AMS 5 Fall 2014 Key Terms
AMS 5 Fall 2014 Key Terms AMS 5
Popular in Technology in American Lives
Popular in American Studies
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Annalisa Yoakum on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AMS 5 at University of California - Davis taught by Xao Chacko in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Technology in American Lives in American Studies at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
p l AMSS Key Terms Fall 2014 Tinkering Attempting to repair or improve something in a casual way according to Diamond 242 244 tinkering is driven by curiosity and an individual s response to perceived needs He also says that tinkering means making adjustments to a technology In fact many or most inventions were developed by people driven by curiosity or by a love of tinkering in the absence of any initial demand for the product they had in mind Diamond 242 Example James Watt designed his version of the steam engine that ended up being used to power trains and to supply power to cotton mills He took a prior invention and tinkered with it in the hopes of improving it 2 Cumulative technological change The process of technological advancement inventors borrow ideas from their predecessors one invention often leads to another in an autocatalytic event and then these more advanced and efficient technologies diffuse through societies BORROWED tinkering DIFFUSION geographic spread AUTOCATALYTIC creates a new tech all on its own ie computers example the printing press See Diamond 245 Wright Bros manned powered airplane preceded by Otto Lilienthal and Samuel Langley Samuel Morse s telegraph based off those by Joseph Henry and William Cooke Eli Whitney s cotton gin based on another cotton gin that had existed for thousands of years 3 Technological diffusion The spread of one technology to other places Uneven distribution of both technologies and invention geographic diffusion some areas have more advanced technologies than others example musket less in New Zealand spread of door locks Diamond 255 tech diffuses in two ways 1 society learns of an invention and adopts it or 2 a society is supplanted by a more advantageous one 4 Internalist vs contextualist These are two different ways of understanding a technology Internalists look at the smaller details of a technology particularly what goes into making the technology Contextualists look at the broader political cultural and economic contexts of a technology INTERNALISTS looking over the inventor s shoulder tying to get into the mind of the b inventor Nye 14 CONTEXTUALISTS continual reconstruction of the world how does the technology affect the world Nye 15 Example Nye claims that internalists would analyze the evolution of steam electric and gas technologies by their technical merits and draw conclusions about the technologies progressions based on the people s preferences A contextualist would study the successes as well as failures to see how all attempts contribute to a social history of the technology example in the Bijker text he looks both at how the bicycle was invented which is intemalist and the social and cultural context of the Ordinary bicycle which is contextualist Bijker 9 10 20 37 5 Social construction Jared Diamond The idea that technology developed according to or in response to human actions social interactions and groups shape the development of technology and not the other way around technology is created as a solution to social issuesneeds Bijker 86 87 Understanding significance and meaning are developed by social groups rather than individual opinion technology doesn t have meaning outside its social context Example a need for the conservation of fuel is a social problem that led to the development of the electric car Winner is an example of a SCOT writer social construction of technology 6 Linearnonlinear development Linear development is like analyzing an artifact shallowly whereas analyzing a technology non linearly presents deeper meanings Nonlinear development shows that technology is not always developed rationally or easily A linear model tends to exclude inventions that have failed Bijker 6 7 Linear models assume that technology follows an orderly or rational path which is not always the case Bijker 7 ie research gt development gt pilot gt scale up gt production step by step Nonlinear web like Example of non linear development Lawson s bicycle the problem is that once students start expecting linearityblind themselves to the retrospective distortions Bijker 7 7 SymmetricaUasymmetrical analysis C An asymmetrical analysis is one in which the success and failure of artifacts are explained in different terms and when the failures are included in a historical analysis of a technology Bijker 15 Symmetrical analyses ignore failed predecessors 8 Obduracy Resistance of the public towards a technological change How hard it is to change something once it s established offers a way to gain an understanding of the role of power in the shaping of technology and science Bijker 4 0 example women wearing pants rather than skirts 9 Political technologies Technologies that have a relationship toare altered by politics or change politics Physical arrangements that contain explicit or implicit political purposes Winner 124 example Long Island expressways tomato harvester UC Santa Cruz and Davis campuses ex television changing electoral politics factories see Winner 123 128 127 10 Inherentlyunintentionally political When a technology or system is related to particular kinds of political relationships INHERENT built into the technology itself UNINTENTIONAL the way it is used makes it political not consciously political but still indirectly political because the creation and operation requires specific social arrangements inherent example Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository Winner 4 unintentional example UC tomato harvester Winner 125 6 Winner 123 130 11 Technological control How technology is manipulated to favor a political preference of a group or even a single person or how technology unintentionally brings control after it has already been created Robert Moses bridges Winner 124 nuclear power the extent to which a technology becomes part of our day to day life controlling us Nye 15 the idea is that until a certain amount of reliability is achieved previous technologies will remain in control of an aspect of life 12 Annihilation of spacetime The annihilation of spacetime refers to how the railroad affected travel Traditional transport technology was annihilated The perception of how long it took to get from one place to another was completely changed Schivelbusch 36 Example You can leave the suburb in the morning travel to the city for work in the day and be back to the suburbs that night The speed of the railroad allowed you to travel from one place to another at much faster speeds than previously possible This concept is brought up in the Shivelbusch text on railroads It is talked about even on the first page The author talks about how the concept was based on the speed that the new technology of railroads were able to achieve It is also discussed on pages 36 and 37 of the book Annihilation of space and time is a way to describe the way in which new technologies specifically the railroad but the concept could also be applied to airplanes which came later changed perceptions of space and time and how they created a more connected world In the text Shivelbusch talks about the way that the railroad changed the country of France Now the capital city of Paris could be connected to small farming towns On page 38 of the text he talks about how the railroad impacted the way people saw and understood distance between places and how the word quotlocalquot changed in meaning This is a large part of what is meant by annihilation of space and time 13 The railroad required the standardization of time because of the speed at which it connected local Railroad time universalizing etc times of the different towns This standardization divided the world into times zones four of which cover America Pacific mountain central Eastern quotAs the rail network grew denser incorporating more and more regions the retention of local times became untenable Shivelbusch 44 Definition Shorten time to travel creating efficient transportation Real World Example Amtrak trains for passenger transportation and trains that transport goods from place to place Example from text quotThe dialectic of this process states that this diminution of space ie the shrinking of transport time caused an expansion of transport space by incorporating new areas into the transport networkquot pg35 Space and time correlate because the train and railways cut down time and geographic space dramatically This quote explains how efficient trains were Although throughout the article passengers on the train complained about the lack of site seeing trains allowed passengers to travel at a fast pace to places they thought they never would get to visit 14 Geographical Space O quotThe diminution of transport distances seemed to create a new reduced geography yet it did not actually alter the size of the spaces between the points connected by the new mode of transportquot Schivelbusch 35 Shortens spaces between places Easier to access outlying areas as well as seemingly diminish intervening spaces The meaning of quotlocalnessquot is lost sense of space is removed and products become commodities Allowed for a different viewing of landscape understood geography in a different way because they were able to see the landscape in a different way Ex Trains passing through the countryside where they were able to see the entire landscape What pages it39s on Page 5 3 of the Railway Journey by Schivelbusch What the author has to say about it Schivelbusch says with railway travel the space of landscape becomes geographical space Even though the landscape is the same distance due to the speed that the train travels the geographical space seems shorter He explains that geographical space becomes quotclosedquot and is therefore in its entire structure transparent He quotes Erwin Straus who sees the railroad as the essential agent of the transformation of landscape into geographical space 15 Policy that a neighboring state has a nonintervention and noninterference role in international Good neighbors affairs but still keeps a close eye to intervene Van Vleck 15 Example How the USA takes on a role of international police with Ukraine What is non intervention and non interference in the domestic affairs of other countries particularly in Latin America established after an era in which the United States militarily intervened in the affairs of Latin America in order to protect the interests of the American business community example the United States terminating Marines occupation of Nicaragua in 1933 and the termination occupation of Haiti in 1934 shows the abidance to the Good Neighbor Policy and upholds the expectations of good neighbors source Wikipedia httpenwikipediaorgwikiGood Neighbor policv Where we encounter it Jenifer van Vleck The Logic of the Air page 20 By bringing US dollars and influence to Latin America without the overt trappings of Yankee imperialism Pan Am Airlines PAA played a key role in implementing the Good Neighbor Policy In the context of airways van Vleck states that Pan Am Airlines had a key role in implementing the Good Neighbor Policy because the United States was able to spread American ideas and representations in a non invasive way thus still bringing a sense of American nationalism to other countries without overtly being imperialistic Since Pan Am Airlines were the only American airlines to have international access the government selected them as an endorser for spreading American ideals 16 Open dooropen skies 1 Where it is found quotLogic of the Airquot Van Vleck page 29 2 What it is OPEN AIR quotThere is only one air and it is everywherequot quotOn November 1 1944 delegates from fifty four nations convened in Chicago for the International Conference on Civil Aviation in order to devise a permanent set of laws and institutions to govern the postwar skywaysquot 29 30 OPEN SKY quot the Open Door enabled the United States to extend its in uence throughout the world 39without the embarrassment and inefficiency of traditional colonialismquot 33 3 Significance Freedom of the air keeps peace in the world and prevents one nation from gaining complete control of the trade through air while open door allows the US to achieve successes not through territory but commerce 4 Example p 31 Open Sky Berle explained that free markets were the foundation of international security and stability Open sky was to remove controls on air traffic Open Door The United States does not increase its amount of territories but instead grow through commerce 5 Paraphrase what the author says Open Air prevents any one nation from gaining complete control of trade in the air and Open Door allows the US to spread its in uence without the traditional colonialism Definition After World War II the United States wanted to establish an open sky policy in permanent aviation laws This policy does not restrict trade or travel between all nations but Van Vleck argues that this policy favored mostly America and its in uence The open door policy expanded into the open door policy to the realm of aviation Location in text Van Vleck p 29 Example The five freedoms of the air allowed mostly for the US to gain economic advantages on the air 1 Freedom of peaceful transit planes can y over foreign territory 2 Freedom of non traffic stop planes can land in a foreign nation for refueling or technical emergencies 3 Freedom to carry passengers or goods from the home nation to a foreign nation 4 Freedom to carry passengers or goods from a foreign nation to the home nation 5 Freedom to pick up and discharge traffic at intermediate points For example an American airliner ying from New York to Paris could stop in London and pick up or discharge passengers of Varying nationalities 17 Nationalism by itself is the view that one s own country is inherently special or superior in any Internationalism vs nationalism sort of way and the actions emanating from this attitude are actions that further the specific interest of this one country Internationalism on the other hand takes the view that the whole world is interconnected that it is to be explored and united regardless of borders or nations The United States made a distinct connection by bringing this concepts together by utilizing internationalism to boost their own nationalism by using technologies like aviation to strengthen American interests in wider places and with the intention of promoting American values and interests This form of anti conquest ideology this nationalist globalism eschewed the geopolitics of empire yet simultaneously aspired to project limitless extensions of in uence over the earth s surface Page 3 as Vleck describes it intertwines the concept of American exceptionalism with a multicultural globalist approach to the world Internationalism vision of one world globe divided by latitudes and longitudes Nationalism the idea of increasing power for one self nationwide On page 3 of Van Vleck the two perspectives are essentially mashed together where nationalism is a part of internationalism However internationalism and nationalism are thought to be opposing poles in American political culture Internationalist rhetoric policies and institutional commitments have been necessary components of US ideological justification of global power By the end of the war the US focused more on Nationalism compared to internationalism In other words Dominant strain of globalism that emerged during WWII was a naturalism globalism that construed US interests as world s interests Discourse an aviation reveals how naturalist globalism authorized a particular kind of foreign policy 18 Van Vleck Aviation also sustained the nationalist vision of an American Century defined by US Logic of the air geopolitical economic and ideological power The airplane promised to extend America s frontiers to infinity The cultural logic of the air embodied the universalizing aspirations of American foreign policy yet also signified what was exceptional about the United States aviation both instantiated American empire and denied that it was such Air travel unified the world and made it seem like a stronger place US Military increased in strength Aviation helped increase economic af uence as cultural influence Aviation unified the world but also dramatically expanded US military strength economic af uence and cultural in uence pg 3 quotLogic of the Airquot is defined as the cultural history of aviation and the rise of the US as a power Additionally aviation is listed as a tool for Globalization It was also discussed as a technology that could transform diplomacy global commerce and geography A quote we found is quotThe modern airplane creates a new geographic dimension A navigable ocean of air blankets the whole surface of the globe There are no distant places any longer the world is small and the world is one The American people must grasp these new realities if they are to play their essential part in winning the war and building a world of peace and freedomquot 3 This quote holds significance in that it discusses how aviation made no place unattainable to travel and increased the power of the US in uence on foreign affairs 19 Van Vleck explicitly uses the terms quotcargos of goodwillquot and quotimperialismquot on page 30 in which Cargos of goodwill vs imperialism she states quotJuan Trippe marketed Pan American Airways as a Good Neighbor not a Yankee Imperialist stating that he wished for airplanes to carry 39cargos of goodwill39 instead of 39cargos of H imperialism and hate The US was more focused on economic eXpansion than typical imperialism throwing in quotcargos of goodwillquot to seem like aviation would benefit all countries and not just themselves Their priority was commercial eXpansion make the US the major economic power instead of geographic eXpansion although their air bases in foreign countries could be seen almost like colonies These bases gave the US military power because they were able to illegally help out in the war therefore advancing their own interests Furthermore citizens of the US were able to visit other countries and places like Peru and Niagara Falls but citizens from other countries did not have the means or the wealth to visit the US therefore showing that the power of aviation was very one sided Overall the two terms contradict each other and it seems the US was more focused on its own gains than helping the other countries 20 fitness and health linked to social technologysocial media feedback loop to in uence the movement of your body example Fitbit wearable device tracks your movement translates into a point system tracks Health social machine Mayee Wong guest lecture on Nike Fuel amp Fitbit your points posts updates to your social media gets you feedback from your social spheres from Mayee Wong s Lecture Health Social Machine A broad class of systems that provide technology mediated interaction of large groups of individualsin order to collectively accomplish or address a health related problem or need Van Vleck Smith Hall Shadbot 21 Hawthorne effect Mayee Wong McClusky people perform differently when they re being observed observer effect gamification peer feedback if you know your friends are also tracking your pointsmovement then you might do more 22 Moore s Law Vanessa HsuChen Number of transistors in a chip will double every 24 months 18 months 1975 technology gets smaller more mobile much faster tech boom wearables infiltration of tech 0 O 0000 000 O 23 translation of open door policy to the skies allows people to y with ease open door anybody can trade with anybody open skies anybody can y anywhere beneficial to the US helped spread imperialism US was a leader in aviation open skies meant that the US had sort of free reign over where Open doorsopen skies Van Vleck they could eXport various cultural physical philosophical products 24 Good neighbors Van Vleck One World US has a duty to be a force for good in world politicsforeign policy related to US as a world power the US excelling in aviation cargos of goodwill vs imperialism cultural in uences products technologies eXporting the good stuff 25 asymmetrical analysis looks at both the failures and the successes of a technology and its Asymmetrical vs symmetrical analysis Bijker predecessors symmetrical analysis looks only at successful tech avoids future mistakes provides contextexplanation on why certain tech succeeded 26 The of transistors in a chip doubles every 24 months later adjusted to 18 months because Moore s law guest lecture by Vanessa HsuChen Apple Watch transistor size gets both smaller and faster size and speed of transistors approaching the limit amount of tech in the Apple watch wearing a computer portability speed integration with bodies 27 Gamification Nike Fuel Apple Watch guest lectures Vanessa HsuChen and Mayee Wong 28 making a game out of everyday life motivation like fitness social technology Health social machine Mayee Wong Fit Bit Nike Fuel way that wearable tech interfacing with appssmartphonesinternet makes something individual like fitnessmovement into a game allows for socialpeer feedback gamification competition etc 29 you act differently when you re being watched observer effect Wearable technologies track everything watch everything and give you the option to share Hawthorne effect Mayee Wong with your social network who are also then watching you The awareness of that hopefully makes you perform differently ie move more 30 Mayee Wong assembly line science of managing work ow to maximize productivity Modern Times everything is catered to the productivity of the workerbody meeting goalsquotas wearable tech or assembly line changing the organization of lifebodies Taylorism aka scientific management in order to meet those goals 31 From McCrossen s text The popularity of hunter cases through the mid 1880s might be taken to prove that Americans Delicate construction regarded their watches as the machines of delicate construction Despite the European s higher quality watch Americans bought American watches because it was cheap good quality and could be repaired easily 32 From McCrossen s text about the pocket watch and Schivelbusch s text about trains The faster travel speeds from trains made it more important to universalize time The railroad affected America by dividing it into four time zones and how at first they were Time Consciousness known as railroad times Pocket watches made more attention to time with the invention of the pocket watch and became more time punctual 33 Crooning In Katz s text and in Alex Stalarow s guest lecture Hum or sing in a soft low voice especially in a sentimental intimate manner In a recording it makes the listener feel a connection with the singer More intimate 34 Calculating the quantity or amount of something Mayee Wong Nike fit band They always want to increase their score It makes one more eager Quanti cation to surpass their previous score Numbers are easier to understand calories miles etc 35 From Alexis McCrossen s text and guest speaker Vanessa Hsu Chen Personalization involves using technology to accommodate the differences between individuals Being able to customize one s technology allows the owner to feel more connected to the device The pocket watch and the Apple Watch are two examples of this One s pocket watch could be Personalization used to determine one s social status goldupper class silverworking class Apple watches come in many different designs to fit the user to their liking There are two sizes one slightly bigger than the other 36 Liberating technologies allow people to do things Repressive technologies that inhibit the user from doing something Airplanes are liberating because they allow quick transport but repressive because they harm the Liberating vs Repressive Technologies environment and can be used for destruction The airplane is also liberating because it would allow one to Visit and learn about different cultures Technologies can be argued liberating or repressive 37 Katz focuses on different aspects including the tangibility portability repeatability Phonographic Effects invisibility temporality receptivity and manipulability of music Each of these aspects Tangibility means that one could now hold the music the Vinyl portability means music can be transferred around more easily because of its portable size repeatability means one could play the same song of hisher choice as many times as wanted temporality explained the time limitations of the Vinyl because it could only fit a certain amount of time on them receptivity was how they recorded the music using newer technology and manipulability is the ability to edit the song with the introduction of magnetic tape 38 39 The people ultimately decided what they were to hear and when and where and with whom All of this was made possible by the distinctive characteristics of sound recording technology Railroad space access intermediaries The introduction of Railroads altered the way that space was perceived because people could travel over large areas in a fraction of the time It increased access to distant places and improved trade It made resources readily available that once were difficult to acquire EX Heine39s vision of the North Sea breaking on his doorstep in Paris was tinged with tremendous foreboding because both localities Paris and the North Sea were still presented in their mutually isolated state worlds apart thus their collision appeared unfathomable Definition Railway space takes away the spacedistance between places gives the impression that space between places seems like it has shrunk because of the velocity at which the train moved Railway space also opened up access to new places quot Space was both diminished and expanded The dialectic of this process states that this diminution of space caused an expansion of transport space by incorporating new areas into the transport networkquot pg 35 quotRailroad Space and Railroad Time Wolfgang Schivelbusch Example On page 34 Schivelbusch states that the train traveled 20 30mph about 3 times the speed of the stagecoach Thus any given distance was cut down by one third The idea of space was diminished The notion that a French town could fit into a Paris street demonstrates that the alteration of spatial relationships by the speed of the railway train was not simply a process that diminished space but that it was a dual one space was both diminished and expanded The dialectic of this process states that this diminution of space ie the shrinking of transport time caused an expansion of transport space by incorporating new areas into the transport networ Wolfgang Schivelbusch pg 34 Assembly Lines 0 quickly mentioned in the Nye reading 0 Most of the film Modern Times showcases the production of the assembly line 0 relates to Taylorism because of it s goal to increase productivity
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