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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by firstname.lastname@example.org on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1361 at University of Houston taught by Ann Oliver Cheek in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 Exam 1 Preparation Exam 1 covers Chapters 1 33 3457 5 Ulcer case Python case Themes in Biology amp the Scienti c method Ch 1 amp Ulcer case 0 De ne each level of biological organization and be able to give your own speci c example molecule cell tissue organ organism population community ecosystem biosphere Biosphere all life on Earth Ecosystem all living amp nonliving things in a particular area Grasslands deserts coral reef Community all organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem set of population In forest ecosys kinds of treesanimalsmushroomsfungi microorganisms gt these r called species Population all individuals of a species within the bound of a speci c area Sugar maple trees whitetailed deer Organism individual living thing Each maple tree each deer Organ and Organ system Organ a body part that carries out a particular function consists of multi tissues Leaves stems roots Organ system team of organ that cooperates in a larger function Tissues a group of cells that works together performing a specialized function Honeycombed tissues loc of photosynthesis amp epidermis surface of leaves Cells fundamental unit of structure and function Single cell performs all functions Multicellular division of labor among specialized cells Organelles various functional components present in cells Chloroplasts r respns 4 photosynthesis BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 Molecules a chem structure consisting of gt 2 atoms Chlorophyll pigment molecule convert light into energy Molecule made of atoms Tissue made up of cells Organ made up of tissues Organism collection of organ systems Population made up of organisms from the same species Community has different populations Ecosystem interaction of biotic and abiotic factors Biosphere the earth itself global sum of all ecosystems Explain the concept of emergent properties At each level novel properties emerge at high level that are absent from the preceding one Due to the arrangement amp interactions of parts as complexity increases Not unique to life parts cant but the whole in arrangement will do gt use system bio to study interactions Cell gt Tissue gt Organ gt Organ System gt Animal PS the property where living things become more and more complex as it goes from cellular level exp humans are made of cells to organ system exp humans are made of organ system composed of millions of cells It39s based on the concept that quotthe whole is greater than the composition of its partsquot 0 List characteristics shared by all living things New properties emerge at successive levels of bio org Life39s processes involve the expression amp transmissions of genetic info Life requires the transfer amp transformation of energy amp matter Organisms interact w other organisms amp the physical envir39 Living things are made of cells Living things obtain and use energy Living things grow and develop Living things reproduce Living things respond to their environment Living things adapt to their environment BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 0 Explain the process of natural selection Natural selection is the process in which indis w certain characteristics tend to survive better than indi wo that speci c trait because they are more adapted to the envir Natural envir39 selects certain traits among variant traits Mechanism of evolutionary adaptation individ w inherited traits that r better suited to envir39 r more likely to survive and reproduce than less wellsuited ones gt higher proportion of indi w advantageous traits From 3 observations lndi in popu vary in traits but most traits r heritable A popu can produce more offspring than survive to produce offspring of their own gt competition species r suited adapt to envir39 Predict the change in frequency of a trait in a population if natural selection favors that trait The frequency of a trait that natural selection favors will increase 0 Develop a hypothesis from a research question Predict results if a hypothesis is true 0 Explain the difference between a hypothesis and prediction A prediction is what you think will happen Hypothesis is a prediction with a conclusion quotIf thenquot can be tested through experimentation Hypothesis an explanation on trial 2 be tested by experiments A rational accounting 4 observations based on data and guided by inductive reasoning Analyze results 0 write a sentence describing the results shown in a graph 0 Identify the major theme in biology illustrated by a research study BIOL 1361 0 De ne controlled variable and identify controlled variables in an experimental design Describe the main trend in a graph OOOO authors39 report of p values 0 Evaluate whether results support or contradict a hypothesis 0 Draw an inference based on experimental data Distinguish between a statement of results and an inference drawn from the results Digestion amp Absorption Ch 33 Distinguish regions of the alimentary canal and accessory glands by function digestion secretion or absorption MouthPharynx Esophagus Mouth Oral cavity cut food Salivary glands deliver saliva from ducts to mouth Amylase digests starch amp glycogen Mucus lubrication Pharynx throat region Esophagus upper of small intestine Stomach Mix amp digest store food begin digestion of proteins Gastric glands make stomach secretions gastric juice Secretions HCI denatures proteins Pepsin enzymes that break down proteins Mucus protects from selfdigestionlubricates Small Intestine Most enzymatic hydrolysis happen longest compartment Duodenum upper part of small intestine gt digest peptides lipids sugar here chyme mixes w digestive juices from pancreas liver gallbladder gland cell of intestinal wall Secretion Fall 2015 Identify how central tendency is presented in a graph Determine if and how variability is represented in a graph Evaluate whether results are statistically signi cant based on BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 Small intestine Secretions Enzymes from intestinal epithelium lining of duodenum Most digestion in duodenum Pancreatic Secretions HCO3 neutralizes stomach acid Trypsin amp Chymotrypsin Liver Secretions Bile emulsi es fat Small intestine Jejumun amp ileum absorbs nutrients and water Epithelial function exchange 1 Anatomy Large surface enhances absorption Folds of intestinal wall Vii ngerlike projections of intestinal wall Microvilli tiny ngerlike projections of apical membr of intest epithelial cells 2 Nutrient Transport Watersoluble nutrients enter blood fructose glucose amino acids Hydrophobic nutrients enter ymph monogycerides fatty acids Large Intestine Main function absorbs water vits Home to bacteria community Bacteria produce vit K biotin foic acid 0 Name the digestive secretions released into the mouth stomach duodenum Mouth Amylase digests starch Mucus lubrication Stomach by gastric glands HCI denatures proteins Pepsin enzymes that break down proteins Mucus protects lubricates Duodenum BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 Enzymes from intestinal epithelium Pancreatic secretions HCO3 neutralize stomach acid Enzymes Liver secretion Bile emulsify fats Name the source of each digestive secretion and state its function 0 Identify types of biomolecules in particular foods all 0 List types of biomolecules digested in each digestive compartment mouth stomach duodenum Mouth carbs Stomach proteins Duodenum peptides lipids sugar 0 List what is absorbed in each compartment explain how absorption occurs for different molecules water glucose amino acids fats 0 Small intestine nutrients water 0 Large intestine water vits Relate structure of gastro vascular cavities and alimentary canals to variables in Fick39s Law of Diffusion Describe the structure of the intestinal lining Sheets of cells lining body cavities organs BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 0 Explain how structure of the intestinal lining enhances surface area Bc s of the lining has ngerlike projections called and which gives a brushlike appearance gt greatly increase the surface area 0 Trace digestion and absorption of each component of a meal through the human digestive tract 0 Name the hormones that regulate digestion State the stimulus for each hormone s release the organ producing each hormone the target of each hormone and the effect of the hormone Explain how each hormone regulates timing of digestive secretions Gastrin stimulates secretion of gastric juice too acidic negative feedback gastrin is inhibited Enterogastrine by duodenum Secretin is secreted when it s too acidic Stimulates pancreas to release HCO3 gt neutralize acid Cholectcystokinin CCK is secreted when there is too many fattyamino acids Making gallbladder to release bile peancreas to release enzymes 0 Explain the function of epithelia in each digestive compartment 0 Explain the function of tight junctions in epithelia in relation to digestion and absorption Tight junction Plasma membr Of neighboring epithelial cells bound together by proteins Form a continuous seal around cell Separate outside uids from inside body Predict the effect of an increase or decrease in each variable in Fick39s Law of Diffusion on nutrient and water absorption in the small intestine Trace transfer of biomolecules from intestine into blood or lymph and into organs Watersoluble nutrients enter blood fructose glucose amino acids BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 Hydrophobic nutrients enter lymph monoglycerides fatty acids Python Case Study Identify the major theme in biology illustrated by a research study De ne controlled variable and identify controlled variables in an experimental de gn Describe the main trend in a graph Identify how central tendency is presented in a graph Determine if and how variability is represented in a graph Evaluate whether results are statistically signi cant based on authors39 report of p values Evaluate whether results support or contradict a hypothesis Cell membrane Ch 5 Explain the uid mosaic model of cell membrane structure De ne selective permeability De ne active transport Explain how NaK ATPase creates an ion gradient across the cell membrane De ne diffusion amp osmosis Compare diffusion and osmosis giving examples of substances that cross the membrane by each process De ne passive transport De ne facilitated diffusion Explain how water crosses the cell membrane Explain why cotransport is a type of active transport Compare transport by a carrier protein vs transport by a channel protein Oxygen Transport Ch 34 57 De ne each variable in Fick39s Law of Diffusion and explain how each variable affects gas diffusion rate 0 Explain how properties of respiratory surfaces affect gas diffusion rate 0 Explain physical limitations of extracting oxygen from water by comparing oxygen content density and viscosity of air and water as respiratory media Draw Epithelium label apical membrane basolateral membrane tightjunctions Draw countercurrent exchange of 02 between oxygenated water and deoxygenated blood showing concentrations in both uids BIOL 1361 Fall 2015 0 Given the variables in an experiment identify the independent and dependent variables and graph the relationship between the two 0 Example A research group tested whether camou age protected mice from predators Light colored mice were released one at a time into an arena Then an owl was released and allowed to hunt for 5 minutes Ten light colored mice were released into an arena with light colored sand and ten light colored mice were released into an arena with dark soil In the sand arena 2 light colored mice were eaten In the dark soil arena 9 mice were eaten Vocabulary adaptation alimentary canal alveoli amylase cholecystokinin CCK cotransport controlled variable cooperativity deductive reasoning diffusion digestion duodenum emergent property epithelium facilitated diffusion gastrin gastrovascular cavity Helicoba cter pylori hemocyanin hemoglobin hydrolysis ileum inductive reasoning ingestion integraltransmembrane protein jejunum lipid microvilli osmosis pepsin peristalsis phagocytosis pinocytosis receptormediated endocytosis respiratory pigment saturated fatty acid secretin selective permeability tight junction tracheal system unsaturated fatty acid villi
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