HUM2305 - Midterm Study Guide - Terms
HUM2305 - Midterm Study Guide - Terms HUM2305
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emily Griffith on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HUM2305 at University of Florida taught by Andrew Nichols in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see What is the Good Life? in Arts and Humanities at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
HUM2305 MidTerm Terms Nichols FiveFold Happiness Rebuses Pictorial Puns Pictorial Puns symbols or objects used to represent a particular meaning Luck fa It is the word for quotluckquot in Chinese It is used as a decorative function particularly above doors It is also the word for quotbatquot which makes the bat a lucky symbol It is one of the five words said to bring balance and happiness to life Five Bats wu i AKA The quotFive Good Fortunesquot they include Longevity Wealth Health Love of Virtue and Peaceful Death If you have met all five you are considered to have lead a lucky life Longevity Shdu It is the most regarded of the Five Fortunes It is one of the five words said to bring balance and happiness to life Prosperity Ill It describes a person s social status education rank or honor Its symbols include the deer and the monkey It is one of the five words said to bring balance and happiness to life Double Happiness It is he Chinese phrase for Double Happinessquot It is found in marriage and weddings It is one of the five words said to bring balance and happiness to life Legend of the Four Happiness Boys This is an idea of the child prodigy ie in It is an image of four laughing boys each representing a different happy event in life These events include your wedding passing the imperial exams encountering a friend in a faroff place and rain Herodotus Croesus He is the King of Lydia He considers himself to be the happiest man alive and has a lot of arrogance called hybris He is met with two changes of fate Solon of Athens He was a great Greek philosopher and lawmaker of Athens During a selfimposed exile he traveled to Lydia and met with Croesus In response to Croesus questions about happiness he tells two stories and tells Croesus to quotCount no man happy until he is deadquot Tellus of Athens He is the man who Solon considers to be the happiest man he has ever met He was wealthy enough to live comfortably throughout his life fathered many sons and grandsons and died a glorious death Cleobus and Biton of Argos are brothers who Solon considers to be the second happiest of the people he has ever met They pull their mother s cart to a festival of the goddess Hera As a result they are praised and their mother asks Hera to give them the greatest thing a man can have Hera complies and makes the brothers drop dead The brothers are immortalized in stories and statues quotCount no man as happy until he deadquot This is the advice given by Solon to Croseus It explains that one may seem extremely happy in the moment but their fortune can change at any time As a result happiness can only be determined once one has died Atys son of Croesus He is the elder son of Croesus In a dream Croesus sees him being killed by a spear Taking this as a warning Atys is forbidden from battle and all of the spears are removed He ends up being killed by a spear in a hunting accident Adrastus of Phrygia He is a man who spent time serving Croesus as part of his quotcleansingquot for wrongdoings Croesus sends him to protect Atys during the hunt for the wild boar which is terrorizing Lydia He ends up accidentally killing Atys with a spear during this hunt Cyrus the Great of Persia He is the leader of the Persian Empire that rivals Croesus He defeats Croseus but in the end spares his life President Bernie Machen All That amp More The True Purposes of College President Machen proposes that if you adopt three key purposes while in college these purposes being selfdiscovery preparation for a careerthe future and contribution to the world then the Good Life in college will be yours The Roots of Ayurveda Three Ambitions They are one of eight sets in the Caraka Samhz ta They include the Will for Life the Drive for Prosperity and the Aspiration of the World Beyond The will for life The rst and principle of the Three Ambitions it rooted in a desire for both health and longevity It states that one should not simply live but live a well and ful lling life The drive for prosperity The second of the Three Ambitions this principle goes back to the idea of living a ful lling life but also emphasizes the importance of having reputable jobs With suf cient pay What good is your life if day by day you are just scraping by It states that a long life is not worth living if you don t live well In this text some examples of reputable jobs include agriculture and husbandry The aspiration for the world beyond This is the last ambition of the Three Ambitions It deals With a desire to reach the world beyond In Hinduism this means breaking the cycle of rebirth However then how can people account for doubt of the theory of reincarnation or possibly breaking this cycle to achieve access to the world beyond Where do these doubts come from Four methods of investigation They are used to prove that a belief system is true The steps include seeking authority perception inference dealing with past present and future and reasoning Authorities They are people who are cultures free of agitation and pure of heart and mind Their word may help prove something is true as they have no reason to lie Perception This is the awareness of the universe it is the recognition of the moment when the mind soul and body are unified Perception is a powerful form of proof but cannot include everything some thing have been proven to exist despite not being visible to the human eye Inference This is the act of knowing something has happened or will happen in the future without actually having seen the act performed Inferences can beo only made following perception and they can come from looking at things in the past present or future Reasoning This is determining the results of something through the act of drawing conclusions Three Pillars Food Sleep Chaste life Three Strengths Inherited Grown Earned Three causes of disease Overuse Underuse Abuse of the Senses Marcel Proust In Search of Lost Time This is Proust s most famous work It has seven volumes over 3000 pages over 2000 characters and took almost 14 years to write It addresses themes of pain guilt and memory Another Memory This is a short story by Proust that addresses memory in the quotessence of anotherquot quotEssence of the past This is a sense that is implanted into the subconscious While voluntary memory is actively trying to remember something involuntary memory occurs as a result of the essence of the past when something triggers as a memory inside your head Siddhartha Herman Hesse He is the author of Siddhartha He was born in 1877 and lived in India as a child Hindu stages of life They are called Ashramas They consist of for parts with corresponding ages Student 1020 Householder s Life 2149 Hermit 5074 and Renounce 75 until death Govinda He is Siddhartha s best friend He goes along with Siddhartha on a spiritual journey but eventually sets out on his own path to enlightenment Brahmin This is the therm for a Hindu priest and teacher who ranks highly in the caste system Siddhartha comes from a family of Brahmins Nirvana Enlightenment This is the insight or awakening to the true nature of reality Gotama the Buddha This is the man that has reached enlightenment who Siddhartha and Govinda meet on their travels Vasudeva He is the ferryman who instructs Siddhartha in his later years This name was also chosen on purpose as Vasudeva is a name for Krishna an incarnation of Vishnu a prominent Hindu god Atman Self Soul This is the Soul or inner voice It is reffered to as the highest form of Self Achieving Atman brings the soul closer to unity and closer to Nirvana Samanas They are wandering priests and ascetics who try to distance themselves from the physical world Siddhartha and Gotama leave their lives with their Brahmin family to follow them Kamala She is the woman whom Siddhartha is entranced by She becomes Siddhartha s teacher of city life and love and has his child Maya illusion This is the illusion or the mask of the physical world The veil of Maya is put there to corrupt one from the true self The perception of thine that humankind has is part of the Maya The game of Samsara This is what is considered to be the neverending cycle of life death and rebirth It is also how Siddhartha views the merchant s game of riches and wealth Siddhartha and his quotteachersquot Siddhartha has various teachers throughout his journey He mentions five of them in particular while speaking to Govinda They include Kamala Kamaswami a dice player a buddhist monk and Vasudeva Kamala taught him the wonderful pleasures of love and the importance of wealth and riches in society Kamaswami taught Siddhartha the secrets of making money and living the life of a rich man After becoming wealthy Siddhartha began to play dice and constantly went through a cycle of winning and losing thousands in order to attain some feelings of excitement in his life But his taught him the worthless value of money for money only brought more and more sadness The fourth teacher is a buddhist monk presumably Govinda who taught him to connect back to his past Lastly Vasudeva taught Siddhartha how to listen to people and the river which in turn helped Siddhartha on the road to happiness Awakening This is the name for Siddhartha s first major rebirth It occurs after he leaves Gotama and Govinda and rejects all the teachings of his past life to start anew in the material world The Om This is an essence which unifies the world and when one is unified with the world they can hear it Siddhartha hears this by the river after he leaves the city quotListen to the Riverquot This is the advice which Vasudeva gives to Siddhartha Concept of Time Vasuveda tells Siddhartha that he needs to let go of the concept of time Siddhartha s son Young Siddhartha named after his father is the son of Siddhartha and Kamala He is Siddhartha s final test before reaching Nirvana He is what Siddhartha once was A materialistic and hedonistic young man who thinks only of returning to his life of tangible possessions and physical pleasures Siddhartha loves his son but when the boy runs away he is forced to realie that he can only reach enlightenment by letting go of such binding emotion just as his father did for him Siddhartha must let his son go and attempt to reach Nirvana on his own Take that Elsa Inside Mecca Anisa Mehd Director He is a film director and journalist and the director of Inside Mecca Ka aba Ka bah It is a structure in Mecca that is known as the Shrine of the Great Mosque Hajj This is a pilgrimage which occurs during the last month of the Islamic calendar It is the fifth of the Five Pillars of Islam and it is required that it is required that all Muslims who are physically and financially capable take this pilgrimage at least once in their lifetime The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks Rebecca Skloot She is the author on science and medicine who wrote the famous book The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacksquot Henrietta Lacks She was an AfricanAmerican who was born in 1920 and who died in 1951 from cervical cancer During her treatment at Johns Hopkins she had cervical tissue removed and doctors discovered a special cell line in her tissue Dr George Gey This was the doctor who primarily oversaw the research and distribution of the HeLa cells HeLa Cell Line This is the name for the quotimmortal cell linequot taken from Henrietta Lacks cervical tissue These cells are durable and are able to survive and multiply on their own They have been used in many types of research Lacks family The family of Deborah Lacks was not very receptive to those who questioned them particularly on the subject of Henrietta They were not aware about the research being done on her cells until more than 20 years after her death Most of them reefiest to speak to Skloot about Henrietta believing her to be another scientist attempting to take advantage of their family Deborah Lacks She is Henrietta Lack s daughter She forms a relationship with Rebecca Skloot and explains her thoughts that because her mothers cells are alive her mother lives on Emily Prager quotOur Barbies Ourselvesquot This is the article written by Emily Prager which was published in the December 1991 issue of Interview It talks about Barbie s in uence on society and young girls Jack Ryan He is the quotcreatorquot and manufacturer of Barbie Impacts of Barbie on body image and sexuality In quotOur Barbies Ourselvesquot Prager implies that barbie is a weapon used against women for the way she represets a disproportionate and impossible physical standard Her image creates an unrealistic expectation of women and has reinforced double standards and the stereotypical societal view on beauty The feminist movement Prager also presents contradicting interpretation of Barbie which is that she represents a liberated woman This is because the doll drives a nice car owns a mansion and freely expresses sexuality all things which are considered expressions of freedom in the 1960 s Depictions of Barbie and Ken Prager explains the unfairness of the fact that barbie has large breasts while Ken has no genitals Prager questions if this means that male genitalia are quotmore sacred and worthy of being hidden Oscar Wilde Aesthetic Movement The Picture of Dorian Gray Published in 1890 then revised and published again in 1891 this is Oscar Wilde s novel about a man and a painting The Preface In the preface of The Picture of Dorian Gray Wilde makes a number of statements about art and beauty One such statement is quotThose who find beautiful meanings in beautiful things are cultivated For these there is hope Wilde also asserts in the preface that all art is useless Wilde s views on art As stated in the preface of The Picture of Dorian Gray Wilde is not impressed with the fact that an aesthetic views art for only its superficial beauty Faustian Themes In The Picture of Dorian Gray there are themes that reflect the Germanic folk legend of a man called Faust According to the legend Faust is an alchemist who makes a pact with the devil for unlimited knowledge For 50 years he lives a life of absolute debauchery and decadence Paganini and Robert Johnson are also known for including Faustian themes in their biographies Basil Hallward He is a famous and respected painter who disappeared after he began to become dissatisfied with his work He painted the picture of Dorian Gray who was his muse Lord Henry Wotton He is a rich man who is seen as a hedonist in A Picture of Dorian Gray He influences Gray after Hallward introduces them Dorian Gray He is a handsome young man and he serves as Hallward s muse in the story He eventually makes a deal which allows him to remain beautiful forever while the portrait of him shows his age and sin Henry s views on in uence the self the senses etc In the garden Lord Henry proves to be very concerned with the senses He believes that there is a connection between the senses and the soul the soul looks at what is beautiful and then is uplifted Importance of beauty In The Picture of Dorian Gray Henry s scene in the garden demonstrates the importance of beauty He tells Gray to enjoy beauty while he still possesses it and warns him that beauty is temporary He tells Gray The world belongs to you for a season Song of Songs Song of Solomon Plato s Symposium The Five Megilot Scrolls Does not pertain to this section The Shulamite Does not pertain to this section Solomon son of David Does not pertain to this section Various interpretations of the Song of Solomon Does not pertain to this section Agape and Eros Does not pertain to this section Plato of Athens He was a famous Greek philosopher who wrote the Symposium He was also Socrates mentee Socrates of Athens He was Plato s mentor and also is considered the greatest philosopher of Athens Symposium He was Plato s mentor and also is considered the greatest philosopher of Athens Socrates Speech This speech focused on the concept of the quotLadder of Love which focuses on four levels of love which build on one another Diotima She is the woman whom Socrates introduces as an expert on love The Ladder of Love This is a metaphor used by Socrates to describe the development of love It states that if one skips the first level of love they cannot reach the uppermost form of love Guido Guinizelli He was an Italian poet who lived from 1230 to 1276 AD Originally a judge he became exiled and then wrote poetry Dolce Stil Nuovo This is Italian for quotSweet New Style It is the name of a new movement of poetry Themes in his poetry The themes in Guinizelli s poetry include Feminine Beauty the merging of different cultures and concepts eg Amore Luna the Killer WhaleZDigital Intimacy Michael Parfit He is the author of the article Whale of a Tale Whale of a Tale It is an article written by Michael Parfit about the story of Luna the baby killer whale It was published in Smithsonian in 2004 Suzanne Chisolm She is a documentary movie maker who followed Luna and reported on his impact on the community Saving Luna The True Story of a Lone Orca This is the name of the article which addresses the story of Luna the Orca The article was published on the Smithsonian website and was written by Kenneth R Fletcher Luna the Orca He is a killer whale who for an unknown reason was separated from his pod at a young age He began interacting with the residents of Nootka Sound Nootka Sound A porttown on the Western shore of Canada s Vancouver Island this is where Luna the Orca starts to interact with humans Facebook It is the social media website founded by Mark Zuckerberg in 2004 News Feed This is a feature of the social media website facebook which allows users posts to be broadcast in front of their facebook friends quotAmbient Awareness It is the awareness is the idea of acknowledging the minute details of a person s daily life Where they are what they eat how they go about their typical days etc Ludwig Van Beethoven He was a German composer and pianist He composed the 9th Symphony 9th Symphony Published in 1824 this is one of Beethoven s best known symphonies It has become musical beacon of joy hope and freedom throughout the world Leonard Bernstein He is an orchestra conductor and analyst fo Beethoven s music He wrote the musical West Side Story and spent much of his life studying Beethoven The Sabbath Abraham Heschel A Jewish scholar who became an important figure for his participation in the Civil Rights movements In his book The Sabbath he discusses the consecration of time Concept of Time According to A Palace in Time quottime is like a wasteland It is a human construct capable of harming individuals The Sabbath is a pause from this concept of time hence it is like a palace Philo of Alexandria He was the spokesman of the Greekspeaking Jews in Alexandria He view the Sabbath as a day for physical rest and does not believe that it represents the spirit of the Bible Secular view of the Sabbath According to A Palace in Time it is the idea in the spirit of Aristotle that focuses on having the day for relaxation in order to acquire strength for new efforts A Palace in Time This is a story written by Heschel in which he talks about the Sabbath day as a sacred period during which men stop celebrating space and celebrate time It is found in the first chapter of The Sabbath The story of the prince among the commoners It is a story told by Heschel in A Palace in Time In the story a prince who has previously been made to leave his palace becomes so excited about being able to return that he tries to celebrate alone but cannot He then inited people from the town to join him Heschel uses this story to explain that one can celebrate alone but that it is better to do so with others His point is that the mind needs to celebrate along side the body The tale of the rabbi in the cave A story told by Heschel in A Palace in Time In this story a rabbi is persecute for his addiction and is sent to a cave where his has no way of knowing what time or day it is However the rabbi is still able to distinguish the Sabbath from the other days When the Sabbath arrives his smoking addiction is suppressed But once the Sabbath passes he is overcome by his addiction once more Menuha rest It is a word that has been used in religious academic and technological pursuits It originates from the Genesis creation story in the Bible in which God creates the universe and everything in it in six day and then rests on the seventh It can be seen as a positive force in the universe and a man needs to attain and understand this in order to be free of strife Enid Schildkrout Tatooing piercing etc These are the different types of body inscription that Schildkrout examines in the reading quotInscribing the Body Tattoos and piercings are symbolic to many societies but they are not metaphorical quotSecond Skinquot quotSecond skinsquot can replace the significance of tattoos in some cultures These objects can be masks wigs or body paint and their function is to display a mark of culture Tribal in uence As piercings and tattoos become more intense in the modern body art the tribal in uence on an individual has become very evident History of tattooing and branding The history of tattoos is varied In early Christendom tattoos were signs of religious observance During the Renaissance tattoos were associated with magic and medicine In the 1950s tattoos appealed mainly to the lower classes of the Western world Starting in the 1960 s however society experienced a radical shift and body art began to be used as a way of affirming identity Tattoos are seen today throughout the West as popular fashion statements Denial confirmation of personhood Denial and confirmation of personhood through tattooing and branding has been used frequently throughout history Nazi concentration camp branding marks on slaves in ancient Greece and Rome and tattoos as punishment are just a few examples However other cultures such as Polynesia and New Zealand use tattoos a s a confirmation of personhood and humanity The body in art Certain tribes have the same tribal images on their bodies that are displayed on cultural artifacts In this way the body is used as a canvas for cultural concepts and representations Modern Primitivesquot Modern primitivesquot include extreme piercing tatooing and other such body modifications of today s age
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