Exam 1 Study Guide
Exam 1 Study Guide BIO 1500
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Diane Notetaker on Friday September 25, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1500 at Wayne State University taught by Daniel M. Kashian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 305 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.
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Date Created: 09/25/15
Why Study Plants Organization cellular atoms 9 molecules 9 organelles 9 cells organismal tissues 9 organs 9 organ systems 9 organism ecological population 9 community 9 ecosystem Emergent properties new properties that are present at one level that are not seen in the previous level Evolution decent with modification change over time Evolution happens through Natural Selection Natural Selection individuals with superior physical or behavioral characteristics are more likely to survive and reproduce than those without such characteristics 1 2 3 4 species produce more offspring than the environment can support organisms compete some lose the organisms most suited survive those most suitable are those with desired characteristics and those who pass genes to offspring the environment selects the superior characteristics Angiosperms angiosperms plants with ovules that are enclosed w diploid tissues at time of pollination basically flowering plants newest from an evolutionary perspective most recently evolved group highly specialized highly diversified often pollinated by animals often certain angiosperms pollinated by specific animals flowers are for sex pollen male receptacle female SEE FIGURE pg 608LECTURE SLIDES flowers are arranges in a whorl containing from outside to inside 0 carpel stigma style ovary female 0 stamen anther fiament pollen male 0 to attract pollinators wodors nectars visual guides o sepal structure that encloses flower for protection before it opens sepals petals carola flower contains all 4 whorls complete flower contains male amp female parts perfectmonoecious male OR female diecious where the ovaries are varies across species 0 inferior ovaries below floral parts epigynous o superior ovaries above fora parts hypoynous shapes reflect development flowers can be bilaterally symmetrical or radially symmetrical more primitive flowers many parts four whorls nonfused parts superior ovary radial symmetry more advanced flowers few parts lt4 whorls fused parts inferior ovary bilateral symmertry Monocots vs Eudicots o where the line is drawn between monocots and eudicots is highly contested always exceptions no single characteristic will identify between the two MONOCOTS EUDICTOS more evolutionary primitive quot65000 species more evolutionary advanced quot175000 species many rely on wind for pollination insects weren t often use biotic factors animals to pollinate around much pericycle form x in root systems pericycle form ring in root systems experience secondary growth no secondary growth vascular bundles around inside of epidermis of stems vascular bundles scattered throughout stems eaf structure megaphylly contain petiole eaf structure microphyll lack petiole normally Mitosis parent cell splits into 2 identical diploid daughter cells important for organism growth Meiosis cell division reduces chromosome by half DNA replication followed by 2 rounds of cell division to produce 4 haploid daughter cells each with half the of chromosomes of parent important for genetic diversity SEE FIGURES in WEEK 1 STUDY NOTESLECTU RE SLIDES Plant Life Cycle SEE FIGURE in WEEK 1 NOTESLECTURE SLIDES o the creation of megaspores amp microspores ensures genetic diversity 0 What the hell is going on 0 there is an alternation of generation with the shift between sporophyte amp gametophyte stages 0 sporophytes produce spores via meiosis o gametophytes produce gametes by mitosis SEE FIGURE ANGIOPERM LIFE CYCLE in WEEK 1 NOTESBOOKLECTURE SLIDES GREAT VIDEO HERE httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvAykzPemLs7Q Reproductive Readiness 0 before flowers can form plants must undergo phase changes to know they re ready for sex 1 Phase Change growing up puberty AND a light cue plants actually measure darkness b temperature cue vernalization c hormonal cue ex gibberellin ex plants counting nodes before flowering 0 young plants prephase change vs old plants postphase change 0 ex in English ivy there is a physiological difference in leaves to note young vs old 0 ex in deciduous trees leaves that do not fall off in winter are young appear on bottom branches amp next 0 trunk where trees divide more often Pollination o in imperfect plants separate male and female plants genetic diversity is promoted by 0 being separated in space male amp female plants are in located in different places 0 being separated in time male amp female plants have different maturity times 0 selfincompatibility exists a genetic trait to recognize own pollen will not allow or will stop germination o angiosperms need biotic vectors to pollinate petals nectar fragrance attract pollinators 0 When pollen cells reaches stigma tube cell creates tube to ovary amp generative cell creates 2 sperm that travel down tube to ovary 1 sperm fused wegg to make zygote 2n 1 sperm fuses wmother cell to make triploid endosperm 3n double fertilization SEE FIGURE in WEEK 1 NOTES Embryogensis SEE FIGURE in WEEK 1 NOTES 0 zygote starts dividing by mitosis creates cotyledons embryonic leaves Food is stored in cotyledons o by the time the embryo matures ovule becomes detached from ovary wall 0 outer covering thickens and hardens into seed coat 0 ovule as whole becomes seed Fruit Development 0 ovary becomes fruit swells amp flower parts fall away 0 some fruits are fleshy others are dry acorns peapods o What is the function To aid in seed dispersal They are to be eaten by animal flown by wind stuck to coats of animals Germination 0 when we first see radical emerging from seed is when germination has begun 0 seed absorbs water amp oxygen metabolism is kicked started once cue is received 0 roots grow down shoots grow up 0 seed coat falls off plumules first leaves are exposed embryonic phase ends once plant grows first true leaves Organization of the Plant 0 presence of organs reflecting increasing specialization particularly for the demands of terrestrial existence 0 vascular plants roots shoots o roots evolved after shoot system anchors plant and absorbs water amp ions for nutrition 0 shoots stem leaves stems provide structure for leaves leaves allow photosynthesis and flowers 0 shoot apex where shoots grow from o axillary bud lateral shoot apex that allows plant to branch or replace main shoot 0 internode spaces between nodes 0 m where leaf attaches to stem 0 petiole structure that connects leaf to stem 0 terminal bud contain material to continue plant growth after dormant period 0 root apex where roots grow from o roots shoots amp leaves have 3 basic types of tissue 0 dermal epidermis usually one cell thick forms outer protective layer 0 ground storage photosynthesis secretion form fibers that protect plant 0 vascular conduct fluids amp dissolve substances Meristems 0 root amp shoot apices and other parts have meristems undifferentiated cells that divide indefinitely and give rise to differentiated cells 0 may share common pathways of gene expression w human stem cells Apical Meristems 0 located at tips of stems amp roots contribute to primary growth give rise to three tissue systems 1 protoderm epidermis 2 procambium vascular tissues xylem water transport phloem nutrient transport 3 ground tissue 4 intercalary in stem internodes for internode longation Lateral Meristems o contribute to secondary growth increase diameter and girth o woody plants 9 1 cork cambium outer bark 2 vascular cambium just below bark secondary vascular tissue 0 tissues of trunk branches older roots secondary plant body SEE FIGURES of PRIMARY STEM amp SECONDARY STEM in WEEK 2 NOTESBOOKLECTU RE NOTES primary procambium 9 ground meristem primary xylem 9 primary phloem secondary primary xylem 9 secondary xylem 9 vascular cambium 9 primary phloem 9 secondary phloem Most Inner 9 Most Outer Dermal Tissues o cuticle fatty cutin layer for protection multiple layers exist on desert plants 0 guard cells around stomata mouthlike opening contain chloroplasts o stomata located on epidermis exchange 02 and C02 diffusion of water vapor enables transfer of H20 and minerals from roots to leaves 0 trichomes hairlike outgrowth of epidermis keep leaf surface cool and reduce evaporation cover stomata openings and protect against light 0 root hairs tubular extensions of epidermal cells occur just behind tip of young growing roots create intimate contact with soil increase surface area for absorption Ground Tissue o parenchyma cells large vacuoles thin walls storage of food amp water photosynthesis secretion generally less specialized but can produce nectar resin store latex protein aka jack of all trades o collenchyma provide support for plant organs bend without breaking beneath epidermis of steams amp leaves continuous cylinders o sclerenchyma lack protoplast contain liguin to make walls rigid present as 1 fibers grouped in strands or 2 sclereids other shapes Vascular Tissue o m conducts water and dissolved minerals up from roots 0 tracheid amp vessels dead cells layed end to end connected with perforated plates 0 tracheids also have pits in secondary cell walls to allow water to transfer between cell 0 phloem tissue that conducts sugars and carbs produced in photosynthesis down to other cells 0 sieve tube member has no nucleus onecell wall cells line up end to end each have companion cell Roots Four Regions 1 Root cap 9 continually replaced by apical meristem root cap like helmet for roots protects meristem as it pushes through soil apical meristem is working to replace root cap as damage occurs able to perceive gravity what is up and what is down 2 zone of cell division 9 dividing and creating new cells apical meristem lives just below zone of elongation 9 where newly divided cells begin to elongate 4 zone of maturation 9 elongated cells maturing into tissues roots hairs are extension of onecell thick epidermis cells increase surface area of root system S o suberin forms Caspian strips waterproof structure forces water to go through epidermal cells thus be filtered before entering vascular system 0 stele everything inside epidermis o pericycle parenchyma or sclerenchyma cells that lie just inside the endodermis and is the outer most part of the stele of plants gives rise to lateral cells aka root branches 0 tap root 1 large root often deep 0 fibrous roots lots of little guys shallow system sometimes Modified Roots o adventitious roots arise from an organ other than the root stem or leaf formation makes it possible to vegetatively propagate many plants from stem or leaf cuttings o prop roots to hold tall plants up against wind 0 aerial roots grow out into air can capture H20 vapor ex orchids in tropical areas 0 pneumatophores occur in swamps bald cypress when root system is under water knees poke up from water to absorb oxygen from air 0 water storage roots found in places with really wet season amp really dry season 0 parasitic root pierce tissue of other roots amp suck out juices o contractile roots common in plants with bulbs control thickening and contracting of root mass can pull plant further underground good for plants that develop floppy stems o buttress roots good for stability against wind amp water Shoots 0 leaves are arranged in 3 different ways alternative opposite or whorl Inside stems o Eudicot 9 dark ring epidermis vascular bundles around inside of epidermis when conditions are favorable lots of xylem and phloem growth occurs 0 Monocot 9 vascular bundles scattered throughout 0 important because structure determines tendencies for secondary growth monocots don t have secondary growth 0 cork cambium is between bark and phloem part of lateral meristem also contains suberin waterproof material amp prevents bark layer from taking in oxygen 0 lenticels openings in bark to allow for gas exchange Modified Stems o m swollen stem underground 0 rhizome underground stem grows horizontally adventitious in that it can replicate individual 0 runners very long internodes plantlet at each node above ground 0 tubers swollen tip of rhizome aka potatoes 0 tendrils climb from stem and grasp for support 0 cladophyll fleshy fat photosynthetic stems good for water storage Transport Mechanisms 0 H20 moves through cellwall spaces between the protoplasts of cells through plasmodesmata connections between cells through plasma membranes and through conducting elements 0 enters roots 9 xylem 9 H20 rises 9 exits through stomata o transpiration evaporation from thin films of water in the stomata pulling force bc o cohesion H20 molecules stick to each other 0 adhesion H20 molecules stick to walls of tracheidxylem vessels 0 xylem transport of water is one directional up phloem transport of carbohydrates is bidirectional but mostly down 0 osmosis diffusion of water across a semipermeable membrane 0 H20 enters cells through osmosis cell presses against cell wall increasing tugor pressure Mg 0 H20 exits cells cell membrane pulls away from cell wall as volume shrinks plasmolysis Water Potential 0 used to predict which way water will move measured in units of megapascals MPa 0 water moves in direction of lower water potential 0 change in tugor pressure calculated by figuring water potential of cell and surrounding solution components 9 1 physical forces pressure on cell wall or gravity 2 concentration of solute in each solution 0 as solute is added H20 makes more bonds thus fewer free water cells are available thus water potential decreases 0 Why are roots so full of solute In order to maintain gradient of H20 potential Water amp Mineral Absorption 0 most water absorbed by plants are through root hairs How does water get from roots to vascular tissue 0 apoplast route through cell walls 0 symplast route continuum of cytoplasm between cells connected by plasmadosmata no need to cross plasma membrane 0 transmembrane route between cells and across membranes of vacuoles permits greatest amount of control over what substances enter and leave o eventually molecules reach endodermis but blocked by Caspian strips 0 must pass through plasma membranes amp protoplast of endodermal cells to reach xylem 0 once inside stele derived from procambium the ions plant nutrients transported via xylem throughout plant Xylem Transport 0 at night when less transpiration occurs accumulations of ions in roots roots pressure causes wter to ooze out of leaves guttation aka dew o transpiration creates negative pressure in xylem which pus water up stem Driving force is humidity gradient from 100 relative humidity inside leaf to lt100 outside leaf Cavitation 0 air bubbles are bad news cause cohesion to fail o cavitation gasfilled bubble expands and blocks tracheid or vessel 0 alternative pathway save the day tracheids amp vessels connected by gratelike walls air bubbles too big to go through SEE FIGURE 3710 in BOOK Transpiration amp Stomata 0 when stomata are open C02 can enter for photosynthesis when stomata are closed H20 reserves are maintained there is a tradeoff between being opened and closed 0 rate of transpiration depends on weather conditions and time of day high temperature andor high wind velocity high transpiration rate 0 Guard cells bulge out and open with turgid control opening of stomata only epidermal cells containing chloroplasts SEE FIGURE in WEEK 2 NOTESLECTU RE SLIDES When will a plant experience water stress 1 drought Response 9 dormancy during dry times of year loss of leaves will adapt thicker cuticlehairy leaveslight colorfewer or sunken stomata 2 flooding need oxygen can t take up water Response 9 form aerenchyma spongy tissue with large air spaces to allow circulation of gases grow adventitious roots lenticel growth develop leaves wcharacteristics similar to droughtadapted leaves 3 high salinity Response 9 succulent leave to dilute salt concentration form pnematophores specialized roots that grow upwards out of water quotkneesquot Phloem Transport 0 translocation movement of carbohydrates throughout plant generally down but bidirectional o nutrientrich fluid sap o pressureflow theory carbohydrates move from source to actively growing area sink Leaves amp Photosynthetic Organs 0 leaves are crucial to a plant arrangement form size and internal structure can differ greatly different patterns have adaptive value in different environments 0 plants are the largest group of organisms that make their own food autotroph Morphological Groups 0 microphyll leaf with 1 vein branching from vascular cylinder of stem not extending full length mostly small monocots o megaphylly leaf with several veins form net eudicots 0 leaf flattening into blade increases photosynthetic surface 0 m vascular bundles of xylem amp phloem 0 simple leaf 1 leaf per petiole 0 compound leaf divided into leaflets arise at common or various points along elongated axis gt1 per petiole Modified Leaves 0 floral leaves bracts surround true flower behave as showy petals o spines reduce water loss and may deter predators o reproductive leaves produce plantlet at margins 0 window leaves coneshaped transparent leaves allow photosynthesis underground in arid sandswept areas 0 shade leaves develop in shade larger in surface area thinner less mesophyll tissue between upper amp lower epidermis o insectivorous leaves trap insects digest bugs to make up of lack of available nutrients SEE FIGURE of LEAF EPIDERMIS LECTURE SLIDES o epidermal cells transparent with waxy cuticle and stomata 0 most stomata at bottom of leave to reduce water loss 0 spongy mesophyll loosely packed to allow gas exchange Photosynthesis Respiration 6C02 12H20 9 C6H1202 6H20 6 02 C6H1202 9 6 02 6H20 ATP 1 light dependent reactions energy captured as sunlight to make ATP and reduce NADP to NAPDH 2 carbon fixation reactions taking NADP and NADPH to synthesize organic molecules from C02 0 happens inside chloroplasts thykaloid membranes filled with photo systems stacked on top of each other grana and capture sunlight surrounded by liquid substance stroma Why do leaves change color 0 days shorten hormonal balances change growth of cork cambium increases cork develops under epidermis and between petiole amp stem cutting off leaf 0 chlorophyll masks original leaf color Asexual Reproduction 0 produces genetically identical individuals through runners rhizomes suckers adventitious plantlets 0 important for perpetuating yourself for a very long time Gymnosperms Conifers gymnosperms plants with naked seeds no flowers when ready to be pollinated ovule and reproductive parts are exposed 720 species separated in 4 groups conifers cycads qnetophytes gingkos not polar opposite of angiosperms basically just lack characteristics of angiosperms lots of gymnosperms are extinct were once more dominate in plant communities not many different species but good at dominating large areas they re woody trees amp shrubs we use for paper timber drugs resin most common where cold amp dry and sometimes where fire is common excurrent form broad main stem trunk lateral branches in whorls can count whorls and age trees approx 1year each year axillary buds branch to create whorls Leavesneedle like or scale like evergreen stay green function for multiple years wintergreen needles tay on for entire year 0 can be long widely spaced pine short hardly spaced spruces amp firs or very short overlap and form scales cedars amp junipers o evergreen adaptation from living in nutrient poor sites must conserve nutrients and thus don t make new leaves every spring can photosynthesize all year if temperature is above freezing 0 Anatomy I epidermis on outside thick cuticle for dry site I stomata are sunken below epidermis creates longer pathway before water can evaporate I two veins xylem amp phloem pairs I have resin ducts in leaves amp stems parts protects against insects unique to conifers Gingko leaf perhaps original conifer leaf divided to today s needle form Reproduction morphology 0 Male cones small delicate blow pollen everywhere located at tips of branches The pollen grains have two sacks on either side make them buoyant in wind 0 Female cones stiff woody at base of each scale exists ovule sack I start development as strobili take one year to mature amp after first year open and are ready to accept pollen change shape as they mature I produce sticky substance pollination droplet pollen drawn into strobili by drying out of droplet strobili closes once pollen is inside I at this point fertilization has not yet taken place SEE Gymnosperm Life Cycle FIGURE in LECTURE SLIDES I pollination droplet is primitive structure Fertilization 0 When pollen is in stobili pollen tube begins to grow very slowly and female gametophyte is still maturing May take another year for fertilization to take place 0 Pollen produces two sperm 1 fertilizes egg 1 dies no double fertilization male and female cones exist on same tree monoecious pine seed act like samara kind of fruit but are actually bracts cones open simply by drying out serotinous cones will not open unless heated adaptation to forest fires quotberriesquot not berries they re cones juniperyew berries shatter cones firs break up when they re mature Cycads o subtropical tropical only about 100 species exist today 0 leaves clustered to top of stem very toxic some have been known to be insect pollinated o diecious male and female cones born on different plants Gnetophytes 0 only 3 genus only about 70 species Gingkos 0 only 1 species remaining in whole wide world deciduous diecious no natural stands left Seedless Plants 0 generally small very evolutionarily early 0 in comparison to angiosperms amp gymnosperms land plants offer level of protection for embryos have multicellular haploid amp diploid phases as time goes on haploid stage shrinks diploid stage grows Bryophytes o closes relatives to first land plants lack tracheids aka Non Vascular but a few do have some notwell developed vascular tissue 0 need water to undergo sexual reproduction sperm swims through water to find egg this is hint that they are evolutionarily close to aquatic plants Liverworts 0 have flattened gametophytes form umbrellalike structure gametangia organ that makes gametes o sometimes gametangia break off and reproduce asexually gas exchange happens through open pores Hornworts o sporophyte is photosynthetic 0 there is one large chloroplast in each cell sporophyte does have some stomata o leaflike structures on quotstemquot lack vascular tissue thus have no veins thus are not leaves do not have stomata o anchored by rhizoids which are not true roots but do absorb water 0 cushiony formfeathery form 0 Life Cycle 0 male and female parts can be located on same or different plants 0 spores have flagellum and swim through water 0 most abundant in poles most diverse in tropics o quite drought resistant sensitive to air pollution Tracheophytes 0 have vascular tissue has allowed them to grow larger by moving nutrients throughout body vascular tissue doesn t develop in sporophyte o mostly homosporous no distinct male and female parts bisexual Vascular Plant Phylogeny 1 Seed plants angiosperms conifers cycads gnetophytes gingkos 2 lycophyptes club mosses 3 pteropytes ferns and allies Club Masses o earliest vascular plants aesthetically resemble moss but unrelated have microphylls aka leaves Pterophytes o phylogenetic relationships are a bit confusing we don t have everything sorted out o Whisk Ferns no leaves minimal roots some gametophytes develop elements of vascular tissue 0 Horsetails jointed photosynthetic stems arising from rhizomes homosporous o m 11000 species makes it most abundant of seedless plants have flinging structures for spreading spores
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