MKT 310 Topic 1 Exam 1 (Ch 2, 3, 4, and 7)
MKT 310 Topic 1 Exam 1 (Ch 2, 3, 4, and 7) MKT 310
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Andrea Lopez on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MKT 310 at University of Miami taught by Juliano Laran in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 154 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at University of Miami.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
CONSUMER BEHAVIOR AND MARKETING STRATEGY These are just some of the suggested study questions for Exam 1 This covers the majority of what we discussed in class over the past few weeks Keep in mind that this does not cover absolutely every detail of every class that is what the slides are for For the first exam you are responsible for any material related to topic 1 including slides videos and the material in the assigned readings in the textbook You should also know some of the key studies we discussed in these topic areas Lastly you should be able to relate these topics to marketing issues we discussed in class In summary El Textbook check the review questions at the end of each chapter you should know the answers to those questions El Chapter 2 4476 El Chapter 3 82109 El Chapter 4 116138 El Chapter 7 248284 El Notes which will be part of the second exam El Videos Nike and Mac selected questions below If you know the answers to the questions below you should do rather well At the end of this document there are some practice questions which are similar in format to the questions you will see on the exam Good luck studying CH 2 4476 PERCEPTION EXPOSURE AND A39I39I39ENTION Professor Questions 1 Be familiar with the process of taking in information from exposure to behavior 2 What is exposure Exposure The process by which consumers consciously or not come into physical contact with a stimulus 3 What is the mere exposure effect 0 People tend to like more stimuli that have been presented more frequently even though they can t notice that one group of stimuli was presented more often You see something a lot and then see it again and don t have any recollection about seeing it but it will still process in your mind better than before 4 What is subliminal perception Subliminal Perception The processing of stimuli presented below the level of the consumer s awareness 5 What is attention Attention The extent to which conscious mental processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus 6 Why is attention selective What determines what we do or do not pay attention to individual and source factors P 66 It is selective because our brain s capacity to process information is limited Personal and Source factors help decide what to select their attention to 0 Personal Factors experiences perceptual filters based on our past experiences perceptual vigilance more aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs perceptual defense they don t see what they don t want to see and adaptation a sensation becomes so familiar it no longer commands attention 0 Factors Leading to Adaptation intensity duration discrimination exposure and relevance 0 Stimulus Selection Factors size color position novelty 7 How do people assign meaning to objects interpret things Depends on the schema set of beliefs we assign to it End of Chapter 2 Review Questions 1 Define hedonic consumption and provide an example Hedonic Consumption an experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies OR multisensory fantasy and emotional aspects of consumers interactions with products 0 Ex going to Disney World 2 Does the size of a package influence how much of the contents we eat It helps determine if it will command attention Package size influences our consumption by encouraging consumers to consume it in one sitting 0 Ex 711 Big Gulp holds a minimum of 1 liter of coke It doesn t have a re closable cap which encourages the consumer to drink the whole thing 3 How does the sense of touch influence consumers reactions to products 0 Sensations that reach the skin stimulate or relax us The sense of touch acts as vital language for humans and plays a strong part of how consumers grow attached to products 0 Ex Apple allows potential customers to handle the electronics before they buy They grow attached and therefore this boosts what customers are willing to pay for it 4 Identify and describe the three stages of perception Exposure occurs when a stimulus comes within the range of someone s sensory receptors Attention the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus Interpretation refers to the meaning we assign to sensory stimuli 5 What is the difference between an absolute threshold and a differential threshold Absolute Threshold the minimum amount of stimulation a person can detect on a given sensory channel 0 The sound of a dog whistle emits at too high a frequency for human ears to pick up so this stimulus is beyond our auditory absolute threshold Differential Threshold the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in or differences between two stimuli 0 Sometimes a marketer may want to ensure that consumers notice a change as when a retailer offers merchandise at a discount In other situations the marketer may want to downplay the fact that it has made a change such as when a store raises a price or a manufacturer reduces the size of a package 6 Does subliminal perception work Why or why not No There are wide individual differences in threshold levels For a message to avoid conscious detection by consumers who have low thresholds it would have to be so weak that it would not reach those who have high thresholds Advertisers lack control over consumers distance and position from a screen In a movie theater for example only a small portion of the audience would be in exactly the right seats to be exposed to a subliminal message The viewer must pay absolute attention to the stimulus People who watch a television program or a movie typically shift their attention periodically and they might not even notice when the stimulus appears Even if the advertiser induces the desired effect it works only at a very general level For example a message might increase a person s thirst but necessarily for a specific drink Because the stimulus affects a basic drive a marketer could find that after all the bother and expense of creating a subliminal message demand for competitors products increase as well 7 Consumers practice a form of psychic economy What does that mean They pick and choose among stimuli to avoid being overwhelmed 8 Describe two factors that can lead to stimulus adaptation Intensity soft sounds or dim colors habituate because they have less sensory impact Duration stimuli that require relatively lengthy exposure to be processed habituate because they require a long attention span Discrimination simple stimuli habituate because they do not require attention to detail Exposure frequently encountered stimuli habituate as the rate of exposure increases Relevance stimuli that are irrelevant or unimportant habituate because they fail to attract attention 9 Define a schema and provide an example of how this concept is relevant to marketing Set of beliefs if you give a person a reason to believe in something the likelihood of them buying that product is high 0 Ex a college cafeteria gives menu items and use descriptive labels so that people had more information about each option and were able to better categorize them sales increased by more than 25 10 List three semiotic components of a marketing message giving an example of each Object the product that is the focus of the message Sign the sensory signimage that represents the intended meanings of the object Interpretation the meaning we derive from the sign 0 Marlboro Cigarettes object Marlboro Man sign rugged American interpretation 0 Jameson Whiskey object John Jameson sign crazy lrish drunk interpretation 11 What do we mean by the concept of hyper reality How does this concept differ from augmented reality 0 Hyper Reality refers to the process of making real what is initially stimulation or hype 0 Ex of hyper reality A furniture designer launched a dining room set inspired by the TV show Dexter The all white table and chairs are festooned with big splotches of red Augmented reality technology applications that layer digital information over a physical space to add additional information for users 12 What is a positioning strategy What are some ways marketers can position their products Is a fundamental component of a company s marketing efforts as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer s interpretation of its meaning in the marketplace relative to its competitors Ways marketers can position their products 0 Lifestyle Grey Poupon mustard is a higherclass condiment 0 Price Leadership L Oreal sells its Noisome brand face cream upscale beauty shops whereas its Plenitude brand is available for onesixth the price in discount stores even though both are based on the same chemical formula Attributes Bounty paper towels are the quicker pickerupper Product class The Spyder Eclipse is a sporty convertible Competitors Northwester Insurance is the quiet company Occasions Wrigley s gum is an alternative at times when smoking is not permitted Users Levi s Dockers target men in their 20s and 40s 0 Quality At Ford Quality is job 1 0000 0 CHAPTER 3 82109 MEMORY AND LEARNING Professor Questions Memory 1 What are the basic memory processes Refer to question 8 2 Define and differentiate between sensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memory How do these memories interact How does something go from sensory to shortterm to long term memory Refer to question 12 3 How are things retrieved from memory Refer to question 19 4 How are things stored in memory What are knowledge structures 0 Storage Information is stored in memory within an associative network containing many bits of related information organized according to a set of relationships The consumer has organized systems of concepts relating to brands manufacturers and stores 0 The storage units are known as knowledge structures also called schema 5 Make sure you know some marketing implications of the basic memory processes Brands that facilitate encoding via conceptual similarity between the brand name and the productservice offered tend to be more easily retained in memory than those brands that use more abstract names CATEGORIES FACILITATION VlA BRAND EXTENSION Some specific needs important to marketers 0 Need for affiliation to be in the company of other people eg httpwwwmatchcom 0 Need for uniqueness to assert one s individual identity eg fragrances 0 Need for power to have control over the environment Learning 1 What is learning Learning Is a relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience 2 How do consumers learn from repeated experiences Refer to question 3 3 Define classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning and know the differences between the two views Refer to question 5 4 What are possible types of in instrumental conditioning Refer to question 5 5 What is extinction When might it occur When a person no longer receives a positive outcome the learned stimulusresponse connection will not be maintained Effect removal of positive event weakens responses preceding occurrence 0 Ex a woman no longer receives compliments on her perfume 6 What is stimulus generalization Stimulus discrimination Stimulus Generalization the process that occurs when the behavior caused by a reaction to one stimulus occurs in the presence of other similar stimuli Stimulus Discrimination the process that occurs when behaviors caused by two stimuli are different as when consumers learn to differentiate a brand from its competitors 7 What are Nike s main marketing strategies to maintain its market position Nike maintains its place as market leader by entering new markets targeting new athletes such as skateboards and soccer players and explaining internationally to build sales and demand In addition Nike protects its market share by continuing to offer innovative products to its three target consumer groups professional athletes those who participate in sport and those who influence and are influenced by sport 8 Relate the success of Nike with topics discussed in the learning class Types of learning if you see a celerity wearing a certain shoe you make the association with the celebrity and the shoe End of Chapter 3 Review Questions 1 What is the difference between an unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus An unconditioned stimulus is a stimulus that is naturally capable of causing a response 0 Ex Meat powder induces the animals salivary glands While a conditioned stimulus is a stimulus that produces a learned reaction through the association over time 0 Ex ringing bell when giving dog the powder dog associates the noise with the taste of something that pleased its taste needs Soon enough the sound itself will induce a drooling dog 2 Give an example of a halo effect in marketing Retailer brands package their cereal so it looks similar to the name brand products and consumers assume that is shares other characteristics of the original 3 How can marketers use repetition to increase the likelihood that consumers will learn about their brand Creates customer awareness Demonstrates relevance to the consumer Reminds consumer of the product benefits BUT excessive repetition leads to advertising ware out 4 Why is it not necessarily a good idea to advertise a product in a commercial where a really popular song plays in the background A marketer is better off choosing to pair a novel tune rather than a popular one with a product because people will also hear the poplar song in many situations where the product is absent 5 What is the difference between classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning Classical Conditioning occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially doesn t elicit a response on its own Instrumental Conditioning occurs when the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and to avoid behaviors that yield negative outcomes 0 When a learner receives a reward after she performs the desired behavior Increases frequency of behavior Positive reinforcement 0 When a learner sees there s no reward after behavior Increases frequency of behavior Negative reinforcement 0 Presence of punishment after behavior Decreases frequency of behavior Punishment 6 How do different types of reinforcement enhance learning How does the strategy of frequency marketing relate to conditioning Depending on the type of reinforcement customers will learn to associate certain feelings to the effect the marketers create 0 Beer companies show their happy customers on the beach or at a bar This creates positive reinforcement because customers want to embody the behavior the commercialad is portraying Conditioning doesn t happen on the first time it s a process that happens over time This is why TV and radio will play commercials over and over until you never want to buy them anyways 7 What is the major difference between behavioral and cognitive theories of learning Behavioral cognitive theories assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events This suggests that the feedback we receive as we go through life shapes our experiences Therefore we respond to brand names scents jingles and other marketing stimuli because of the learned connections we form over time 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 0 Cognitive learning theory approaches that stress the importance of internal mental processes creativity and insight during the learning process This perspective views people as problem solvers who actively use information from the world around them to master their environment Name the three stages of information processing Encoding information is placed in memory 0 Storage information is retained in memory Retrieval information stored in memory is found needed What is the external memory and why is it important to marketers Includes all the product details on packages and other marketing stimuli that permit us to identify and evaluate brand alternatives in the marketplace 0 Example grocery list o If marketers can induce a consumer to plan to purchase an item before she goes shopping there is a high probability that she will buy it Give an example of an episodic memory Episodic Memory relates to events that are personally relevant Therefore a person s motivation to retain these memories will be strong 0 Example a scrapbook Why do phone number have seven digits 0 Our shortterm memory chunks bits of information List the three types of memory and explain how they work together 0 Sensory the holding cell holds information from the sensory registers until it can be processed further High capacity 0 Attention information passes through an attention gate and is transferred to shortterm memory ShortTerm holds limited amounts of information until it is used in response stored more permanently or lost Limited capacity 0 Elaborative Rehearsal information subjective to elaborative rehearsal or deep processing is transferred to longterm memory LongTerm hold information more permanently after it has been transferred from STM Unlimited capacity How does the likelihood that a person wants to use an ATM machine relate to a schema Since schema is a set of beliefs an older customer whose beliefs reflect the time period where people had to go inside a bank may prefer to discuss their banking options facetoface vs a robot Why does a pioneering brand have a memory advantage over follower brands Pioneering brands like Apple transformed technology for consumers all around the world By creating products like the iPod the company enforced positive meaning with its users as mp3 players were becoming big on the portable music scene If a consumer is familiar with a product advertising for it can work by either enhancing or diminishing recall Why Enhancing can work to enforce the hype factor Diminishing may fail to connect with the viewer and make the customer feel like it was a waste of time How does learning new information make it more likely that we ll forget things we ve already learned As we learn new responses stimulus looses its effectiveness in retrieving the old response Define nostalgia and explain why it s such a widely used advertising strategy 0 Nostalgia bittersweet emotion the past is viewed with sadness and longing many classic products appeal to consumers memories of their younger days Evokes long lost emotion that brings the individual back in time If you use a popular old song it will connect with certain demographics that enjoy such popular culture in the time period 18 Name the two basic measures of memory and describe how they differ from one another Recognition in advertising research the extent to which customers say they are familiar with an ad the researcher shows them Recall Test process of retrieving information from memory in advertising research the extent to which consumers can remember a marketing message without being exposed to it during the study 19 List three problems with measures of memory for advertising Response Bias people tend to say yes because they want to be good subjects respond what they think they are supposed to respond Forgetting information forming inaccurate memories Illusion of Truth false claims confuse consumers CHAPTER 4 116138 MOTIVATION AND NEEDS Professor Questions 1 What is motivation and why is it important 0 Refer to question 1 2 What is the difference between motivations drive needs wants Motivation refers to the processes that lead people to behave as they do Drive the desire to satisfy a biological need in order to reduce physiological arousal Need a basic biological motive Want one manifestation of a need 3 Describe several ways to classify needs biogenic vs psychogenic utilitarian vs hedonic Maslow s What are problems with these classifications Types of needs 0 Biogenic Needs innate survival tendencies triggered by consumers biological systems 0 Psychogenic Needs environmental tendencies acquired in the process of becoming a member of culture 1 Need for affiliation 2 Need for power 3 Need for uniqueness o Utilitarian Needs provides functional or practical benefit 4 Example buying a new roof for your house after a hurricane destroyed your old one o Hedonic Needs an experiential need involving emotional responses or fantasies 5 Example going to Disney Problems with these classifications are they are too simple people wouldn t remember 4 What are approachapproach approachavoidance and avoidanceavoidance conflicts 0 Refer to question 2 5 What is involvement What are several types of involvement Refer to questions 6 and 8 6 How can you measure involvement There is a scale and you get the average of their involvement depending on the answer 7 How can you increase involvement Refer to question 9 8 What are the different needs vs motivations of PC and Mac users 0 How a MAC is more hedonic PC is utilitarian End of Chapter 4 Review Questions 1 What is motivation and how is this idea relevant to consumer behavior Motivation the process that leads us to behave the way we do 0 Relevant to consumer behavior 0 Need creates tension 0 Tension creates drive to reduce eliminate o Desired end state consumer s goals 0 Products services provide desired end state 2 Describe three types of motivational conflicts citing an example of each form current marketing campaigns Approachapproach conflict person must choose between two desirable alternatives 0 Going home for the holidays or a ski trip with friends Approachavoidance conflict exists when consumers desire a goal but wish to avoid it at the same time 0 You want a fur coat but feel bad about harming the animal Avoidanceavoidance conflict consumers face a choice between two undesirable alternatives 0 Emphasize special credit plans to ease the pain of car payment 3 Explain the difference between a need and a want Need a basic biological motive Want one manifestation of a need 4 What is cognitive dissonance 0 Cognitive Dissonance theory that people have a need for order and consistency in their lives that a state of tension when beliefs and behaviors conflict each other 5 Name the levels in Maslow s hierarchy of needs and give an example of a marketing appeal that is focused at each level SelfActualization selffulfillment enriching experiences 0 Hobbies travel education Ego Needs prestige status accomplishment 0 Cars furniture credit cards stores country clubs liquors Belongingness love friendship acceptance to others 0 Clothing grooming products clubs drinks 0 Safety security shelter protection 0 Insurance alarm systems retirement investments Physiological water sleep food 0 Medicines staple items generics 6 What is consumer involvement How does this concept relate to motivation Consumer involvement a person s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs values and interests Relates to motivation because as our involvement with a product increases we devote more attention to the productrelated info in the ads 7 Why would marketers want their customers to enter into a flow state when shopping for their products 0 This state refers to a consumer actively participating with the product rather than doing it out of habit Flow state means you have the customer s eyes and ears helps you sell your product 8 List three types of consumer involvement giving an example of each type Advertising elicitation of counter arguments to ads effectiveness of ad to induce purchase Products relative importance of the product class perceived differences in product attributes preference of a particular brand Purchase decisions influence of price on brand choice amount of info searched time deliberating alternatives and type of decision rule used in choice Product can be a brand etc check video 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 What are strategies marketers can use to increase consumers involvement with their products Appeal to hedonic needs 0 Using sensory appeals to generate attention Use novel stimuli o Sudden silences Use prominent stimuli 0 Larger ads more color lnclude celebrity endorsers Build a bond with consumers 0 Maintain an ongoing relationship with consumers What are values and why should marketers care Value a belief that that some condition is preferable to its opposite Marketers should care because brand loyalty enforces these values so more sales or attention etc What is the difference between enculturation and acculturation Enculturation the process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one s own culture Acculturation the process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by another culture What is LOHAS and why are people who follow this lifestyle important Acronym for Lifestyles of Health and Sustainability They are important because the market for socially conscious products is estimated at 200 billion What is materialism and why is it relevant to marketing Materialism the importance consumers attach to worldly possessions Relevant to marketing because the more materialistic you can make your product the more people will want it What is the difference between an emic and an etic perspective on globalization Emic Perspective an approach to studying for cultures that stresses the unique aspects of each culture Etic perspective an approach of studying cultures that stresses commonalities across cultures Why is the US a net exporter of popular culture Consumers around the world eagerly adopt American products especially vehicles and items they link to an American lifestyle What country provides an example of a transitional economy The term describes countries such as China Portugal and Romania that struggle as they adapt from a controlled centralized economy to a free market system Define creolization and provide an example Creolization occurs when foreign influences integrate with local meanings o The Japanese use Western words as shorthand for anything new and exciting even if they don t understand what the words mean CHAPTER 7 248284 A39l39l39ITUDE AND PERSUASION Professor Questions 1 2 What is an attitude What are its components Attitude Overall evaluation of people including oneself objects advertisements or issues 0 Components AKA ABC Model 0 Affective o Behavioral 0 Cognitive What are the 4 functions attitudes can serve Utilitarian Function tell you which objects bring pleasure pain benefits and disadvantages 0 Ex buying a Volvo for safety Valueexpressive Function tell you which objects express your central values or your selfconcept 0 Ex You re a musician and you buy a music shirt Egodefense Function steer you towards objects that protect your selfview and away from those that threaten it 0 Ex Wear deodorant don t want to be known as someone that smells Knowledge Function attitudes formed as a result of a need for structure order meaning and simplification Almost all attitudes serve this function 0 Ex people come to class to learn 3 What are the 4 hierarchies of attitude formation How do they differ from one another Refer to question 3 4 What are the components of multiattribute models What is the Fishbein model What are its flaws What is the Theory of Reasoned Action Refer to question 9 Fishbein Model most influential multiattribute model measures three components of attitudes Measures three components of attitudes o Salient Beliefs people have about an A0 Ex those beliefs about the object a person considers during evaluation 0 Objectattribute linkage or the probability that a particular object has an important attribute 0 Evaluation of each of the important attributes Does account for the difference between attitude and behaviors Theory of Reasoned Action an updated version of the Fishbein model Moved from attitude measurement evaluation to intention measurement behavioral propensity lncludes social pressure as a critical moderating variable The model acknowledges the power of other people in influencing one s behavior 0 Ex What do people think I should do 5 What are important aspects of a source A message When is the source important vs the message What makes a source credible Attractive Source credibility expertise trustworthiness and objectivity Message factors often choosing between using strong arguments OR pretty pictures fear sex nudity etc to sell a product Attractiveness factors sources can be attractive because they are similar to us halo effect 6 What is the sleeper effect Sleeper Effect the process whereby differences in attitude change between positive and negative sources seem to diminish overtime 7 When are onesided vs twosided arguments better Refer to question 23 8 When do you want consumers to draw conclusions What is the Elaboration Likelihood model What triggers central vs peripheral route processing End of Chapter 7 Review Questions 1 How can attitude play an egodefensive function By protecting ourselves either from external threats or internal feelings 2 Describe the ABC model of attitudes ABC Model emphasizes the interrelationships among knowing feelings and doing 3 List three hierarchies of attitudes and describe the major differences among them Standard Learning Hierarchy think feel do assumes that a person approaches a product decision as a problemsolving process LowInvolvement Hierarchy do feel think assumes that the consumer initially doesn t have a strong preference for one brand over another instead she acts on the basis of limited knowledge and forms an evaluation only after she has bought the product Experiential Hierarchy feel think do we act on the basis of our emotional reactions This highlights the idea that intangible product attributes such as package design advertising brand names and the nature of the setting in which the experience occurs can help shape out attitudes toward a brand BehavioralBased Hierarchy just do as you go along then think and learn 4 How do levels of commitment to an attitude influence the likelihood that it will become part of the way we think about a product in the long term The degree of commitment relates to their level of involvement with the attitude object Compliance lowest level of involvement we form an attitude because it helps us gain rewards or avoid punishment Very superficial it is likely to change when other no longer monitor our behavior or when another option becomes available Identification occurs when we form an attitude to conform to another person or group s expectations lnternalization high level of involvement deep seated attitudes become part of our value system 5 We sometimes enhance our attitude toward a product after we buy it How does the theory of cognitive dissonance explain this change 0 The theory of cognitive dissonance states that when a person is confronted with inconsistencies among attitudes or behaviors he or she will take some action to resolve this dissonance perhaps by changing an attitude or modifying a behavior The theory has important ramifications for attitudes because people are often confronted with situations in which there is some conflict between their attitudes and behaviors So if a person encounters negative information about a product after purchasing it they may discount that information and focus on positive information that would reaffirm their reasons for having purchased 6 What is the footinthedoor technique How does selfperception theory relate to this effect Selfperception theory helps to explain the effectiveness of a sales strategy called the footinthedoor technique that is based on the observation that a consumer is more likely to comply with a request if he or she has first agreed to comply with a smaller request 7 What are latitudes of acceptance and rejection How does a consumer s level of involvement with a product affect his latitude of acceptance People form latitudes of acceptance and rejection around an attitude standard Ideas that fall within latitude will be favorably received but those failing outside of this zone wont 8 According to balance theory how can we tell if a triad is balanced or unbalanced How can consumers restore balance to an unbalanced triad Components of a triad can be either positive or negative People alter these components in order to make relations among them consistent The theory specifies that people desire relations among elements in a triad to be harmonious or balanced If they are not a started of tension will result until somehow the person changes his perceptions and restores balance 9 Describe a multiattribute attitude model and list its key components A multiattribute model assumes that a consumer s attitude evaluation toward an attitude object Ao depends upon on the beliefs he or she has about several or many attributes of the object 0 Key Components Attributes beliefs and importance weights 10 Do as I say not as I do How does this statement relate to attitude models Many studies have obtained a very low correlation between a person s reported attitude toward something and his or her actual behavior toward it Some researchers are so 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 discouraged that they question whether attitudes are of any use at all when we try to understand behavior What is a subjective norm and how does it influence our attitudes Subjective Norm an additional component to the multiattribute attitude model that accounts for the effects of what we believe other people think we should do 0 The value of Subjective Norm s arrived at by including two factors 1 the intensity of normative belief NB that others believe an action should be taken or not taken and 2 the motivation to comply MC with that belief ie the degree to which the consumer takes others anticipated reactions into account when evaluating a course of action or a purchase What are three obstacles to predicting behavior even if we know a person s attitudes Pg 262 really long list Describe the theory of reasoned action Why might it not be equally valuable when we apply it to nonWestern cultures The theory of reasoned action has primarily been applied in Western settings Certain assumptions inherent in the model may not necessarily apply to consumers from other cultures Several cultural roadblocks diminish the universality of the theory of reasoned action List three psychological principles related to persuasion Reciprocity Scarcity Authority Consistency Liking Consensus Describe the elements of the traditional communications model and tell how the updated model differs The traditional model began with a source where the communication originates Another is the message itself They must transmit the message via a medium which could be TV radio magazines billboards personal contact etc Then the receivers interpret the message in light of their own experiences Lastly feedback so that the marketer can use receivers reactions to modify aspects of the message as necessary 0 Designed to understand mass communications in which a source transmits information to many receivers at one time like TV Now Mcommerce where marketers promote their goods and services via wireless devices including cell phones PDAs and iPods is redhot What are blogs and how can marketers use them Blogs messages posted online in a diary form Marketers can use them by blogging about their product before during and after Keeping up to date with blogging will help engage customers for upcoming projects What is source of credibility and what are to factors that influence our decision as to whether a source is credible Source of Credibility a communications source s perceived expertise objectivity or trustworthiness Factors affecting it are 0 Whether or not source s qualifications are relevant to endorsed product 0 Whether or not source actually uses product heshe is endorsing What is the difference between buzz and hype How does this difference relate to the corporate paradox Buzz word of mouth Hype corporate propaganda What is a halo effect and why does it happen 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 0 Halo Effect occurs when we assume that persons who rank high on one dimension excel on others as well This happens because we are more comfortable when all of our judgments about a person correspond What is an avatar and why might an advertiser choose to use one instead of hiring a celebrity endorser Avatar appears in superhuman or animal form It is beneficial because Consumers can design their avatars to reflect their own unique personalities desires and fantasies which helps them suit the needs of the target audience When should a marketer present a message visually versus verbally How does the twofactory theory explain the effects of message repetition on attitude change Twofactor theory explains the fine line between familiarity and boredom it proposes that two separate psychological processes operate when we repeatedly shoe an ad to a viewer 0 Positive side of repetition is that it increases familiarity and thus reduces uncertainty about the product 0 Negative side of repetition is that overtime boredom increases with each exposure which can result in wearout This theory implies that advertisers can overcome this problem if they limit the amount of exposure per repetition They can also maintain familiarity but alleviate boredom if they slightly vary the content of ads overtime although each spot differs the campaign still revolves around a common theme When is it the best to present a twosided message versus a onesided message Twosided is best when trying to educate about a new product Twosided may enhance credibility Do humorous ads work If so under what conditions Generally humorous ads get attention One reason silly ads may shift opinions is that they provide a source of distraction A funny ad inhibits counter arguing so this increases the likelihood of message acceptance because he doesn t come up with arguments against the product They work best when the ad clearly identifies brand and when funny material doesn t overload the message Should marketers ever try to arouse fear in order to persuade consumers 0 Fear is effective when advertiser uses moderate threat AND provides a solution There is no solution people are disengaged Why do marketers use metaphors to craft persuasive messages Give two examples of this technique Metaphors allow the marketer to apply meaningful images to everyday events 0 Tony the Tiger equates cereal with strength What is the difference between a lecture and a drama A lecture is like a speech a source speaks directly to audience to inform them about a product persuade 0 A drama is similar to a play or movie a source draws the viewer into action indirectly addresses audience and involved audience emotionally Describe the elaboration likelihood model and summarize how it relates to the relative importance of what is said versus how it s said ELM assumes that under conditions of high involvement we take the central route to persuasion Under conditions of low involvement we take a peripheral route instead In high involvement we care more about what s said in lowinvolvement we care more about how it s said Incorporates ideas such as involvement info processing cognitive responses and attitude formation premise to understand how a persuasive communication may affect a person s attitudes we must consider how his motivation and ability to elaborate on the message during processing
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