HNF 260 Study guide for exam 1
HNF 260 Study guide for exam 1 HNF 260
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Conor McDonough on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HNF 260 at Michigan State University taught by j. ekstrom in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
STUDY GUIDE FOR HNF 260 EXAM 1 The exam will be approximately 60 multiplechoice questions covering Chapters 1 2 4 and 5 Why is nutrition important Nutrition is important on a personal basis because of its impact on general helath and chronic disease prevention Leading causes of death in the United States according to CDC 2010 Heart Disease Cancer Chronic lower respiratory diseases Cerebrovascular disease Accidents Alzheimer s disease Diabetes mellitus Kidney disease In uenza and pneumonia 0 Suicide HPWFP P FWN Over 10 of adults in the United States are diabetic Over 35 of adults in the United States are prediabetic In 2050 1 in 3 people are projected to have diabetes if trends continue There is a 8 fold increase in rate of cardiovascular disease if an individual is diabetic Six major classes of Nutrients Carbohydrates Lipids Protein Vitamins Minerals Water P P FWN Essential Nutrients Essential nutrients are nutrients that must be obtained from an external source because the human body is unable to make it by itself In order for a nutrient to be classi ed as an essential nutrient it must rst meet the following criteria Omission of substance from diet leads to decline in heath Return of substance to diet allows the body to return to its normal homeostatic state The substance must have an identi ed biological func on Ca rbohvd rates Provide a major source of fuel for the body Glucose needed 4565 of diet energy should come from carbohydrates Provide energy 4kcag Not strictly a dietary essential we can make glucose from some noncarbohydrates sources such as protein but a healthy diet will include carbohydrates Dietary ber Complex carbohydrates that cannot be digested comes from plant sources HFCS is starch that has been broken down to Glycogen Glycogen is the form in which animals store carbohydrates Glycogen is stored in the liver and contributes to about 10 of the liver s mass When an individual s glycogen reserves are fully replenished then the excess energy is stored as fat 1 gram of glycogen binds 2 grams of waterless ef cient storage Lipids than fats glucose then enzymatically some of the glucose is converted to fructose HFCS is usually about a 50 glucose 50 fructose mix Starch storage form of carbohydrate in foods sugar units are connected in long polymers Plants store carbohydrates as starch Fats solid at room temperature Oils liquid at room temperature 0 Both fats and oils are waterinsoluble 9kcalg 2035 of energy should come from lipids Saturated fatty acids mostly solid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acids mostly liquid at room temperature Triglycerides o The common food lipid is a triglyceride A triglyceride consists of 1 glycerol and 3 fatty acids 0 Not water soluble Energy storage Fatty acid structures Saturated ilili 39 illlli Polyunsaturated I T T iT l T C O H unHHHHH HHquot ll39lHlilHil39l x 39 h allhi 2 clmuble Bonds Curlme Lipids Many fatty acids are possible 400 different types found in milk 0 Two fatty acids are essential N6 Omega6 linoleic acid N3 Omega3 alphalinoleic acid 0 Many humans consume an excessive amount of n6 than needed but less n3 than needed 0 Recommended to have two servings of sh per week in order to get the longer chain n3 omega 3 Protein Consists of Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen and Nitrogen minor amounts of sulfur It is possible to calculate the amount of protein in food by measuring the amount of nitrogen Protein yields 4kcal per gram same energy value as carbohydrates Target is 1035 of your daily intake Most adults in the United States consume more protein than needed Excess is used for energy or converted to body fat In the United States we get 23 of our protein from animals meat eggs and sh In developing countries 23 of dietary protein comes from plant sources Amino Acids Vitamins Minerals Protein is composed of amino acids There are 20 common amino acids There are 9 essential amino acids Infants have additional needs Vitamins are required to facilitate many enzyme reactions Very small amounts needed 13 essential vitamins 4 fat soluble vitamins Need very small amounts of vitamins Not a source of food Certain vitamins if consumed in excessive amounts have the potential to become toxic to the body For example Vitamin A if consumed in excessive levels is toxic to the body If a woman in her 1st trimester of pregnancy consumes too much vitamin A then the effects can be tetra genic to the fetus Watersoluble vitamins have less potential to induce toxicity because these water soluble vitamins can be excreted overdoses are unusual Watersoluble vitamins can also be lost when they are steamed Water soluble vitamins can leach out into the water during cooking Inorganic compounds don t have carbon Water Summary In bone calcium phosphorus Used to stimulateregulate chemical reactions Enzymatic reactions 16 minerals required in diet Minerals are separated into two categories 1 Major Minerals quotMajor mineralsquot are the 7 minerals that need to consumed in amounts greater than 100mgday 2 Trace Minerals quotTrace mineralsquot consist of the remaining 9 minerals that need to consumed in amounts less than 100mgday The human body consists of 60 water Water makes up 72 of muscle It is recommended to drink 1115 cups of water per day There are 41 essential nutrients 1 Fhsaenfi al Hiijii titi39i39 in the Hgmja Iii and Thai Glam si EnergrJYiiEldi g NutriE m irlj lrnjs rat Li icls FMS anti Gills Pmmth n u m a SlugEma HT 1 eig ill l ulIlJIl39iil i il g llgi innilicic racial uizrmggac j Him ims Eth t yicIL39E gincum aLinmwhumix acid Ii rlzzamiisgaEfl Hali fi 5 rue i I3 Lysine Ili Iftlliiiihl39ll39ilfii Flirt Iiiyztlia I tii PH LIJE IWHHif llhgrEtnlf lm 1515 Em Mama liturgy Eicl iig Nutrients ipi39i39mrnina Minur 5mm in lter at Elim1 ailrift E llmblcf Eat E lmbillt MajDr THEE Minerals trialqu 1111 ir l39l i in 15 IE 23111111 I I m iquot am in m mila inter Killian M39im iii EZITJIEJEIIiilfl Hirjguiticf li n Eig t in FI Elai gl39ic iuni i39i lmrriq ie Hicku I mntutlwns acid H Phi Ispwilwrrtus in 115136 Silic Hi tin Pniuiatminjjim Hm Vanadium It f1 agini39i iaia1l 71i39lgl1 ii IE LE 2 Sti l ihr Eh linilga ticsslium JULIEiquot Ei39lcnl39ium r 39I F Linn quotMaie milEC IIEIILHEEHiillliTniii ll39a Elem aha WEN Iiikhar Haj 39aizrmn l39JILirh39ujmd rclmn l i nihlnniuin Iil Emquot l39igninLaLnu 531 am dniirutrilai1HauI lugr GEM i39llli lrll LillaEa IfIII acjglll391 ll n miu39r sllli q i39rqgl IPfIIIEIcw Jini rlii I Ila E39Iiifz hj quotEL 1 iliiilgi i Fri I Eii i211 IE39LIJIrlhq lrl i ralziihlfiIE lflahElm II I39I Ell I swan15 l E39i i39llsfr Eluquotl39raa 1 i4151 Mai 39a39i39 ili39i iurihE lli3915 q39 quot3939 i1rilliur1 iil39itai IH I111 HIE R riiii Il39lil39ml HEEEZG ill3 39Iiifiell39silu k iif39 m Illi 1mm snlziiI IE 5 Lyman el 39i39ifr39 L39iln tire mi alam rl ItiIEI39iL39IEi Energy yielding nutrients Carbohydrates lipids protein and alcohol all provide energy Kcal a Kcal is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of kg of water 1 degree Celsius Average body composition for humans 0 57 water 0 25 fat 0 13 protein muscle 0 5 mostly bone also in cells 0 1 carbohydrate Trace amounts of vitamins Lean muscle mass contains 75 water 0 Body fat is 25 0 Bone is 22 water Current breakdown of caloric intake of the average diet in the United States Recommended dietary adjustments based off of the average diet in the 16 comes from protein 50 from carbohydrate 33 from fat target 1035 target 4565 target 2035 50 of carbohydrate intake comes from simple sugars 66 of protein comes from animal sources 60 of fat comes from animal sources United States Focus on foods rich in Fiber Vitamin D Calcium Potassium Omega 3 fatty acids lron Vitamins Reduce the consumption of Energy drinks Sugar Fat Sodium Alcohol Factors that in uence our food choices Hungerphysiological need to eat hormonal signals Appetite physiological Desire to eat certain foods Factors that in uence appetite Flavor Texture of food Appearance of food Early in uences such as a certain meal being tied to pleasant memories or traumatic and you have become conditioned to associate the speci c meal with those memories causing you to experience those feelings when making the speci c meal 0 Establishing a routine diet familiarity 0 Advertising 0 Cost Nutritional concerns and belief Nutritional Health Status 0 Goal Optimal nutrition 0 Malnutrition describes both under nutrition and over nutrition 0 Subclinical under nutrition Early stage de ciency no overt signs or symptoms 0 Long term sever emalnutrition With more severe longer term de ciencies there will be signs skin conditions and symptoms fatigue aches eventually become apparent HEALTHYPEOPLE 2020 Health objectives for the United States developed by the department of Health and Human services DHHS Science based 10 year national objectives for improving the health of all Americans Designed to guide national quothealth promotion and disease preventionquot A tool for use by government and other public and private sector partners ldentify nationwide health improvements priorities lncrease public awareness of determinants of health disease and disability and the opportunities for progress Provide measurable objectives and goals Engage multiple sector to take action to strengthen policies and improve practices Identify critical research evaluation and data collection needs Healthy People 2020 goals 1 Attain high quality longer lives free of preventable disease disability injury and premature death 2 Achieve health equality eliminate disparities and improve health of all groups 3 Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all 4 Promote quality of life healthy development and healthy behaviors across all life stages F Assessing Nutritional health of individuals In a medical context a health care provider assesses the nutritional health of individuals in order to identify risk before resulting conditions become severe The individual components of the nutrition assessment 0 Anthropometric height weight and skinfold thickness 0 Biochemical urine and or blood tests to measure lipids cholesterol glucose and PH 0 Clinical measuring blood pressure heart rate skin observation looking irregularities that might signal speci c nutritional de ciencies 0 Dietary individual answers a questionnaire regarding the speci cs of an individual s diet 0 Environmental Assesses the individual s environmental factors that in uence their health such as living situation and socioeconomic status Limitations of Nutritional Assessments 1 It takes a signi cant amount of time for clinical signs of a nutrition de cit to become apparent Example Vitamin 812 de ciency may not show signs for 6 months 2Signs of nutrient de ciencies are often not very speci c and therefore hard to identify with certainty 3An observable dietrelated disease state may require longterm poor nutrition before it becomes apparent Examples of these diet related disease state include cardiovascular disease Historical Landmarks in Nutritional Sciences 0 16005 lron used to treat anemia 17005 citrus fruits found to cure scurvy 18005 Discovered that food 5 contained carbohydrates fats proteins calcium phosphorus sodium and potassium 18905 Determined energy value of foods discovered that humans need 20003000kcal in a day 0 1912 Discovered there are compounds in food that are vital for life These compounds were termed as vitamins 0 1930s discovered that many soldiers poor energy levels were a result of nutritional de ciencies 1943 The rst Recommended dietary allowances RDAs are pubHshed How Nutrition research is conducted 0 Initial observations oDevelop a hypothesis to explain observation This is accomplished by using cause and effect relationships correlations and associations relationships Single variable analysis or multiple variable analysis 0 Design experiments collect data test hypothesis olf results of replicated experiments con rm the hypothesis then you have a theory Follow up experiments continue to test and re ne the hypothesis Epidemiologic studies Observations on populations or large groups of people People are observed but are not asked to change their behaviors alter food intake or undergo any treatment Epidemiologic studies can be used to identify correlations but can not determine causeeffect relationships Speci c Epidemiology studies that have yielded signi cant results Framingham Heart Study 0 Started in the 1940s 0 Provided the rst evidence that diet is related to heart disease risk Nurses Health Study 0 Harvard U 121000 female RNS followed from 1976 on to study risk factors for cancer and cardiovascular disease and originally to assess safety of oral contraception CSFII Continuing Survey Of Food lntakes By Individuals Performed by the USDA Looks at food and nutrients consumed by the population as a whole 1day food diary on a large population sample NHANES National Health amp Nutrition Exam Survey National Center for Health Statistics Centers for Disease Control CDC Assessment of health and nutritional status of children and adults in the US Interviews and physical exams clinical tests 5000 people per year adults and children over 40 years going TVbes of Epidemiolodic studies 1 Ecological studies Ecological studies look at the subject from a population perspective 2Cohort Studies Cohort studies gather data on a large group of healthy people and then continue to follow that group over many yearsResearchers pay special attention to the lifestyles and diets of the participants who remain healthy 3 Intervention studies Intervention studies test for causeeffect relationships Intervention studies can be conducted on humans animals or cultured cells Another key feature of Intervention studies is the use of control groups and experimental groups 4 Randomized Controlled Trial Random assignment to experimental and control groups Another key feature of the randomized controlled trial is the use of placebos Type of Bias Hawthorne effect Just being in a study can in uence a person s behaviors Placebo effect An observable effect of treatment seems to arise because the participant expects or believes the treatment will work Researcher bias The researcher may inadvertently affect the outcome because they expect a certain result Evaluating nutritional claims Primary source where the information was rst reported Peerreviewed journals Results are evaluated by several independent researchers and approved before publication Anecdotal advice cannot be accepted as valid until studied in a rigorous scienti c manner Lectures 79 digestive system and disorders of the GI tract Musculature of the GI tract Peristalsis ring of contraction that propels material through the GI tract Segmentation back and forth action that breaks apart food in small intestine Mass movement peristaltic wave that contracts over a large area of the large intestine to help eliminate fecal waste Sphincters 1 Lower esophageal sphincter prevent back ow re ux of stomach contents into the esophagus 2 Pyloric sphincter control the ow of stomach contents into the small intestine 3Sphincter of Oddi Control the ow of bile from common bile duct into the small intestine 4 Ileocecal valve Prevents the contents of the large intestine from reentering the small intestine 5Anal sphincters prevent defecation until person desires to do so Digestive System A Mouth responsible for chewing of food production of saliva and releases the enzymes amylase lysozyme Hnguaalase B Esophagus Transports food to the stomach Secretes mucus to keep food lubricated C Epidlottis The epiglottis prevents food from entering the trachea D Stomach The stomach holds about 46 cups of food for 14 hours The stomach houses chief cells parietal cells and also has 3 layers of muscle The stomach s gastric secretions consist of HCL from parietal cells pepsinogen and gastric lipase from chief cells The HCL and Pepsinogen both contribute to the initial digestion of proteins The stomach has a very low pH environment acidic which kills most harmful bacteria and viruses dissolves dietary minerals inactivates ingested protein and also activates pepsinogen to the active enzyme pepsin The stomach empties into the small intestine by way of the pyloric sphincter and the rate at which the chime enters the small intestine is controlled by gastric inhibitory pepUde E Small Intestine The small intestine is divided into 3 separate portions but has a combined surface area of 200 square meters The Small intestine houses intestinal villi cells which have a lifespan of 36 days Food remains in the small intestine for 310 hours Due to the small intestine having several structural levels its surface area for absorption is 600 times that of a simple tube 1 Duodenum 10 inches 2 Jejunum 4ft 3 lleum 5ft the small intestine houses 3 different types of cells 1 Goblet Cells Goblet cells are responsible for the secreting mucus in the small intestine 2 Endocrine cells The endocrine cells of the small intestine produce hormones 3 Enterocytes absorptive cells The enterocytes in the small intestine produce digestive enzymes Liver The liver is responsible for the production of bile The bile is stored in the gall bladder and empties into the duodenum via the common bile duct at the Sphincter of oddi Bile emulsi es fats to aid in lipid absorption Bile is reabsorbed in the lleum and recycled when it is returned to the liver This process is called enterohepatic circulation Pancreas The pancreas functions as an exocrine gland by making insulin glucagon and peptide hormones Pancreatic juice contains sodium bicarbonate alkaline neutralizes acid and enzymes to help digestion The enzymes found in pancreatic juice are pancreatic amylase pancreatic lipase and also several proteases Large lntestine colon The large intestine is divided into 5 separate portions 1 Cecum 2 Ascending colon 3 Transvers colon 4 Descending colon 5 Sigmoid colon The large intestine has a diameter of 25 inches and stretches 5 feet long The large intestine receives water some minerals undigested ber electrolytes and undigested starches It takes 1224 for materials to transverse through large intestine The large intestine houses a vast number of bacterial ora which consist of bene cial bacteria and some pathogens There are 10 times as many bacterial cells here as cells in the human body The use of antibiotics may disrupt the population of certain bacterial ora Bacterial populations can also change in response to an individuals diet Gut bacteria synthesize vitamins K and biotin a bvitamin Fermentation of some indigestible ber and starches are also carried out by bacteria found in your large intestine 39 L LE1 5 LE HIE FLE HIRE i quot matsumac 7 cl FLE ELIHE ll LIEIH lm Table 452 Impcittant Scctcticms 0f thc Digestivc Sccrciticm Sitcs cnf Pt ducticm Functicms Saliva Mclutli Cuiiti39ibutcs tc starch digcstimu 39lubticatiuut swaliuwi g Mucus Mciutiu stomacltu small and latgr Ptuatccts GI tract cclls lubricatcs iutcstiucs digcstiug icid Euaymcs Malachi sinimacitle small itltcstiricE Brcalcs rclciarn carbul lyrc lliatcc fats and amylascs lipascs paucrcas ptutciu into small cutiuglfi For pmtcascs absutptiuu Acid HCI Stumacli Ptuu iutcs digcsticiu OFPI HEEilIL ticstmys micrtititgauisi nsj inctcascs scirtifldiliityr cif n1iucrals Bxillc Livct sturcd iu gallbiaddct ids in fat digcsticm cmulsi cs fat Bicarbmiatc lquotaucnisj small iiitcstiuc Ncuttaliscs stuu39iaclgi acici witcu it rcacii39ics small iutcstiuc Harmonics Stciuiaclu small iiitcsti39iiu paucrcas llcgu latcs clligcsticu and abstapticu Hormones GI regulation Gastrin Produced in stomach at start of a meal Signals other stomach cells to release acid and pepsinogen Stimulates GI motility CCK cholecystokinin Produced in SI when chyme enters Causes gall bladder to contract and release bile sphincter of Oddi relaxes Also stimulates release of pancreatic enzymes More CCK is released in response to fat intake Secretin Produced when chime enters the small intestine Stimulates release of pancreatic bicarbonate Gastric inhibitory peptide Released in small intestine Slows release of gastric contents into duodenum slows stomach motility THIE 43 Maj rr E g lamw Hmmnm f39 im GI Tram Hum hymn Ehulq mkinilj rl Sunni Miati I im Etaaitriu illllibi 39 uquot pcp dc FEFIME tmmtmtu39 ii B i i E Stmnl n and du dmum iln mspnm m 39Ei l i caching thu EtLMHMEI Emal Emitstint in FEEEPIEIPHH En dim ury rquot n lly lm Small in39r s nu in 35131111134 m Midir Ehym Simian himStir m dig ifi i pmg sa nm l il39l m rini in r f rm ga lfrii di i l l and dicmry Em Mum and Hangs anggrhm in r pu m Em n I39m l rigu il39illl iil Mum and imius ltizr w ii mgpu su m Eu 1 lm largq inmstinm tnzmuafhn sn39timl iIF39IE39EEIiE39IEH and pammm FME EEiIEIIE lm stnmmh m mlms HE and P p i g g Himmlzltu gm c 1me i t j f fin mmilirjlr Stimulam sham 11F pz u n utrmn mmynm and hint mm his galhh ndd r Srimuliams Its 3151 If pmmrcatia himrljnrnzin vzm R gula m Elll i tilit39y 1iquotn39lha gagt yintt gin T311113 Sigrmli thus t nm h 11 limit 117 rvuz39li am uf39ga n x jiilliE and S snm39 gast mw iity I lr gibi gimrrinf pmwrcmic mumminn In mihim mil aw 1F EI hmmmmw Sli gamiw Emptying i1 Wistiling and ble aw W the inma m at Ema intestine quotCaici39 m magnesium ifreriz39raiitf thiquot ii iiiii if l7e 39 Gluceee Amine amide Fete Vitamine Water FD te E39UE39E ef natal All eh el 30 at tetal 1Ei we Sediurn FquotIItaeeium Bernie fatty aeitle 1tl39itiaumlin Pi and biotin eyntheeized by miereerganierne in the large intestine Gaeee Water 1H t 30 of tetal Large intestine Different tvpes of Nutrient Absorption Passive diffusion Fats water and some minerals Facilitated diffusion Fructose uses a carrier protein 0 Active absorption Uses ATP amino acids and glucose 0 Endocytosis Absorption of immune proteins from human breast milk 0 Most nutrients enter the bloodstream directly by traveling from the capillaries to the hepatic portal vein to the liver and nally into general circulation in the bloodstream Most fats and fatsoluble vitamins are transported from the lacteals is villi to the larger lymphatic vessels to the thoracic duct Once theses fat soluble vitamins and fats enter the lymphatic system they are transported by general circulation
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