Family Studies
This page Study Guide was uploaded by mak15k on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FAD2230 at Florida State University taught by Dr. Chance Bell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Family Relationships: A Lifespan Development Approach in Child and Family Studies at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
Molly Kitchen 282016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES IBULDING RELATIONSHIPS CH 7 SINGLEHOOD doesn39t mean that you39re not in a serious or committed relationship 0 could be divorced or widowed How many stay single 0 Single and never married are about the same percentage up to the 3039s where the percent of single becomes greater than the percent of never married as age increases 0 Single typology 0 young collegeaged kids who are focused on other thin s school 0 chosen to stay single and is okay with it o someone looking for a relationship but can39t nd one o someone who wanted to form a relationship but has resigned to the fact that it probably won39t ever happen or a widow widower who chooses not to remarry after his or her spouse39s death FRIENDS This Emotional Life Video 0 Friendships provide They also help us solve problems and 0 quotYou can still be lonely in a crowdquot proves that c Number of friendships between sexes are about the same and are held with the same value but in general more verbal and selfdisclosing whereas with o In the friendships tend to be longer lasting and more personally intimate than those in the middle class The working class tends to spend work than the middle class vacations and independent work because of education 0 Hispanic and black youth are likely to have stronger friendships than Asian because the emphasis tends to fall on academics rather than social interactions CROSSSEX FRIENDSHPS Molly Kitchen 282016 0 They generally develop at school or work where the interaction between same sex individuals may be limited 0 Discussion Do you think that men and women can just be friends Why or why not Can a man and a woman have a strict friendship after they have already been in a relationship Why or why not Molly Kitchen 2122016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES IHETEROSEXUAL COHABITATION an arrangement of two people who are living together without being married O OOOOOOOO All groups About 44 before marriage From 2000 until now the number has doubled Convenience Financial Assess compatibility for marriage Avoid marriage expectations long term commitment Extension of dating Marriage alternative In a survey overall 46 of all groups think that cohabitation isn39t really a huge difference between marriage association between premarital cohabitation and pooper marital outcomes 0 O O O Pooper marital communication in general lower marital satisfaction higher domestic violence risk greater probability for divorce people who are willing to cohabitate are more willing to end a marriage as well Children in cohabitation O O O O 40 have kids married and cohabiters Effect depends on alternatives ie single mom mom and partner step parents etc Child outcomes parents who are married have kids who perform better in academics psychotically socially behaviorally and father involvement relationship idea of togetherness and shared meaning loyal long term commitment pressures to remain in the relationship even if they don39t want to nancial constraints children slowly start to live together sliding sleep over leave things etc vs sitting down and having a talk about what exactly is happening deciding People who decide instead of slide have much less problems than those who slide kind of mimics marriage as a whole vs cohabitating as a whole GAY AND LESBIAN RELATIONSHIPS APA American Psychological Association determined that most gays and lesbians are in a committed relationship Molly Kitchen 2122016 0 06 of population of households 0 Gay men have less desire to marry tends to be the case with heterosexual males as well couples on outcomes Molly Kitchen 2102016 FAD2230 LECTURE NOTES REVIEW 0 Singlehood o NeverMarried vs Single 0 How many people stay single 4 0 Single Typology voluntary involuntary temporarystable o Friendships can be bene cial 0 Race and ethnicity in social relationships CrossSex relationship possibilities 0 Micro vs Macro level factors affecting relationships IDATING o mechanism of finding a lifelong mate in order to have companionship to get married to share similar interests and beliefs fun and recreation social status intimacy sexual or emotional etc o dating relationships 0 spending time with the family for a couple days in order to get to know the young woman and her family 0 Necessity of marriage 0 and emergence of dating 0 Dating roles changed from what we knew in earlier America to these stigmas about guys asking the girls paying for the date driving opening doors and the girls are supposed to look pretty maybe prepare the details for the date etc o The because women have jobs so it is more acceptable for the women to help pay sometimes whereas then it was really taboo for the woman to ay 0 unequal emotional involvement between romantic partners that has implications for the quality and stability of relationships The person with the least emotional involvement has more power in the relationship The less interested the person is the less fear they have of being rejected 0 a set of expectations around dating that differ somewhat for men and women 0 Women go to the bathroom in pairs for some reason have to look a certain way 0 Men ask plan pay 0 How do you know when someone is in a committed relationship 0 Facebook status 0 Time people spend together 0 Holding hands 0 Wedding ring engagement ringWhy don39t guys have engagement rings Roles of the man providing asking through the ring Molly Kitchen 2102016 0 Dating trends 0 Teenagers don39t really go on dates just quothanging outquot with a group of friends that creates less pairing off 0 in relationships with people who are similar to us age race religion social class etc o living close to someone increases your chances of being in a relationship with them 0 the amount of girls guys who are available to you within your location 0 Where do we meet Molly Kitchen 2152016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES LOVE AND LOVING RELATIONSHIPS o What is love 0 commitment selfsacri ce affection pa ence optimism perseverance deep bond toward nother erson between two eo e o a strong emotional bond safe haven or secure base Video about monkey experiment with Wire mother verses Cloth mothergoes to Cloth mother consistent y quotHarlow39s Monkeys quot 0 Working Models way that we perceive ourselves and others Adult Attachment Styles cass def OOOOOO positive worthy of attention acceptance and love negative unworthy of attention acceptance or love positive trustworthy caring and accessible negative untrustworthy uncaring and rejecting Low AUIDAMEE A assume FREDCEUFIED 39r 139 Low 4 HIGH EHEIET I ANXIETY k IDIEMIEEIINIG FEAEFLIL A39v39ciilANiT Hr N IDANT HIGH AUGIDAHCE HISTORY OF LOVE Molly Kitchen 2152016 Classical stories o 0 marriage was practical 0 love didn39t always mean marriage sex was for procreation only o romantic love more prominent o romantic love ideals love at rst sight only one quottrue lovequot per person ove conquers a the beloved is nearly perfect should marry for love 19th century period 0 men and women in separate spheres 0 sexual behavior only vaginal intercourse between man and women 0 love and sexuality mandatory 0 sexual expression basis of marriage love 0 romantic love characterized by passion melodrama and excitement o Other cultures may think of romance as silly and unnecessary 0 Our culture views it as utmost importance when it39s not there then the relationship is lost 0 Not that importantor is it love type of love that grows over time and is based on strong commitment friendship and trust 21916 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES sees love as having three elements Love types Nonlove Empty love Liking Infatuated love Companionate love Fatuous love Romantic love Consummate love OOOOOOOO A categorization of six types of love that describe how couples are attracted to one another 0 passionate strong physical attraction o companionate mutual love All societies control the development of love to some degree 0 example video What are the bene ts What are drawbacks Can arranged marriages work How we Sex Gender and love 0 Men report falling in love sooner and with more people than women 0 Men are more preoccupied with love than women Samesex love 0 Primary difference from crosssex love is the prejudice and discrimination experienced Unrequited love 0 When one person s feelings are not reciprocated by the other person in the relationship is hard to do Some stats 0 50 of people have broken up with a partner at least twice 0 25 have been dumped 610 times 0 Among most distressing events severe emotional distress Principle of least interest 21916 What leads to breakups Stop communicating effectively Different interests or values Personality clashes Socioeconomic issues impacting income Adolescents in Romantic Relationships More likely to become depressed More likely to have alcohol and delinquency problems Tend to do poorly in school and with parental relationships Romantic relationships require emotional effort which can take away from other relationships 3162016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES THINKING ABOUT PARENTHOOD O O O a measure that is average number of children born to a woman during her lifetime number of children born per 1000 women ages 154449 number children born per 1000 population O o How do fertility rates Fate per 1000 50 O O O O 0 Great Depression 0 fewer people marrying marrying later 0 families splitting up for employment greater af uence marrying younger less working women motherhood as the primary cultural goal less women of childbearing age more women in college married women in workplace Feirtillity Rates per 1000wen1ein ages 15 l lL by Race anti lllisipanic Origin 2013 changing attitudes of women39s social and family roles compare among MenHispanicwhite 5512 IiiEmi Hispanic tsian or Pacific Islander Nen E lispanicbllaclit Nate Data fer Hispanics i39ncliiclle all persans at Hispanic ari gin at any race Scarce Martini 151 Hami lt an B E Dsterman WI i it EUErt in 5 EL El Mathews T i 2015 i39rths Final clata far 2013 Nati39anai Hitcl Statistics erparts 1501 Hyattssrille MID filatianal Center far Health Statistics httpj wmrccllcgawnchsfciatafnusnines r dji39nas rE l lpcif Tables 1 4 and O emotional and nancial costs direct nancial costs I American Indian er Alaska Native Chi 3 Trends I uiiraBAiNK 3162016 lost opportunity costs stress worry disappointment 0 Estimated 301907 to raise a child from 0 to 18 years old 0 emotional parents rate what is most ful lling in life 85 relationship with children 24 jobs careers joy purpose ful llment satisfaction 0 inability to have become pregnant after trying for a year 0 12 of aduts 7 million people 0 medical treatment all fertility treatments in which the egg or sperm or both are handled eggs removed surgically fertilized in a dish then implanted in women39s uterus need 34 attempts for success about 12000 per attempt giving birth to a child for another person or couple 39 lifestyle of surrogate renting bodies etc personal experience suffer loss on many fronts 0 135000 children adopted yearly 18501929 approximately 250000 relocated beginning of organized foster care in US 2222016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES SEXUAL IDENTITY BEHAVIOR AND RELATIONSHIPS OVERVIEW OF HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON SEXUALITY Mangaia of Polynesian Dani of Papa New Guinea Early American views of sex 0 and urbanization o mixing of sexes freedom and privacy 0 sexual grati cation became a right 0 increased birth control methods 0 most adults would approve of nonmarital sex 0 majority of Americans believe that it is morally acceptable to have children outside of marriage 0 longer duration of singlehood increases chances for nonmarital sex consider for a momentwhat does this say about our nation as a whole Sex and gender 0 biological differences and roles in reproduction o those born with genitalia that do not clearly identify them as unambiguously male or female Between 1 and 2 in 1000 people 00010002 o culturally and socially constructed differences between the meanings beliefs and practices associated with femininity and masculinity o feeling comfortable if not more so expressing gendered traits associated with the other sex 0 someone undergoes sex reassignment surgery or hormone treatments 00001 males 0000033 females 0 pattern of romantic and sexual partners of choice 0 heterosexual having an attraction and preference for developing romantic and sexual relations with someone for the opposite sex 0 homosexual same sex 0 bisexual both sexes o LGBT Population 34 of adults 0 many differing viewpoints 0 genes environment 0 nobody knows for sure 0 Attitudes toward LGBT community people believed differently up until about 2008 and now we are separated by opinion again 0 homosexuality is more socially acceptable 0 having strong negative feelings toward homosexuality What are your views on homosexuality survey 1 strongly agree gt 5 strongly disagree 2222016 PWFP P PP N 16 I worry that gay people will try to seduce me Gay people are immoral Homosexuality is acceptable to me I would not be good friends with someone is I knew he or she was gay I think gay people should not be teachers I usually laugh at gay jokes Marriage between gays is unacceptable I make jokes about gay people Gay people demand too many rights Organizations that promote gay rights are important and necessary I have made fun of a gay person to their face I have damaged the property of a gay person I would feel uncomfortable having a gay roommate Homosexual behavior should be against the law It would bother me to see gays kissing l have never met anyone who is gay What micro and macro level factors have shaped your views 2242016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES IGENDER AND SEXUAL SCRIPTS idea that men are allowed more permissiveness in sexual behavior than women Learning Activity 0 O 0 What do you believe or what do you think about the double standard Do you believe that it is fair What is your perspective from your own gender socially learned ways of responding to sexual situations 0 O sexual scripts p 176 a man39s looks are relatively unimportant but his status is enhanced if he39s with a beautiful woman the man always wants sec and is ready for it all physical contact leads to sex which equals intercourse which leads to orgasm a man is in charge sexual scripts p176177 females should be attractive but not too attractive women shouldn39t know too much about sex or be too experienced women shouldn39t talk about sex good girls don39t plan in advance to have sex or initiate it a man should know how to please a woman sex should lead to orgasm alone not other stimulation SEXUAL EXPRESSION THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES sexual behaviors O O oral sex duh cunnilingus women being stimulated and fellatio man being stimulated how many sexual partners do have in their lives OOOOO one12 men and 25 women 2416 men and 33 women 51026 men and 29 women 112018 men and 6 women 2120 men and 4 women 26 years develop understanding of gendered behavior 711 years some experiment with masturbation is a period when children sexually mature what are the trends in sexual activity 0 O 0 about 50 of all teenagers have had sex between grades 9 amp 12 about a third of all teenagers are currently sexually active a higher percentage of blacks and Hispanics are more likely to have had sex but there39s not a huge difference in the 9039s there was a much higher rate of teenage pregnancy than in 2011 almost double the rates in 2011could be because of increased use of birth control and because it is more socially acceptable and young adults 2242016 0 nonmarital sex sex prior to marriage 0 morality ages 1824 70 believe sometimes or not at all wrong ages 65 40 sometimes or not at all wrong 0 hooking up sexual intercourse without commitment or even affection for one another 0 how often does this occur West coast study 40 of students had hooked up southern study 52 males and 36 females stanford and indiana 75 hook up by senior year 0 reality men and women prefer dating over hooking up 0 casual sex related poor phychoogical wellbeing are pretty much the same as heterosexual stats just more acceptable of multiple partners 2262016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES SEXUAL EXPRESSION THROUGHOUT OUR LIVES CONT sex and the people still have sex when they39re old 0 both the of sex is associated with feelings of love for one39s spouse or partner 0 men are more likely to feel that a poor sex life undermines the entire relationship 0 women are more likely to feel that a relationship can still be good even is the sex life isn39t so great ICOMMUNICATION CONFLICT AND POWER IN OUR RELATIONSHIPS an interactive process using symbols like words and gestures to send and receive messages 0 communication both sending and receiving 0 process that is is different across social classes and racial groups 0 communication includes of meanings 0 communication uses symbols 0 Race ethnicity and communication 0 among American39s English can sound very different 0 between and within differences ldaho vs Alabama 0 working class compared to middle and upper class syntax and grammar process of giving thoughtful attention to what we hear Receiving FIGURE m A FiveStage Model of the listening Process This model which depicts the various stages involved in listening draws on a irarietr of previous models that listening researchers have developed fag Alessantira 1988 Barker 1999 Browneli 2910 Steil Barker and Watson 1983 In what 2262016 extremely attentive where the listener has good eye contact and body language and encourages the other person to continue to keep talking not focusing or paying attention to what the other person says spoken exchange of thoughts feelings or other messages 0 Potentiafor miscommunication words have several meanings using improper syntax quotI threw the horse over the fence some hayquot vs quotI threw some hay over the fence to the horsequot quotalways neverquot not actually what happensexaggeration people make statements that do not allow for change quotI thought you said you didn39t like tomatoesquot black or white extremes with no middle ground quotI39m right you39re wrongquot 0 Overcomin barriers for miscommunication your feelings rather than evaluate the behavior of others quotIquot statements rather than try to control others Be rather than manipulative rather than remain detached Be rather than rigid Present yourself as an rather than superior communicating without words by gestures expressions and body language Molly Kitchen 2172016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES THEORESTICAL PERSPECTIVE ON LOVE Figure 179 Why is it important to understand the following o theories of love 0 love types 0 how love develops to know if we are in a healthy relationship to get another perspective about what a relationship should be like evolutionary theory that all humans have an instinctive impulse to pass on genetic material 0 people we marry women older men higher status to support and protect men younger women most fertile humans are attracted to certain types of people at which point the brain releases natural chemicals that give us a rush we experience as sexual attraction Micro level perspectives sees love as having three elements intimacy passion and commitment Consummate Love Intimacy Passion Commitment a complete love consisting of all three components ah ideal difficult to attain According to Sternberg different types of love result when the three basic componentquot lll A Triangular Theory of Love his triangular theory occur in different combinations Sternberg has also explored fatmu associated with falling in love Sternberg Hojjat 2 Barnes 200i Preliminary results suggest that people who share similar views about what a loving relationship should hit like are much more likely to falll in love with each other and remain committed to tlw relationship than are people whose views on love are dissimilar Source Sterlnberg l 988 J Molly Kitchen 2172016 0 categorization of six types of love that describe how couples are attracted to one another how love develops Personality Need Ful llment Mutual Dependech l SellfalREvelatiinn 322016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES IWHAT IS MARRIAGE a legally and socially recognized relationship that includes sexual economic and social rights and responsibilities for partners Marriage occurs in Video about a successful marriage IMARRIAGE IN US HISTORY men and women functioned as one because the man had all the rights and represented both himself and the women in most all situations women gained rights and the quotonenessquot of marriage became lessideaHzed Industrial Revolution caused a middle stage of schooling and relationships within this stage that shifted the reasons of marriage from practicality to love even before the 607039s era there was premarital sex increase in education and college attendance What is most important in marriage 0 Love 88 0 Making a lifelong commitment 76 o Companionship 71 0 Having kids 49 0 Financial Stability 27 What is happening to marriage today 2 perspectives o the view that the institution of marriage is increasingly being threatened by hedonistic pursuits of personal happiness at the expense of longterm commitment increased divorce rates increased cohabitation increased childbearing outside of marriage 0 overall marriage is no weaker than in the past but that all families need an increase in structural support over time marriage has always had problems violence or desertion marry more intelligently now real threats social problems poverty discrimination poor schools lack of social services family issues result from social problems instead of causing them 0 What perspective do you prescribe to and why 3142016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES 0 Marital decline verses marital resilience perspective last notes 0 Currently 2013 O O O 0 about 50 men married and about 50 women married 3 men widowed 9 women widowed whites are generally married more than blacks and Hispanics the rates are declining across races from 1995 to 2013 O O 0000 career focus women aren39t as reliant on marriage to have a comfortable life since they can support themselves individually longer life span because of increased quality of life could possibly delay marriage increased cohabitation decreases need for marriage cultural shifts in values associated with marriage and singlehood occupational and educational opportunities with marriage and singlehood structural changes in the economy 00000000 00000 honesty communication nancial stability responsibility understanding quality and stability of parental relationships how you were raised frequent sex shared values and goals kids career traveling etc attitudes about nonmarital sex attitudes about cohabitation attitudes about nonmarital childrearing attitudes about shared breadwinning attitudes about division of labor in the household 2292016 FAD223O LECTURE NOTES On average 0 conversation is used to establish and maintain relationships smile more wider range of emotions via facial expressions and other nonverbal maintain more eye contact more quali ers quotit sort of seemsquot or quotI would like toquot more polite tone ask more questions more likely to show interest and concern more personal details and selfdisclosure prefer sidebyside talk verage exchange of information more direct more assertive more authoritative and absolute dominate in mixedsex contexts speak more frequently and longer speak of topics of interest interrupt more frequently 0 occupy more personal space 0 use hands when speaking o more likely to touch others 0 Why do men and women communicate differently o hormones OOOOOWOOOOOOOOO 0 nature and nurtureboth o telling a person something private about yourself that he or she would not otherwise know 0 Ranges in signi cance 0 Unity in Relationshipspotentia to build or corrode 0 When it39s bene cial there is reciprocity and disclosure is supported building trust 0 disagreements over decision making problem solving or achieving goals that can result from differences between group members in personality perception information tolerance for risk and power or in uence 2292016 Types of Conflict o avoidance o accommodate 0 competing o o compromising collaborating THE FOUR HORSEMEN liierhally attacking peraanallitlll er altaratter attacking aenae out aelt With an in tent lan39ta i nault hr peyichalaglcall39y39alhuae1 Seeing yitfith39ErEIf at the mirthn in etiarte ta ward ail a pereieeed attaekahd reverse the blame Withdrawing as a way to avoid cantlltzt in etiarts to Jamiey di 5a pproeal di at near and separati an feeling superior to your spousepartner such as rolling your eyes while the other is talking o selfprotection used when one perceives heshe is being attacked o attacking the partner39s personality or character ad hominem attack of the person instead of the issue at hand 0 withdrawing from the interaction physically or physchologically 2292016 0 challenging the authority and power of the other person testing them
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