Exam 1 Study Guide - Chem 231
Exam 1 Study Guide - Chem 231 CHEM 2311 P1
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Erickson on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 2311 P1 at Ball State University taught by Albiniak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
ORGANIC CHEMISTRY EXAM 1 Exam 1 covers chapters 14 note not all of chapter 4 was covered Important things to remember 0 Constitutional Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different connectivity 0 Formal charge occurs when an atom doesn t have the appropriate number of electrons O FORMAL CHARGE of e39 an atom should have of e39 atom has 0 Bonds 0 Covalent bonds share e39 equally among atoms 0 Polar Covalent share e39 but not quite evenly O Ionic bonds don t share well molecule is very polar 0 Atomic Orbitals O ls is a sphere O 25 is a sphere bigger than ls O 2pxyz is dumbbellshaped The x y and 2 refer to its orientation 0 When atoms share electrons atomic orbitals overlap this is how electrons are shared 0 Hybrid orbitals include sp sp2 and sp3 These result from a combination of an s and a p orbital Q lntermolecularforces 0 Hydrogen Bonding strongest but not very common only occurs between F O N Cl and H O DipoleDipole Interactions occur when polar molecules line up their opposing charges strong and more common 0 Dispersion Forces is a temporary dipole every molecule exhibits this it is very weak 0 Molecular representation Skeletal Structures 0 Don t show C or H unless H is attached to something other than C 0 Try to represent bond angle 0 Formal Charge should be shown if necessary 0 Electron pairs are not shown but can be assumed based on formal charge 0 Attempts to represent 3D Alkane Alkene Alkyne Alkyl Halide Alcohol C C CC CEC R X R OH Ether Ester Sul de Thiol Ketone O O R O R R S R R SH R C OR R C R Carbonyl Aldehyde Carboxylic Acid Acyl Halide Anhydride O O O O O co II R C H R C OH R C X R C O C R Ester Amide Amine Aromatic Note 0 O Rany R N R combination of R C OR R C N CH R XHaide ring of C Q Resonance O delocalization of e39 through Porbitals 0 if you have 0 use curved arrows to represent e39 ow 0 Resonance is really just showing that the e39 can be concentrated in any of the shown ways at any given time Q AcidsBases 0 Usually bases will have a negative charge but not always 0 ARIOS to analyze acidity Atom compare electronegativites Resonance more resonance but more stable resonance Induction electronegativity through sigma bonds Orbital sp3 is closer together while sp is further apart Solvation mostly just less branched 0 Parent Chain Names 1 2 3 4 Methane CH4 Ethane C2H6 Propane C3H8 Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane 10Decane 11Undecane ww ew 12Dodecane Q Nomenclature Find and name Parent Chain Identify Substituents Number e wNH Put everything together in alphabetical order 0 Newman Protection shows different rotational states 0 ROTOMER 2 ISOMER
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