EDPS 270 Exam 1 Study Guide, Fall 2015
EDPS 270 Exam 1 Study Guide, Fall 2015 EDPS 270
Popular in Human development across the lifespan
Popular in Psychlogy
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlyn Ruotanen on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EDPS 270 at Ball State University taught by Bishop in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Human development across the lifespan in Psychlogy at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
EDPS 270- Human Development, Test 1 Study Guide The following topics are likely to appear on the test: Focus mainly on PowerPoints but some of book Paper test in class 1. Be able to define Lifespan Development Field of study examines patterns of growth, change, and stability in behavior that occur throughout the entire lifespan 2. Periods of development Childhood- first decade i. Prenatal Period: conception to birth ii. Infancy: birth- 2 years iii. Early Childhood: 3-5 years iv. Middle to Late Childhood: 6-11 years Adolescence: second decade i. Early adolescence: 10 or 11 to 14 years ii. Middle to Late Adolescence: 15 to early 20s Adulthood: third decade + i. Early Adulthood: early 20s - 30s ii. Middle Adulthood: 40s – 50s iii. Late Adulthood: 60s + 3. The key features of emerging adulthood Puberty 4. Psychosexual Stages of Development, including results of fixation and critiques. A central element of the psychoanalytic sexual drive theory, that human beings, from birth, possess an instinctual libido (sexual energy) that develops in five stages Oral i. The mouth, Sucking, swallowing ii. Birth – 1 year iii. Orally aggressive: chewing gum and the ends of pencils, etc. iv. Orally Passive: smoking, eating, kissing, oral sexual practices v. Oral stage fixation might result in a passive, gullible, immature, manipulative personality. Anal i. The anus, Withholding/expelling feces ii. 1-3 years iii. Anal retentive: Obsessively organized, or excessively neat iv. Anal expulsive: reckless, careless, defiant, disorganized, coprophiliac Phallic i. Penis or clitoris, Masturbation ii. 3-6 years iii. Children develop incestuous desire for opposite sex parent iv. Oedipus Complex for boys v. Electra Complex for girls Latency i. Little or no sexual motivation present ii. 6-11 years iiiSexual un-fulfillment if fixation occurs in this stage. Genital i. Penis or vagina, Sexual intercourse ii. Year 12+ iiiFrigidity, impotence, unsatisfactory relationships 5. Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Microsystem: Refers to the institutions and groups that most immediately and directly impact the child's development including: family, school, religious institutions, neighborhood, and peers. Mesosystem: Interconnections between the microsystems, Interactions between the family and teachers, Relationship between the child’s peers and the family Exosystem: Involves links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual's immediate context. For example, a parent's or child's experience at home may be influenced by the other parent's experiences at work. The parent might receive a promotion that requires more travel, which might increase conflict with the other parent and change patterns of interaction with the child. Macrosystem: Describes the culture in which individuals live. Cultural contexts include developing and industrialized countries, socioeconomic status, poverty, and ethnicity. A child, his or her parent, his or her school, and his or her parent's workplace are all part of a large cultural context. Members of a cultural group share a common identity, heritage, and values. The macrosystem evolves over time, because each successive generation may change the macrosystem, leading to their development in a unique macrosystem. Chronosystem: The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course, as well as sociohistorical circumstances. For example, divorces are one transition. Researchers have found that the negative effects of divorce on children often peak in the first year after the divorce. By two years after the divorce, family interaction is less chaotic and more stable. An example of sociohistorical circumstances is the increase in opportunities for women to pursue a career during the last thirty years. 6. The names of other key theorists and their theories Cognitive Development Theory- Information-Processing Theory Operant Conditioning Social Cognitive Theory 7. Identify chromosomal disorders Trisomy- 3 of a chromosome rather than normal 2 Tetrasomy- 4 of a chromosome rather than 2 Monosomy- 1 chromosome instead of 2 SEE Biological Beginnings notes 8. Identify gene-linked disorders SEE Biological Beginnings notes 9. Define chromosomes, DNA, and genes 10.Periods of Prenatal Development (length and key features) Germinal Period- First 2 weeks i. Gametes join to form zygote ii. Blastocyst eventually implants in uterus Embryonic Period- Week 2- Week 8 i. Begins with implantation in uterus ii. Cell differentiation (Gastrulation) Ectoderm- nervous system and sensory receptors, skin Mesoderm- circulatory, excretory, and reproductive systems, bones, muscles Endoderm- digestive and respiratory systems Fetal Period- Week 8 – Birth i. Begins with differentiation of major organs ii. Organs begin working, brain development iii. Fetus is viable- capable of living outside of womb at 24 weeks 11.Hazards to Prenatal development Teratogens, especially during Gastrulation (when start to form ecto, meso, and endoderms) i. Alcohol, caffeine, drugs, HIV, Diabetes, diet, stress, age… 12.Types of prenatal tests 13.Apgar scale Developed to determine how well baby doing immediately after birth Blue skin- lack of oxygen Grimace- response to pain (is baby crying? No reaction? Spank?) Activity- are they moving? Do they react to moving their body parts? 14.Stages of birth Stage 1- uterine contractions. Lasts 6-12 hours for first kids, shorter for subsequent children Stage 2- baby emerges from birth canal. 45 min – an hour Stage 3- placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled from uterus. Lasts a few minutes 15.Define cephalocaudal pattern and proximodistal pattern Cephalocaudal- develop from head down Proximodistal- develop from center out 16.Puberty Girls age: 7-13 or 9-15 Boys age: 9.5-13.5 or 10-17 17.How humans change in height and weight Early Adulthood- height constant, peak muscle strength and joint function in 20s, declines in 30s Middle Adulthood (40s)- loss of height (mostly women), weight gain, sarcopenia- muscle mass and strength loss, after age 50 1-2% loss muscle mass Infancy—average 20 inches and 7 ½ lbs. at birth, triple weight by 1 year, ½ adult height and 20% adult weight by age 2 Early Childhood (3-5 years)- growth slows, girls slightly smaller and lighter, girls gain fat, boys gain muscle Middle and Late Childhood (school years)- slower/consistent growth, muscle mass and strength increase, boys stronger, body proportions change 18.Lobes of the brain Frontal- executive functions, higher thinking, voluntary movement Parietal- tactile sensations (physically feeling things), visual motor control like writing Occipital- vision Temporal- hearing, some memory Cerebellum- balance and some movement, learning Midbrain/brainstem- survival instincts, digestion, breathing, staying awake 19.Parts of the neuron 20.Brain changes across the lifespan Infancy- Born with 100 billion neurons, rapid growth of myelin sheath, blooming and pruning of connections in brain, motor control begins about 2 months Childhood- age 3-6 most rapid growth in frontal lobe, age 6-puberty rapid growth in temporal and parietal lobes Adolescence- continues growth i. Corpus callosum (connects hemispheres)- axon fibers thicken ii. Prefrontal cortex- increased reasoning, decision making, self- control iii. Amygdala- seat of emotions, matures earlier, positive link between volume and duration of aggressive behavior Adulthood- brain loss 5-10% weight in ages 20-90, dendrites decrease, myelin sheath damage, most shrinkage in prefrontal cortex, general slowing or brain and spinal cord function- begins in middle age and accelerates, reduction in neurotransmitters 21.Stages of sleep Stage 1- drift off, hallucinations, falling, 5-10 min. (light sleep) Stage 2- about 20 min, short rhythmic brain waves, temp and heartrate drop (light sleep) Stage 3- delta waves, transition from light to deep sleep, short couple minutes Stage 4- deep sleep, sleep walking, bed wetting, wake up confused/disoriented, growth happens in deep sleep especially adolescence REM- rapid eye movement, most dreaming, breathing and brain activity incr, like awake and brain fully active but body paralyzed i. First REM about 10 min, but incr. over time 22.Role of prevention and poverty in health 7% U.S. children receive no healthcare, 11 million U.S. preschoolers malnourished 23.Types of dementia 24.Reflexes Survival- need to survive i. Rooting- baby turns toward when face touched ii. Sucking- reflex in baby but becomes voluntary Primitive- thought used to be needed for survival, now not so much i. Moro- baby gets scared when falling back, also startled by loud noises or scared ii. Grasping- baby grabs when something laid in their hand and toes curl Palmar grasp- gripping with whole hand, develops first Other grasp- grabbing with just finger and thumb, develops later iii. Tonic Neck- disappears after 2-3 months, face turns to one side, arm and leg of turned side extend and arm and leg on other side flex. iv. Babinski- makes J on baby’s foot, toes fan out. Disappears after 8 months. Still seen in adulthood= worrisome v. Stepping- starts after 8 weeks, hold baby up and will make stepping motion vi. Swimming- if put in water they will move arms and legs and hold breath. Goes away after 4-6 months 25.Gross vs. fine motor skills Fine- mainly with fingers i. Buttoning shirt, typing, stacking blocks… ii. Infants have no fine motor skills at first Gross- uses large muscle groups i. Walking, crawling, reaching… Postural control- ability to control trunk i. Move head side to side, sit up straight, balance… o By age 2, boys better at gross, and girls better at fine 26.Difference in sensation and perception Sensation- vision, hearing, touch, smell i. All sense working from birth Perception- how we make sense/interpret these senses 27.Development of vision At birth can see 20/240, not good, at 3 months can distinguish between male and female Visual acuity- by age 7, 1/10 kids need glasses Color discrimination- 3-4 years can tell colors better 50-60s, trouble reading in dim light, slow interpretation while driving in dark, takes eyes longer to adjust to darkness, slightly worse at catching small differences in color 28.Changes in sensation across the lifespan 29.Which of the folling gives the best descript of how life-span psychologists describe development? Growth and decline in skills and processes 30.The following support stage theory and supports idea that devel. Is continuous Erikson’s theory of psychosocial devel Freud’s theory of personality devel Piaget’s theory of cognitive devel 31.Klinefelter and Downs Syndrome are 2 disorders that are both caused by presence of extra chromo 32.Menarche occurs at what part of puberty? Late 33.Global term for neurological disorder where primary symptom is deterioration of mental functioning Dementia 34.47 year old Dixie is able to read better when book is further from face. The recent decline in her visual acuity is common among individual her age is known as… Presbyopia 35.List 3 of the five systems in Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and give definition Macro system- culture as a whole Micro system- close individuals? Meso system- link between micro systems Exo system- something you’re not a part of but still has influence on you Chronosystem- influences from time period you live in 36.James is going through puberty very early. Research indicates he is likely to Have a positive self-image A female would be opposite, negative self-image 37.Deb gorges food and compensates by exercising for long periods of time and sometimes makes herself vomit. She lost a significant amount of weight, what does she likely have Anorexia nervosa- because she lost a lot of weight
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