Organizational Behavior ALL NOTES
Organizational Behavior ALL NOTES BADM 1101
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This 75 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annalea Soudry-Maurer on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BADM 1101 at George Washington University taught by Andy Cohen in Spring 2014. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business Administration at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Org Behavior 92515 541 PM Chapter 1 9 What is Organizational Behavior The importance of Interpersonal Skills Demonstrating the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace Developing managers interpersonal skills helps organizations attract and keep highperforming employees Outstanding employees are always short in supplies Strong social relationships among coworkers and supervisors were strongly related to overall job satisfaction and lower stress at work and lower intentions to quit Creating a pleasant workplace also appears to make good economic sense Managers get things done through other people 0 They make decisions allocate resources and direct the activities of others to attain goals 0 They do their work in an organization a consciousy coordinated social unit composed of two or more people that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals 0 managers are responsible for attaining goals in these organizations sometimes called administrators Planning defining an organization s goals establishing an overall strategy for achieving those goals and developing a comprehensive set of plans to integrate and coordinate activities Organizing designing an organization s structure It includes determining what tasks are to be done who is to do them how the tasks are to be grouped who reports to whom and where decisions are to be made Leading directing and coordinating people When managers motivate employees direct their activities select the most effective communication channels or resolve conflicts among members Controlling management must monitor the organization s performance and compare it with previously set goals as well as correct it Symbolichead required to perform a Responsible for the motivation and direction of employees 5911 M Description interpersonal Figurehead of a legal or social nature Leader Liaison Informational Monitor Disseminator Maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information Receives a wide variety of information serves as nerve center of internal and external information of the organization Transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization Transmits information to outsiders on organization39s plans Spokesperson I I policies actions and results serves as expert on organization39s industry Decisional Entrepreneur Searches organization and its environment for opportunities Disturbance handler Resource allocator Negotiator and initiates projects to bring about change Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important unexpected disturbances Makes or approves signi cant organizational decisions Responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations Informational Roles 0 Monitor role All managers collect information from outside organizations and institutions typically by scanning the news media and talking with others to learn of changes in the orm duties that are e liaison roles public s tastes competitor s planning etc o Disseminator role acting as a conduit to transmit information to organizational members 0 Spokesperson role representing the organization to outsiders Decisional Roles o Entrepreneur role managers initiate and oversee new projects that will improve their organization s performance o Disturbance handlers managers take corrective action in response to unforeseen problems 0 Resource aocators managers are responsible for allocating human physical and monetary resources 0 Negotiator role they discuss issues and bargain with other units to gain advantages for their own unit 0 Management Skills 0 Technical skills Encompass the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise All jobs require some specialized expertise and many people develop their technical skills on the job 0 Human skills the ability to understand communicate with motivate and support other people individually and in groups managers get things done through other people 0 conceptual skills mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations decision making the ability to integrate new ideas with existing processes and innovate on the job 0 Effective vs Successful Managerial activities 1 Traditional management decision making planning and controlling 2 Communication exchanging routine information and processing paperwork 3 Human resource management motivating disciplining managing conflict staffing and training 4 Network socializing politicking and interacting with outsiders 0 among effective managers communication made the largest relative contribution and networking the least 0 those who seek information from colleagues and employees and who explain their decisions are the most effective Enter Organizational Behavior OB is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals groups and structure have on behavior within organizations for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization s effectiveness It studies three determinants of behavior in organizations individuals groups and structure It applies the knowledge gained about individuals groups and the effect of structure on behavior in order to make organizations work more effectively It is the study of what people do in an organization and how their behavior affects the organizations performance It emphasizes behavior as related to concerns such as jobs work absenteeism employment turnover productivity human performance and management Includes the core topics of motivation leader behavior and power interpersonal communication group structure and processes learning attitude and development and perception change processes conflict work design and work stress Complementing Intuition with Systematic Study Systematic study of behavior is a means to making reasonably accurate predictions Using the term systematic study means looking at relationships attempting to attribute causes and effects and basing our conclusions on scientific evidence Evidencebased management EBM complements systematic study by basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence Systematic study and EBM add to intuition Relying on intuition is made worse because we tend to overestimate the accuracy of what we think we know Advising to use evidence as much as possible to inform your intuition and experience Disciplines that contribute to the OB Field 0 Psychology 0 seeks to measure explain and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals 0 learning theorists personality theorists counseling psychologists and most important industrial and organizational psychologists 0 learning perception personality emotions training leadership effectiveness needs and motivational forces job satisfaction decisionmaking processes performance appraisals attitude measurement employeeselection techniques work design and job stress 0 social psychology 0 blends concepts from both psychology and sociology to focus on peoples influence on one another 0 change how to implement it and how to reduce barriers to its acceptance 0 contributing to measuring understanding and changing attitudes identifying communication patterns and building trust 0 sociology 0 studies people in relation to their social environment or culture 0 study of group behavior in organizations particularly formal and complex organizations 0 organizational culture formal organization theory and structure organizational technology communications power and conflict 0 anthropology 0 study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities 0 work on cultures and environments to help us understand differences in fundamental values attitudes and behavior between people in different countries and within different organizations Challenges and Opportunities for OB Responding to Economic Pressures 0 During difficult economic times effective management is often at a premium 0 Difference between good and bad management can be the difference between profit and loss or survival and failure 0 Responding to Globalization 0 Organizations are no longer constrained by national borders 0 The world has become a global village 0 Increased foreign assignments if you re a manager you are increasingly likely to find yourself in a foreign assignment 0 Working with people from different cultures You ll find yourself working with bosses peers and other employees born and raised in different cultures Greater understanding of culture geography and religion and how they shape management style 0 Overseeing movement of jobs to countries with low cost labor Increasingly difficult for managers in advanced nations to compete against firms that rely on workers from China and other developing nations where labor is available very cheaply Jobs tend to flow where lower costs give businesses a comparative advantage Managers face the difficult task of balancing the interests of their organization with their responsibilities to the communities in which they operate 0 Managing workforce diversity Workforce diversity One of the most difficult challenges for organizations is adapting to people who are different Workforce diversity addresses differences among people within given countries Workforce diversity acknowledges a workforce of women and men many racial and ethnic groups individuals with a variety of physical or psychological abilities and people who differ in age and sexual orientation Managing diversity is a global concern 0 Improving Customer Service Substantial interaction with an organization s customers Management must ensure employees do what it takes to please customers Customerrepresentative culture OB can provide considerable guidance in helping managers create such cultures 0 Improving People Skills Learning ways to design motivating jobs techniques for improving your listening skills and how to create more effective teams 0 Stimulating Innovation and Change Successful organization must foster innovation and master the art of change or they ll become candidates for extinction Maintaining flexibility continually improving quality and beating the competition with a constant stream of innovative products and services OB provides a wealth of ideas and techniques to aid in realizing these goals 0 Coping with Temporariness Globalization expanded capacity and advances in technology have required organizations to be fast and flexible if they are to survive Most managers and employees today work in a climate best characterized as temporary Workers must continually update their knowledge and skills to perform new job requirements Managers and employees must learn to cope with temporariness flexibility spontaneity and unpredictability 0 Working in networked organizations Allows people to communicate and work together even though they may be thousands of miles apart Motivating and leading people and making collaborative decisions online requires different techniques 0 Helping employees balance worklife conflicts Employees are increasingly complaining that the line between work and nonwork time has become blurred creating personal conflicts and stress Todays workplace presents opportunities for workers to create and structure their own roles Employees want jobs that give them flexibility in their work schedules 0 Creating a positive work environment Some organizations are trying to realize a competitive advantage by fostering a positive work environment Positive organizational scholarshipbehavior studies how organizations develop human strengths foster vitality and resilience and unlock potential OB research engagement hope optimism and resilience in the face of strain reflected bestselfquot 9 asking employees to think about when they were at their personal best in order to understand how to exploit their strengths 0 Improving ethical behavior Increased facing of ethical dilemmas and ethical choices in which organizations are required to identify right and wrong conduct Managers are responding to the problem of unethical behavior in a number of ways writing and distributing codes of ethics to guide employees through ethical dilemmas Coming Attractions Developing an OB Model 0 A model is an abstraction of reality a simplified representation of some realworld phenomenon Inputs 0 Variables like personality group structure and organizational culture that lead to processes 0 These variables set the stage for what will occur in an organization later 0 Group structure roles and team responsibilities are typically assigned immediately before or after a group is formed 0 Organizational structure and culture are usually the result of years of development and changes as the org adapts to its environment and builds up customs and norms o Processes o If inputs are like the nouns in organizational behavior processes are like verbs o Processes are actions that individuals groups and organizations engage in as a result of inputs and that lead to certain outcomes 0 Emotions moods motivation perception and decision making 0 Communication leadership power and politics and conflict and negotiation 0 Human resource management and change practices 0 Outcomes o The key variables that you want to explain or predict and that are affected by some other variables 0 Scholars have emphasized individuallevel outcomes like attitudes and satisfaction task performance citizenship behavior and withdrawal behavior 0 Cohesion and functioning are dependent variables 0 Overall profitability and survival 0 Attitudes and Stress 0 Employee attitudes are the evaluations employees make ranging from positive to negative about objects people or events O 0 Stress is an unpleasant psychological process that occurs in response to environmental pressures Employees who are more satisfied and treated fairly are more willing to engage in the aboveandbeyond citizenship behavior so vital in the contemporary business environment Task performance 0 0 Combination of effectiveness and efficiency at doing your core job tasks is a reflection of your level of task performance Relate to the core duties and responsibilities of a job and are often directly related to the functions listed on a formal job description Citizenship behavior 0 Discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee s formal job requirements and that contributes to the psychological and social environment of the workplace Successful orgs need employees who will do more than their usual job duties who will provide performance beyond expectations Evidence indicates organizations that have such employees outperform those that don t OB is concerned with citizenship behavior as an outcome variable Withdrawal Behavior 0 The set of actions that employees take to separate themselves from the organization Showing up late failing to attend meetings absenteeism and turnover Employee withdrawal can have a negative effect on an organization Group Cohesion O The extent to which members of a group support and validate one another at work 0 Cohesive group is one that sticks together Group Functioning o In the same way that positive job attitudes can be associated with higher levels of task performance group cohesion should lead to positive group functioning o Refers to the quantity and quality of a group s work output 0 N effective group is one that stays focused on a core task and achieves its ends as specified 0 Productivity 0 An organization is productive if it achieves its goals by transforming inputs into outputs at the lowest cost 0 Productivity requires both effectiveness and efficiency 0 Survival 0 The final outcome we will consider is organizational survival which is evidence that the organization is able to exist and grow over the long term 0 Depends on how productive the organization is and how well it fits in with its environment 0 A company that is very productively making goods and services of little value to the market is unlikely to survivor for long 0 Survival factors in things like perceiving the market successfully making good decisions about how and when to pursue opportunities and engaging in successful change management to adapt to new business conditions Chapter 3 9 Attitudes and Job Satisfaction Notes a January 27th 2014 92515 541 PM We consider OB issues at 3 levels of aggregation Individual PairGroupTeam Organization Personality values Emotionsmoods Motivation Perceptiondecision making Team processes and cohesion Conflict Diversity Group and team composition Power and influence Leadership NeganUon communication Leadership Power and influence Networks Culture Organization structure Change management Human resource practices SkilIsabilityintelligence 0 Hard to avoid as it is a key driver of individual performance 0 Pp 5256 in the textbook Personality 0 Foundation of many OB issues 0 the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others 0 shapes how people perceive make decisions and form relationships 0 not that malleable thought to be established early and to remain relatively stable 9 can t really change your personality over time importance 0 job satisfaction 0 job performance 0 leadership traits and performance 0 organizational citizenship behaviors personality traits o habitual pattern of cognition affect behavior your typical attitude 0 something about you that is fairly consistent and not very malleable 0 each trait lies on a continuum most people fall in the middle judgments are relative 9 no absolute maximum or minimum Myers Briggs Type Indicator MBTI A common tool used in companies to help people understand theirs and others personalities Yes or no question 4 scales or axes o Introversion vs Extroversion o Intuition vs Sensing 0 Thinking vs Feeling 0 Judging vs Perceiving Safe globally common language that people can discuss as long as they are comfortable Problems with it o Invented by Carl Jung based on armchair philosophy not systematic empirical research or rigorous theory 0 Flawed typology Captures only a subset of the major dimensions of personality and cognitive style Some types are highly correlated suggesting that they are part of the same broader personality trait rather than distinct types Within the MBTI types several dimensions are forced to be opposites when they in fact tend to coexist Traits are normally distributed but the MBTI forces bimodality In reality personality traits are continuous not categorical The Big Five Personality Traits 0 Capture broad categories of personality Openness to experience Conscientiousness Extraversion Agreeableness Neuroticism 0 Best representation of core dimensions of personality Observer judgments of infantchildhood traits highly predictive of adulthood traits Relatively stable across lifespan o Empirically validated across cultures 0 O O O O O O 0 Personal Self Assessments o SelfAssessment Scores Extraversion 9 3225 Neuroticism 9 2735 Conscientiousness 9 3995 Openness 9 3645 Agreeableness 9 4615 Positive Affect 9 3805 Negative Affect 9 2805 Openness Consdentiousness Extaversion Agreeableness Neuroticism Curious Dependable Talkative Kind NervousAnxious Imaginative Organized Sociable Cooperative Moody Creative Reliable Assertive Sympathetic Emotional Artistic Ambitious Bold Helpful InsecureLaddng Comfortable with Hardworldng Dominant Courteous in con dence the familiar Persevering Uninhibited Warm Jealous Responsible Trusting Unstable More likely to feel stress Openness 0 might be so open that your creativity goes beyond the constraints you have in order to complete a project 0 too much verbalization by one individual may intimidate others 0 Conscientious 0 Highly conscientious people get their work clone and can potentially go up in the ranks 0 Get tunnel vision 9 do not like inefficiency must always be exactly on path Extroversion o Loving to be with people and deriving a lot of satisfaction from it 0 Great for team environments 0 Confidence may come across as being cocky and arrogant 0 Too busy talking to do much work Agreeable o Helps foster progress in the workplace by not derailing things 0 If you are very agreeable the people around you will be happier and have higher job satisfaction 0 Too afraid to contest ideas not as wiling to stand up for your own ideas 0 Not always that big a positive particularly when trying to get something clone 0 Neuroticism Overly emotional and difficult to deal with Think with your emotions rather than with logic More likely to feel stress therefore they are able to exceed in what is important because they want to avoid their high levels of stress 9 high conscientiousness Productive anxiety Create a sense of urgency Wet blanket on ideas 9 the person who has the strength to disagree with the idea Who benefits more from Facebook extraverts or introverts O Extraverts spend more time on Facebook but so do narcissists Extraverts have more friends Leadership is a game of interpersonal interaction and it is fundamentally easier for extraverts It is challenging for introverts to be strong leaders SelfDiscipline Facet of Conscientiousness O O 0 Early test of seconds preschoolers were able to delay choosing 1 marshmallow to get 2 marshmallows later predicts cognitive and social competence 13 years later SAT scores dealing with situations overall selfdiscipline is a strong predictor of college and high school GPA job performance ability to maintain relationships and friendships higher levels of happiness less abusiveaddictive behavior alcohol smoking binge eating An Exemplar Study Elementary school children followed for 6 decades 19281931 big five measured through interviews and surveys with participants parents teachers and research team observation 1990 final measures of income and job satisfaction 0 Results Childhood conscientiousness predicted higher annual income over the next 6 decades and job satisfaction Childhood neuroticism predicted lower income and job satisfaction 0 Personality and job satisfactionperformance 0 Higher average job satisfaction for Emotionally stable a Strong predictor across jobs but not as strong as conscientiousness Conscientiousness a Strong predictor of high performance across occupational groups n Measured in childhood strong predictor of occupational level and income Extraverted a Strong predictor forjobs involving social interaction In Stronger for teamwork than service jobs Agreeable o No differences for openness 0 Personality is a big component of FIT Personjob Fit personality knowledge and ability I How well does your personality match with the job People in jobs congruent with their personality should be more satisfied have lower turnover and higher performance 0 Other personality self assessments Values 0 Leadership identity Do you see yourself as a leader Do you want to be a leader Do you like being a leader Other traits in the book OOOOOO Self monitoring Narcissism Risk taking Machiavellianism Core self evaluation Type A Proactive personality Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable O 0 Big stance on capital punishment Smaller stance on punctuality Can be shaped by and linked to personality but don t need to be What s the difference 0 Personality is about how you generally function minute by minute Values are content rich and lead you to prioritize your time and effort PersonOrganization Fit a parallel to personjob fit 0 For personjob fit the focus is on personality knowledge skills and abilities For personorganization fit the focus is on values beliefs and attitudes How do managers use personality and other personal differences 0 O Selectionhiring Matching of people to jobrole 0 Motivation 0 Why does this mater 0 Selecting roles jobs and organizations where you have fit 0 Leveraging your strengths 0 Developing your weaknesses o Insulating yourself from your weaker areas TEAMS What is a team and why use one 0 Two or more people 0 Work interdependently 0 Shared goal 0 Mutual accountability Why teams 0 Process gain Extra performance over that of the individuals working on their own gained by the team working together 0 Process loss The reduction in performance over that of the individuals working on their own that results from the team working together 0 Synergy 9 process gain gt process loss 0 When the interactive efforts of two or more people have a greater impact than the sum of their independent efforts 0 Team charter 0 Purpose Clarify team goals organization operating procedures and how team members will work together to achieve team goals 0 Content Project purposegoals and key milestones Team membershiproles and responsibilities Team norms Performance monitoring and management Communication plan High level plan Team member directory 0 Process Develop collaboratively with the team Have all team members approve and sign the charter 0 Team Roles Groups of behaviors in which individuals engage in a team Describe different ways in which individuals contribute to a team 0 Individual team role preferences The roles that an individual generally prefers to play in a team 0 Norms Shared expectations that guide behaviors in groupsteams Tell members of a group what they ought and ought not to do under certain circumstances A powerful regulating force Norms may or may not be articulated written down functional Once set they are difficult to change Emotions in Organizations 4 8 5 3 thII The Historical Model CognitionsThoughtsFacts 9 DecisionsActions 9 FeelingsEmotions myth of rationality favored by economists 0 we try to stamp out emotionality we believe that only negative emotions are observed 0 only talkedworried about emotions when bad things happened The New Model Cognitions Thoughts Facts Decisions Actions emotions guide our cognitive processes and our decisions 0 but our emotions are susceptible to what happens and what we re thinking Emotions also known as Affect Affect a broad range of feelings or emotions that people experience 0 While not universally accepted there appear to be six basic emotions o Anger Fear Sadness Happiness Disgust Surprise Embarrassment Jealousy Anxiety Love Excitement OOOOOOOOOO Emotions o A feeling that emerges tied to a specific event or moment eg I m angry right now 0 Usually the most intense experience 0 May dissipate quickly 0 Moods State Affect o The emotions or feelings you have in general time frame today right nowquot 0 Not completely situational 0 Not as intense as a momentary emotion Trait Affect o The emotions or feelings that you generally feel over the course of your life 0 Like a personality trait enduring Positive Affect PA 0 Emotions that express favorable states 0 The extent to which you feel enthusiastic active and alert 0 Somewhat correlated with extraversion 0 Negative Affect NA 0 Emotions that express unfavorable states o The extent to which you feel distress and other unpleasurable feeHngs 0 Somewhat correlated with neuroticism 0 Can be both trait and state 0 Not the opposite of each other 0 Being low on a scale can be counterintuitive 0 Low PA bored or sad 0 Low NA calm or serene The Affective Circumplex Unpleasant Pleasant High Negative Affect New s Excited Eloled Content Serene Relaxed Circle 9 two different dimensions 0 Vertical red line 0 Everything to the right is pleasant 0 Everything to the left is negative 0 Horizontal red line 0 Everything above is more intense 0 Everything below is less intense Happiness high PA is useful Correlation with Happiness Health Li keabi lity We behavior OCB Creativity and Problem Solving Work Life Positive People Perceptions o a lot of research that tells us that people s emotional state does affect things that happen in organizations 0 how correlated are these other outcomes in life with people s emotional makeups People who have high positive affect tend to see other people more positively Really Sadder but wiser vs happier and smarter Questions 0 Does being high PA help or hinder one s performance on complex tasks 0 Does being high PA help or hinder one in interacting with others 111 first year MBAs at UC Berkley Performance assessed on 3 hour in basket exercise 0 Test of decision making and prioritizing abilities Interpersonal skills assessed in Group Decision Making exercise 0 Peer ratings 0 Third party observers Positive affect assessed by self report and third party observers Resuks 0 High positive affect students delivered significantly higher decision accuracy 0 High positive affect students performed better on interpersonal tasks Emotions and emotion management are inputs Managers select people or should based on Trait Affect and personality Managers can create an environment that leads to more positive emotions Affect is also important in groups Affective Tone average level of positive affect 0 Teams with high affective tone perform better Affective Diversity differences in trait affect among team members 0 Affective diversity leads to conflict and poor performance for team 0 Affective FIT leads to perceptions of influence and team harmony 0 Sample of top management teams in Fortune 500 Mood Induction Because moods are short lived they are quite malleable unlike personality We can induce moods by taking conscious steps to do so Others might include being around someone laughingsmiling watching a funny movie clip etc Key point we can do this at work with coworkers bosses and employees all the time Moods can also come from 0 Time of day day of week 0 Weather 0 Personality 0 Events at work affective events theory o How you wake up 0 Work environment 0 Coworkers Emotional Contagion o Moods can be passed from person to person quite quickly 0 Moods can be caught like a cold 0 The process Emotions cued by sender nonverbals body language tone laughter Receiver picks up on emotion subconsciously and may even mimic it back encoding it The mimicking leads to the receiver experiencing the emotion itself 0 Occurs In groups n In the lab actor induces positive mood with the rest a Groups with positive mood perform better Emotional Labor Expressing organizationally desirable emotions during interpersonal interactions at work 0 Very important for jobs that rely on interpersonal interaction 0 Pioneering work by Hochschild 1985 examining Delta flight attendants Emotional Labor 2 Felt emotions vs displayed emotions 0 Surface acting displayed emotions don t match felt emotions 0 Can be very stressful 0 May lead to acting out Jet blue flight attendant 0 Deep acting attempting to change felt emotions such that they match displayed emotions Emotional Intelligence The scholar s preferred definition the set of abilities that account for how people s emotional perception and understanding vary in their accuracyquot 0 Ability to perceive and express emotion 0 Self and other Assimilate emotion in thought 0 Essentially including emotions in the data that we analyze when making decisions and assessments Understand and reason with emotion 0 Being able to understand Regulate emotion in oneself and others 0 Using the above knowledge to shape emotions Emotional intelligence is not 0 Empathy warmth caring 0 Yet these are very useful emotional intelligence can be used for evil as well Theory and Practice in Motivation Performance Motivation x ability Motivation the processes that account for an individual s intensity direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal specifically an organizational goal 6 motivational theories McLelland39s Theory of Learned Needs Implications for motivating employees Motivate those high in need for achievement by o Nonroutine challenging tasks with clear goals 0 Prompt and frequent feedback 0 Increasing responsibility Motivate those high in need for power by o Allowing them to control and plan their work 0 giving them responsibility for whole task 0 allowing them influence in decision making 0 Motivate those high in need for affiliation by 0 Including them in team and collaborative efforts 0 Providing support and recognition 0 Encouraging them to develop and mentor others Deci39s Self Determination Theory 0 Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation Intrinsic motivation people engage in activities because they inherently derive enjoyment from them Extrinsic motivation people engage in activities due to the potential for rewards and punishments that others link to the activities 0 Compensation termination Basic nding people prefer to feel they have control over their actions so anything that makes a previously enjoyed task feel more like an obligation than a freely chosen activity will undermine motivation Herzberg39s Model Twofactor theory 0 Key point 1 Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are not opposites but separate constructs Hygiene Extrinsic and Intrinsic and Related to land Related to Key point 2 hygiene factors must be met to remove dissatisfaction Then satisfaction can occur Adam39s Equity Theory 0 Focuses on people s perceptions of fairness of outcomes in proportion to inputs Equity exists when a person perceives hisher outcomeinput ratio to be equal to a referent s ratio Outcome pay promotion status Input effort hours attention Does it really work 0 Field experiment among insurance underwriters o 3 levels of underwriter with 3 different office sizes and configurations 0 management randomly reassigned 92 people some moving to bigger offices and some to smaller but didn t change their work 0 people who got bigger offices began to increase their productivity 0 people who got smaller offices reduced their productivity 0 the reduction was bigger than the increase 0 two level changes had a bigger impact than one of level changes 0 its about money more or less 0 we can t compare across different jobs 0 what about competition We want to be paid more because we re doing better work Job Design Hackman and Oldham 0 Two basic approaches 0 Taylorism School Specialization efficiency and the one best wayquot Scientific management 0 Human Relations School Variety satisfaction and empowerment Hackman and Oldham s Job Characteristics model 0 Job Characteristics Skill variety Employee uses a wide range of skills Task identity Worker is involved in all tasks of the job from beginning to end of the production process Task significance Worker feels the task is meaningful to organization Autonomy Employee has freedom to schedule tasks and carry them out Feedback Worker gets direct information about how well the job is done The Model Jz Jh Charmin iSIICS Outcomes idonmy Talk Iioniiioanoo High motivation Autonomy r gt High podormanoo High sauoiaciion Comparing the Approaches fundamental differences 0 Scientific Management Managers know best People are motivated extrinsically 0 Job characteristics model Employees have insight into their jobs People are motivated by challenging work VIEGoal SettingSelf Efficacy VroomLockeBandura Expectancy Instrumentality Valence Perception about the Perception about the Desirahility of extent to which extent to which the outcomes effort will result in performance will available performance result in attaining desired outcomes Locke39s GoalSetting Theory 0 Basic premise specific and difficult goals with selfgenerated feedback lead to higher performance 0 Difficult goals Focus and direct attention Energize the person to work harder Difficulty increases persistence Force people to be more effective and efficient 0 Key point goals are ultimately internalized as personal goals 0 relationship between goals and performance depends on goal commitment the more public the better task characteristics simple welllearned culture best match is in North America Bandura s Selfefficacy theory 0 An individual s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task Higher efficacy is related to a Greater confidence a Greater persistence in the face of difficulties a Better response to negative feedback work harder Selfefficacy complements GoalSetting Theory Increased Con dence Given Hard Goal Higher Performance Higher SelfSet Goal 0 increasing selfefficacy Enactive mastery a Most important source of efficacy n Gaining relevant experience with task or job a practice makes perfectquot vicarious modeling a increasing confidence by watching others perform the task a most effective when observer sees the model to be similar to him or herself verbal persuasion a motivation through verbal conviction n Pygmalion and Galatea effectsself fulfilling prophecies Arousal n Getting psyched upquot emotionaly arousedto complete a task a Can hurt performance if emotion is not a component of the task Goals the dark side Psychologists have used experiments to demonstrate that the benefits of goalsetting reverse when the goals are too high 0 Reduction in helpcooperation 0 Increase in overstatement of results Schweitzer Implications for Motivating Employees 0 Set specific challenging goals 0 Be sure employees believe they can achieve those goals Reward goal achievement 0 Pay promotions sense of achievement social recognition freedom impact affiliation etc 0 Beware The Folly of Rewarding A While Hoping for B Money and Motivation 0 Money has a role 0 Macro target banker vs school teacher 0 Hygiene a minimum standard 0 Equity theory and fairness It is limited 0 Extrinsic motivator will crowd out intrinsic motivation Beyond money for superior performance 0 Autonomyempowermentjob design 0 Passion and interestintrinsic motivation 0 Self efficacy 0 Personal goals Teams II Groups vs Teams 0 Group 0 Two or more people 0 Commonsimilar goals 0 Common identity 0 Collective norms Teams 0 Group with Complementary skills Committed to a common purpose Shared performance goals Hold themselves mutually accountable OOOO Types of Teams Cross Functional members composed of people from different departments ProblemSolving knowledgeable workers who meet as a temporary team to solve a particular problem and then disband Quality Circle workers and supervisors meet periodically to discuss workplace and qualityrelated issues Selfmanaged members are trained to do all or most of the jobs no direct supervisor do their own supervision Top management CEO and other top department heads of an organization or corporation Virtual members interact by computer and phone to collaborate on projects Work members engage in collective work requiring coordinated effort A Key determinant Interdependence Goal Task Outcomesrewards 1 Pooled all members work separately towards 1 main outcome 2 Sequential member 1 9 member 29 member 3 9 member 4 9 output 3 Reciprocal member 1 and 2 work together Member 2 connects to member 3 3 and 4 work together and everyone works towards one output 4 Comprehensive everyone works together towards 1 output Critique of the Tuckman39s FiveStage Model 0 Assumption the group becomes more effective as it progresses through the first four stages 0 Not always truegroup behavior is more complex 0 High levels of conflict may be conducive to high performance 0 The process is not always linear 0 Several stages may occur simultaneously 0 Groups may regress Ignores the organizational context Alternative Model for Team Formation Gersick PunctuatedEquilibrium model High 8 E l I it Phase2 Completion 5 First 039 Meeling I 4 Transilion Phase 1 l l 1 low A AB2 B Time IPO Model of Team Effectiveness Individual eg personality Team Behaviors Team Eg EUGDEFH U39UW Performance decision making Earning Individual Team Member eg skills size Satisfaction relationships T States EHITI eg conflict trust 39 T93W cohesion purpose Viab llty Orgam39latlon mental models eg cu iture leadership rewards Team inputs Team Size 0 Large teams 10 or more members 0 Advantages resources and division of labor 0 Disadvantages low cohesion and risk of social loafingfree riding Small teams 29 members 0 Advantages better interactions and morale o Disadvantages fewer resources and unequal work distribution Team Inputs Team composition 0 Skills and experience 0 Research suggests that teams with diverse skill sets and backgrounds will generate more ideas and better results 0 Demographics Gender Ethnicity 0 Diversity is often a source of conflict 0 Personality and Motivators 0 Differences are often a source of conflict Organizational Level Inputs 0 Resources 0 Do you have the tools to complete the job 0 Leadership 0 Does management communicate with the team or with individuals Reward Systems 0 Are outcomes measured and rewards assigned at the team level 0 Between team communications 0 Do teams have access to key information Teamwork training and development 0 Do team members receive training and coaching on how to function on a team Types of Team Behaviors Action Behaviors occurs after planning processes as team members work on task 0 Checking o Cooperation 0 Coordinating Interpersonal Behaviors relate to the manner in which team members manage their relationships throughout the lifecycle of the team 0 Conflict management Depersonalized focused on merits of ideas plans and projects Maintains respect for others Stimulates creativity and enhances decision quality through constructive criticism consideration of different perspectives and stimulation of discussion 0 Affect management 0 Confidence building and motivation Conflict Tipping Point POSlitiVE Di39i Performance Negative Impact l IOiiillrdI l IQIlll Illl39 On Performanoe Task Con ict Relationship Con ict Two Kinds of Trust 0 Instrumental 0 Trust in the behaviors of others consistency competency reliability Eg he s predictable We can trust both friends and enemies under this definition Critical to executing in teams When you say you re going to do something we can rely on it Affective OOO Rooted in shared values emotions and destinies Eg she s got my back Allows for productive task conflict without relationship conflict Effects Without affective trust Task conflict 9 relationship conflict 9 poor performance With affective trust task conflict 9 problem solving 9 good performance How do we obtain affective trust It helps to have shared interests and history Instrumental trust My team and group first Conflict management that is cooperative Open and honest dialogue Critique of ideas not people Equal distribution of influence and voice Beware Teams aren39t always the answer 0 Teams take more time and resources than does individual work 0 Three tests to see if a team fits the situation 0 Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectiveswill it be better with the insights of more than one person 0 Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals 0 Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks TakeAways 0 Teams are groups with shared purpose and goals 0 Many factors influence team performance Tricky issues of team rewards Psychological safety and team learning are particularly important 0 Team performance often hinges on conflict and trust dynamics Perception amp Decision Making Decisions are at the heart of organizational life 0 Managers and leaders 0 What businesses should I be in o What goals should I set for my employees 0 Should I hire this candidate 0 Employees and organization members 0 Do I want this job 0 How hard will I work 0 What approach should I take to getting this work done 0 Can I trust my manager My coworker Decision Making 0 The process of identifying and choosing alternative courses of action to meet the demands of a situation 0 Response to a problem andor an opportunity DecisionMaking models in organizations 0 Rational Decision Making the economist s view 0 The perfect worldquot model assumes complete information all options known and maximum payoff o Sixstep decision making process 0 Intuition o A nonconscious process created from distilled experience that results in quick decisions Relies on holistic associations Affectively charged engaging the emotions Bounded Rationality Herbert Simon won Nobel prize for this concept 0 The real worldquot model seeks satisfactory and sufficient solutions from limited data and alternatives 0 Uses heuristics exemplars and shortcuts 0 Subject to biases We do this every day 0 Leaders and managers do it in setting strategy Influences on the decision making process creating shortcuts In uences on Decision Making The Decislon Maker Ethics in Decision Making Utilitarianism Decisions made based solely on the outcome Seeking the greatest good for the greatest number Dominant method for businesspeople Pro promotes efficiency and productivity Con can ignore individual rights especially minorities Rights Decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges Respecting and protecting basic rights of individuals such as whistleblowers Pro protects individuals from harm preserves rights Con creates an overly legalistic work environment Justice Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially Equitable distribution of benefits and costs Pro protects the interests of weaker members Con encourages a sense of entitlement 0 Practical 0 Decisions that withstand the scrutiny of a typical member of society 0 grandmother testquot or carl testquot 0 pro typically defensible 0 con actions to protect minority groups may not be seen as appropriate by masses What is Perception o a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment 0 people s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is not on reality itself 0 the world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important Perceivers and Targets Factors that affect perception Aboutthetarget 0 00000 O Noveky Mo on Sounds Background Ste SHnHarty Proximity 0 About the perceiver O 0000 Attitudes beliefs personality emotion Interests Mo ves Expe ence Expectations Worldlswua on The situation or environment 0 Time Less time means less attention to details more use of short cutsquot 0 The setting What s accepted and what is in background mode Perception of People Team Member Peer Evaluations Descri an Attendance and Extent to which this team member had participation in team timer attendance at group meetings was activities in and out well prepared and engaged and actively of class participated in the both in and out of class team meetingsfae vities Quantity and quality Extent to which the team member assumed of work output fair share of workload and produced work of high quality that made a positive contribution to the team s task deliverables Interaction with team Extent to which the team member had good members interpersonal interactions with team members and handled con ict constructively Attribution Theory Judging Others 0 Our perception and judgment of others is shaped by assumptions of the other person s internal state Internally vs externally caused 0 Internal causes are under that person s control 0 External causes are not under the person s control Errors and biases in attributions Fundamental attribution error 0 Others behavior driven by internal factors 0 My behavior driven by external factors 0 We blame people first not the situation Selfserving bias 0 Our success is driven by internal factors and our behavior 0 Our failures are driven by external factors often beyond our control 0 It is our success but their failure 0 Companies do this in annual reports Frequently Used Shortcuts in judging others 0 Selective Perception 0 People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests background experience and attitudes HaloHorns effect 0 Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic Recency Effect 0 Arriving at an impression based on the more recent interactions with a person 0 Contrast Effect 0 Evaluation of a person s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics A twist on contrast effects 0 Can be used to evaluate oneself not just others 0 Study 1992 Olympic medal winners Medvec Madey and Gilovich 1995 0 Students viewed videos of medal ceremonies without sounds or captions 0 Students assessed the relative happiness of the gold silver and bronze medal winners 0 Happiest gold 0 Next happiest bronze 0 Least happy silver contrast effect 0 silver looking up at what might have been 0 bronze looking down and happy to be at bronze Another Shortcut Stereotyping 0 Judging someone on the basis of ones perceptions of the group to which that person belongs o Commonly used 0 Not always accurate 0 Example women are more empathic than men 0 Example university A has er students than university B o Profiling o a form of stereotyping in which members of a group are singled out for intense scrutiny based on a single often racial trait Stereotyping is alive in hiring gender in orchestra auditionsquot Golden and Rouse 2000 o historically orchestra conductors were open about their belief that women were not as capable as orchestra members blind vs nonblind auditions 0 over 7000 auditions in total limited sample to candidates who had both blind and nonblind at some point 0 when blind the likelihood of advancing or getting hired was statistically the same for men and women 0 when not blind men had a distinct advantage Specific shortcut applications in organizations 0 Employment interview 0 Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviews judgments of applicants 0 Formed in a single glance 110 of a second 0 Performance expectations o Selffulfilling prophecy the lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities Performance evaluations 0 Appraisals are often the subjective judgmental perceptions of appraisers of another employee s job performance 0 Critical impact on employees Common Biases and errors in decision making Anchoring bias 0 Using early first received information as the basis for making subsequent judgments Confirmation bias 0 Selecting and using only facts that support our decision 0 Availability bias 0 Emphasizing information that is most readily at hand recent vivid We miss the possibility of big unusual events 0 We overdo our response after one Confirmation Bias in Action 0 Researchers at the CIT and the Stanford Business School 0 21 volunteer wine drinkers o as they tasted wine researchers measured sensations in the medial orbitofrontal cortex the part of the brain where flavor responses apparently register 0 all were told the price of the wine but 0 they tasted one wine twice but were told different prices 0 they preferred the wine that was seemingly more expensive 0 demonstrated that the more expensive consumers think a wine is the more pleasure they are apt to take in it More common decisionmaking errors Overconfidence bias 0 Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions especially when outside of own expertise Escalation of commitment 0 Increasing commitment to a decision in spite of evidence that it is wrong especially if responsible for the decision 0 Randomness error 0 Creating meaning out of random events superstitions Winner39s curse 0 Highest bidder pays too much due to value overestimation o Likelihood increases with the number of people in auction Hindsight bias 0 After an outcome is already known believing it could have been accurately predicted beforehand Organizational Constraints 0 Performance evaluationreward systems 0 Managerial evaluation criteria influence actions 0 Formal regulations 0 Limit the alternative choices of decision makers Systemimposed time constraints 0 Restrict ability to gather or evaluate information 0 Historical precedents 0 Past decisions influence current decisions 0 we don t do that herequot Groups and Organizational Culture Organizationalllly de ned Geograpth Function Market EAMS are a special case HE WHOLE ORGANIZATION Is a special case A function of who you are Demographics Past am not remain salient Interesls Beliefs Why do organizations create formal groups Managing span of control Coordinationsharing of information Efficiencies speedcost Effectiveness product amp service quality Commitment and retention Why do people join groups Similarityhomophin within the group 9 comfort learning Uncertainty reduction 9 this is what the group does or stands forl Distinctiveness and status between groups In OB we care about groups beyond teams because they influence YOUR behavior Between group differences and competition social identity theory Normssocial influence Roles Cohesiveness Internal status differentials Intergroup Competition 0 Groups compete for 0 Resources money staff promotions 0 Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others A source of self esteem Status between groups Social Identity Theory 0 Group membership creates identities o of ourselves o reputations we hold of others 0 becomes less about the individual person and more about the group he or she is part of 0 all routed in categorization you re an XX while I m a Wquot 0 different companies have different status centers 0 proctor and gamble sales 0 Kraft foods brandproduct managementmarketing o Pepsico finance 0 Capital One marketing and analytic functions Norms Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group s members 0 Generally not written down Types of norms Performance norms 9 level of acceptable work 0 Appearance norms 9 what to wear 0 Social arrangement norms 9 friendships and the like 0 Allocation of resources norms 9 distribution and assignments of jobs and material Asch Experiments in Conformity Which line is closest in length to the standard Standard An odd example of conformity in action Moskowitz 9 behavioral economist at Chicago Wertheim 9 sports journalist 0 Home field advantage is a function of referee bias which is a function of the unconscious effects of social pressure 0 Several pieces of evidence 0 Attendance effects 0 Replays of games with and without crowd noise Organizational Culture Schein Definition a pattern of basic assumptions values beliefs and behaviors This pattern is taken for grantedquot in the organization and is taught to new members as the correct way to perceive think and feel 0 A strong culture united the members of an organization 0 A strong culture doesn t necessarily mean a good culture Group Norms vs Organizational Culture Group or team norms acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the groups members Organizational structure acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by eh group s members Other artifacts Shared values and beliefs Shared assumptions Often institutionalized through policy procedure and staffing Culture as an Iceberg most is under the surface ARTIFACTS STATED WHAT DO WE THINK WHAT DO WE TAKE L NORMS ETC I u g N M Values 3 beliefs FOR GRANTED 13 Common organizational culture values Outcome Orientation achievement results amp action oriented Team orientation collaboration team players People orientation respect for individual fairness tolerance Attention to detail analytical precise detailoriented Innovation risktaking experimenting Stability security predictability Aggressiveness competitive aggressive o More management support control rewards tolerance of conflict communication patterns physical safety etc Elements of Strong Cultures Widely shared philosophy of norms and values Charismatic leaders or heroes Ritual and ceremony o Other shared or common behaviors 0 Clear expectations about the direction of the organization Why do we care about culture 0 it shapes how people behavethats the essence of groups 0 who gets hired 0 who stays in the organization 0 how flexible the organization is The Positives Personorganization fit Clarity of behavior and often purpose 0 Effectiveness of recruitingselection The Liabilities Institutionalization of deviant behavior Fairly inflexible to strategic change amp mergers and acquisitions Not a great environment for diversity unless we build a culture of diversity Bottomup the ASA model Schneider 1983 o Attraction 0 People are attracted to organizations that they fit in terms of personality values beliefs etc o Homophily 0 Selection 0 Organizations select individuals who hold the attributes they desue Attrition 0 Any errors in the attractionselection phases will be corrected by attrition firing and turnover 0 Where does it start Primacy of the founder o The founder of an organization kicks off the ASA cycle 0 Key individuals early in an organization s life join the founder and are a reflection of the founder s characteristics and values 0 Implications drive towards homogeneity Over time ASA cycles result in organizational homogeneity Topdown Socialization Processes Formal and informal ways of communicating the norms values and beliefs of an organization 0 Formal training programs 0 Informal afterwork gatherings social events 0 Drive towards homogeneity 0 Over time powerful socialization results in organizational homogeneity How employees learn culture 0 Stories 0 Anchor the present into the past and provide explanations and legitimacy for current practices Rituals o Repetitive sequences of activities that express and reinforce the key values of the organization 0 Material symbols 0 Everything one can visualize hear even smell in the organization communicates cues about the culture attire signs diplomas titles 0 Language 0 Jargon and special ways of expressing one s self to indicate membership in the organization ASA and Socialization operate hand in hand TOP I V monogomanl 39 Philmophy Of Selection 1 i organization 5 cnlenu cull39um founders 39 Sociolizolion The tough job of changing or blending cultures 0 Leaders must articulate a new vision amp serve as new role models 0 Fill key positions with individuals who endorse new values and define goals and means to achieve them 0 Modify performance evaluations to include behavior consistent with new values 0 Systematically reward behaviors consistent with new values and discourage adherence to the old system 0 Destroy myths artifacts and symbols supporting the old system replace with new ones 0 Modify structural arrangements to support cultural shift Diversity the degree to which our groups organizations communities etc are composed of people with differences Diversity is rooted in individual differences 0 Surfacelevel differences 0 Easily observable characteristics 0 Age sex ethnicity height skills and functional expertise 0 Issues show up early Deeplevel differences 0 Underlying difficulttoobserve characteristics 0 Personality background values beliefs attitudes 0 Issues show up later Diversity hot buttonquot issues The ethical imperative for equal opportunity do we want to treat people fairly and what is fair anyway Legal consequences of unfair treatment Diversity s positive effect on organizational performance are we sure it s positive The continuing bias toward diverse individuals why does this happen Four common arguments for increasing workforce diversity Varied experiences of diverse employees can improve managerial decisionmaking o Broader range of creative ideas 0 Different approaches to problemsopportunities 0 Knowledge about heterogeneous customers Diversity can increase the retention of valued organizational members Being fundamentally open to all groups deepens the recruiting pool Diversity is expectedrequired by other firms What does research tell us Many conflicting findings Not a simple relationship between diversity and performance or diversity and conflict We can say that diversity is a doubleedged sword 0 Offers benefits of creative problem solving 0 Also offers the costs of increased relationship conflict How do we get the benefits while avoiding the costs Diversity in the executive suite Fortune 500 39 African 39 26 Americans Asians 29 Hispanics 26 Group Decision Making Carter Racing Case Discussion Distributed or hidden information is common in teams 0 Upside of teams and groups great amount of resource knowledge and expertise 0 Potential downside its not always organized you don t know what you don t know 0 How do you beat this ask what we are missing engage objective third parties Carter Racing 0 Should the carters race today 0 Protagonists 0 B Carter co owner 0 Chris Carter co owner 0 Robin Burns chief mechanic 0 Pat Edwards engine mechanic More escalation of Commitment Examples ROTC membership in Vietnam war 0 Recruits who found they wouldn t have been drafted were more motivated to pursue a military career to justify initial investment 0 Banks making problem loans 0 Higher turnover of senior bank managers 9 deescalation of commitment to bad loans 0 NBA teams 0 Amount of money spent on players predicts amount of playing time and tenure on the team even after controlling for performance Cognitive Dissonance Leon Festinger 0 Cognitive Dissonance any incompatibility between 2 or more attitudes or between behaviors and attitudes 0 Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap or dissonance to reach stability and consistency 0 Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes modifying the behaviors or through rationalization Desire to reduce dissonance depends on 0 Importance of elements 0 Degree of individual influence 0 Rewards involved in dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Fuels Escalation but I m a good personquot 0 police officers and prosecutors rejecting DNA evidence exonerating victims that they imprisoned psychotherapists refusing to admit planting false memories 0 soldiers blaming amp dehumanizing innocent victims 0 Ford Pinto quality control supervisors Semmelweis and Handwashing 1847 0 Hungarian doctor Ignaz Semmelweis noticed dramatic differences in death rates of women after childbirth 20 for physicians and met students 0 5x greater than midwives His discovery 0 Physicians and med students carried diseases from autopsies Intervened to require handwashing policy 9 deaths down to 1 o How did the medical profession react What happened to Semmelweis Ridiculed by the medical profession o Dismissed by his hospital had difficulty finding work 0 Childbed fever has many causes not onequot 0 We could do no harmquot o escalation of commitment to existing practices refused to adopt handwashing o 1865 o committed to an insane asylum 0 died 14 days later after severe beatings from guards findings about importance of handwashing not accepted until 18705 Group DecisionMaking Phenomena Groupthink 0 Group pressures for conformity o Squelches minority unpopular or novel views 0 Pressures may be latent or by default 0 Asch studies coming next week 0 Groupshift or Risky shift 0 Group members tend to voice their positions as more extreme than they really feel or believe 0 Groups have diffused responsibility allowing members to hide o Leads to groups adopting more extreme conservative or risky positions Beating GroupThink and GroupShift Encourage and inject minority views Listen to new members Encourage task conflict and debate Inject third parties Have personal courage if you are the minority Summary Group vs Individual decision making Group strengths 0 Generate more complete information and knowledge 0 Offer increased diversity of views and greater creativity 0 Increased acceptance of decisions 0 Generally more accurate Group weaknesseschallenge Timeconsuming activity Distributed information Conformity pressures in the group Discussions can be dominated by a few members A situation of ambiguous responsibilityrisk shift 00000 Power and Influence Power the capacity that A has to shape the behavior of B so that B acts in accordance with A s wishes The flip side of motivation but between at least 2 actors Actors can be people groups organizations We care about power because It s the route to getting things done It s the route to getting the spoils and rewards we want It can get out of control you can be the perpetrator of the victim 4 perspectives on power 0 Individual bases of power 0 Resource dependency theory 0 Social exchange theory 0 Situational strength Perspective 11 5 Bases of Personal Power N French and Raven 1959 Coercive A power base dependent on fear of negative results Reward Compliance achieved based on the ability to distribute rewards that others view as valuable Legitimate The formal authority to control and use resources based on a person39s position in the formal hierarchy Influence based on possession by an individual of desirable resources or personal traits Influence based on special skills or knowledge Referent power Celebrities 9 Identification Attention 2 Resource Dependency Theory Emerson 1972 0 power B s relationship to A when A possessed something that B requires 0 resources 0 money status information friendship ability to make something happen 0 promotions rooted in o importance of the resource 0 scarcity of the resource 0 nonsubstitutability of the resource OOOO Types of resource based power Control Independence A B A B Has resources Needs rmurou mourns ags m 3 Power through social exchange Blau 1964 0 Social exchange 0 Relationships are built between individuals as a function of exchanging resources both tangible and intangible 0 Source of power obligations created through exchange 0 I gave you something now you owe me 0 Can be done in advance or without a request 0 1 for completing a survey 4 Stronger situations Mischel 1968 o the stronger the situation the more control and power rules have 0 and the less people differ in their ability to disobey 0 what makes a situation strong 0 Emphasis on the situation Rituals imagery uniforms rewards and consequences stories examples 0 which means that strong cultures are strong situations Influence tactics What interpersonal strategies do we use to make things happen Assertiveness Rational Persuasion Inspirational appeals Consultation Exchange Personal Appeals Ingratiation Coalitions Issuing directives orders etc Using logical arguments ancl data to support a request Developing emotional commitment by appealing to a receiver s values needs hopes etc Involving the receiver in the planning and shaping of the idea Exchanging favors for receiver s going along Asking for support based on friendship or loyalty Using flattery or praise in conjunction with a request En listing the aid or support of others to support the request Which techniques do we use with whom In uence Indie Assertiveness f Eg m 39 o o Consultation quot739quot Exchange Personal Appeals Ingratiation 39 f Coalitions Influencing by doing or by example Action like emotion is contagious 0 We see this in group norms but it can be as simple as one person having influence on another Networks in Organizations Social networks are the web of ties that connect people to each other in a group in an organization in a community etc 0 your personal network is the set of relationships critical to your ability to get things done get ahead develop professionally and enjoy yourself 0 an intraorqanizational network is a set of relationships among the members of an organization Networks a sociological perspective 0 Early 19905 Georg Simmel Web of Affiliation 0 19505 and 19605 MichiganOhio State Small Group Studies 0 19705 and 19805 Burt and Granovetter Network Structure 0 19805 to present Kentucky school 0 Brass Borgatti Labianca Mehra 0 Others Krackhardt Cross Kilduff Balkundi Casciaro Hansen Ties The Building Blocks of Networks 0 Tie an interpersonal relationship between 2 people 0 Types of ties advice communications friendship mentorship tension or difficulty Where do ties come from 0 Structural factors 0 Formal organization and reporting relationships group memberships like classes or dorms 0 Physical proximity 0 Job designtask requirements boundary spanners Individual or personal characteristics 0 Similarity also known as homophily 0 Personality warmth likeability agreeableness high emotional stability high extroversion o Competence o Statusresource control 0 Social exchange and reciprocity RW JR How do networks work access to information and resources visibilityreflection embeddedness So what happens 9 creativity task performance powerinfluence statusrespect funsupport Key outcomes compensation promotionsjobs recruiting retention Characteristic 1 Size Easiest point more contacts are almost always better 0 More and more varied information 0 Better input into decisions 0 Access to more opportunities 0 Can be overwhelming Two actors with the same number of contacts may have access to very different network resources 0 High density low reach amp low density high reach Characteristic 1 Leverage Density of Network 0 High density redundant contacts provide support identity trust cohesion Low density structural holesquot brokers can access unique resources and information nonredundant contacts are more efficient Visualizing structural holes 6 occupies 3 structural holes Between 2 and 9 8 and 9 2 and 3 9 occupies 7 strucmral holes Between 3 and 6 3 and 10 3 and 11 7 and 11 7 and 6F 10 nd 6 11 and 6 9 also has more cnhslon and density 6 occupies 3 structural holes between 2 and 9 8 and 9 and 2 and 8 9 occupies 7 structural holes and has more cohesion and density Characteristic 3 Breadth range of network 0 Valueadded from network is a function of the number of sectors you can reach and connect Within and outside professional specialty Private public nonprofit sectors Community groups clubs 0 Industry contacts professional associations 0 Different functions within your organization 0 six degrees of separationquot OOO Three cautions Be thoughtful about how you reap power from brokerage positions Get the right resource from the right connections Beware confusing friendship with competence Beware confusing access with competence Be a giver not a matcher Takers try to make the most for themselves out of every situation Matchers engaged in social exchange as described last week Givers engage in givingOrganizational Citizenship Behavior and reap the rewards over the long term Understanding networks is important for organizations Determine how things actually get done and through whom Set the tone for collaboration sharing and conflict across groups and units Govern the diffusion or spread of ideas practices attitudes etc Indicative of group cohesion both positive and negative effects Contagion diffusion and adoption through networks Ideas and products and messages and behaviors spread like virsues do Malcolm Gladwell They rely on networks First and most famous scientific study Coleman s prescription drug adoption study in 1966 What is contagious in organizations Information about performance new initiatives change that is coming Perceptions of people leaders culture climate change initiatives Rewiring Organizational Networks Crossgroup teamsseminarssocial events Job rotation Staff meetings Mentoring programs 0 Information technology 0 Restructuring Notes 92515 541 PM SyHabus 1 After reading the syllabus you can find more details on the team case paper assignment on Blackboard by looking at the Case Paper template 2 Having 3 absences will result in either failing the course or being asked to withdraw from the course meaning that the person will have to repeat the class 3 Exam 2 is not cumulative 4 The scores are available on blackboard under My Gradesquot 5 False 6 April 30th 2014 for the final team case competition lecture 7 You can only receive credit for the peer evaluation if you also fill out an evaluation for each of your peers and submit it on April 30th 8 0 days late Coffee Beanery Activity 1 Create a new coffee flavor coconut almond coffee 2 Product nameslogan 0 Start your day off in paradisequot 3 Marketing 0 commercial 9 person takes a sip of the coffee and the whole place turns into an island setting 0 target audience 9 coffee specifically for keurig or nespresso machines makes the product more specific to the users of each machine DIVE RSITY PARADIG MS 1 DISCRIMINATION AND FAIRNESS PARADIGM We are all the same Differences do not matterquot Diversity is a moral imperative Eliminate discrimination treat everyone the same Progress measured by achieving recruitment and retention goals Results 0 Pressure to assimilate 0 Differences discussable conflict suppressed 0 People feel alienated devalued 0 Performance undermined 2 Access and Legitimacy Paradigm We accept and value differencein its placequot use diversity to connect to important constituent groups and markets cultural identity is a resource at the interface between the organization and its markets progress measured by achieving recruitment and retention goal in boundary or visible positions results 0 experience regarded as limited or specialized 0 career paths limited people feel exploited o differences neither analyzed nor leveraged 3 Integration and Learning Paradigm We work together with our differences not in spite of themquot cultural differences are a resource for learning different experiences and perspectives can use these differences to inform and enhance core work processes progress measured by the power traditionally underrepresented groups have t change the organization and its work 0 results 0 standard practice not necessarily seen as best practice 0 differences embraced discussed disputed evaluated 0 people feel valued and respected 92515 541 PM
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