PHYS 215 Exam 1 Study Guide
PHYS 215 Exam 1 Study Guide phys 215
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlyn Ruotanen on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
Physiology 215 Exam 1 Study Sheet 1. Cell theory/cell roles a. Cell Theory i. All living things are made of cells. ii. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. iii. Living cells come only from other living cells. b. Basic Cell Functions i. Obtain food and oxygen ii. Utilize nutrients and oxygen to generate energy iii. Eliminate byproducts and waste iv. Synthesize proteins v. Control exchange of materials vi. Move materials within the cell vii. Respond to environmental changes viii. Undergo cell division/reproduction (most) 2. Cell organelles (types and function) 3. Roles of individual organs a. Organs composed of 2 or more types of primary tissue, Body structure that integrates different tissues and carries out a specific function 4. Roles of body systems b. Contributions to Homeostasis i. Circulatory system (heart, blood vessels, and blood) transports materials from one part of the body to another ii. Digestive system (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and related organs) breaks down food into small nutrient molecules that can be absorbed iii. Respiratory Obtains oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide, maintains pH iv. Urinary absorbs nutrients, balances electrolytes, eliminates wastes, maintains proper pH v. Skeletal system (bones and joints) provides support and protection for soft tissues and organs, enables the body and its parts to move, serves as a storage reservoir for calcium, bone marrow is the source of all blood cells vi. Muscular system (skeletal muscles) moves bones attached to skeletal muscles, voluntary movements range from fine motor skills to powerful movements, generates heat; maintains body temperature vii. Integumentary (the skin) protects against microorganisms, regulates temperature viii. Immune system (white blood cells and lymphoid organs) defends against foreign invaders and helps in replacing injured or wornout cells ix. Nervous controls and coordinates body activities x. Endocrine system secretes hormones into the body, regulates long term activities related to homeostasis xi. Reproductive perpetuation of the species (not necessary for homeostasis) xii. 5. Homeostasis c. Maintaining a stable internal environment i. Dynamic continuously being adjusted ii. Disruptions could cause death d. Control i. Intrinsic controls Built in ii. Extrinsic Outside of the organ (nervous or endocrine systems) e. Regulates i. Concentration of nutrients ii. Concentration of O2 and CO2 iii. Concentration of waste products iv. pH Changes v. Concentration of H2O, salt and electrolytes vi. Temperature vii. Volume and pressure a. Pathophysiology Abnormal functioning of the body associated with disease 6. RNA types and protein synthesis 7. Roles of organelles 8. Endocytosis 9. Gycolysis 10. The Citric Acid Cycle 11. The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 12. Negative verses positive feedback a. Negative Feedback i. End product shut system off E.g. Thermostat ii. Most systems in the body are controlled by negative feedback b. Positive Feedback i. Increase in release Child birth and oxytocin 13. Cell Communication a. Membrane Receptors i. Bind chemical messengers ii. Receptor may Activate a channel Receptors may be an enzyme Receptors may activate a second messenger pathway (we will discuss this later) iii. a. Signal Transduction i. Extracellular messenger binds to a receptor triggering an intercellular response Activation of Ion channels Activation of second messengers 14. Composition of the plasma membrane o Phospholipid bilayer o Proteins o Cholesterol o Sugar coated 15. Epithelial cells (from lab) 16. Diffusion/osmosis o Diffusion the movement of an ion down its electrical/chemical gradient Dependent on: Concentration gradient Membrane permeability Surface area Molecular weight Membrane thickness 17. Roles of Proteins o Channels forms a pore in membrane, allow ions to travel from one side to another Bilayers are impermeable to ions, so proteins that allow the movement of ions are necessary. Leak channels always open Gated channels not always open, need something to happen for them to open. Voltage gated membrane potential change that leads to opening of gate Chemical messenger ligand gated, molecule binds to it and opens the gate Mechanoreceptor (e.g. stretch) o Carriers changes components to move molecule to other side of membrane Active transport – use of ATP (pumps) Passive transport use of electrical/chemical gradient Facilitated diffusion use gradient to move a molecule via a carrier across a membrane Cotransport use the gradient of one molecule to move another eg. Na+ and glucose o Docking Proteins holds vesicles at membrane until ready to release vSNARES VAMP tSNARES Syntaxin SNAP o Enzymes clips, cleaves or adds something to proteins o Receptors interacts w/ molecule (usually from outside cell) o Adhesion molecules help connect the cell either within, or to other cell structures o SelfIdentification 18. Types of enzymes (from examples given in class) o Kinases add phosphate groups (phosphorylation) o Phospholipases convert phospholipids to fatty acids and other products o Acetylcholinesterase can associate with plasma membrane, breaks down ACh 19. Membrane transport a. Integral proteins penetrate the membrane, go through/across bilayer b. Peripheral proteins sit on top c. 20. Tonicity o Hypertonic higher concentration outside than inside (water wants to move out of the cell) o Isotonic equal concentration of particles outside and inside o Hypotonic lower concentration outside than inside (water wants to move into the cell) 21. Signal transduction a. Signal Transduction i. Extracellular messenger binds to a receptor triggering an intercellular response Activation of Ion channels Activation of second messengers 22. Second messengers a. low molecular weight compounds (cAMP & Ca2+) b. transmit the biological signals initiated by receptorligand binding at the cell surface to intracellular targets ii. Takes the small molecule that bound and turns it into a message to the cell to change in some way a. Can activate additional enzymes, ion channels and can alter cellular metabolism (metabotropic receptors) 23. The membrane potential o Membrane potential (Vm) the voltage across a membrane at any given time Determined by the amount of positively and negatively charged particles inside and outside of the cell. Neurons have an unequal distribution of charge across the membrane and are negatively charged with respect to the outside. Potassium is more permeable than sodium... They have leaky channels that allows them to constantly move, whereas sodium must wait for channels to open. 24. Ions of the ECF, ICF o Equilibrium Potential for Ions o ECF (outside) ICF (inside) Na+ +60 mV 150 mM 15 mM K+ 90 mV 5 mM 150 mM Cl 70 mV 125 mM 10 mM A 0 mM \65 mM A Anion ^ means proteins inside cell 25. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic o Aerobic – requires oxygen citric acid cycle and electron transport chain 32 ATP 2 glycolysis 2 citric acid cycle 28 electron transport chain o Anaerobic – doesn’t require oxygen Glycolysis 2 ATP o Which cell in the body relies only on glycolysis? Red blood cells: because don’t want them to use the oxygen they’re carrying o How many ATP can you produce when oxygen is present? 32 ATP o How many ATP can you produce only under aerobic conditions? 30 ATP o How many ATP can you produce only under anaerobic conditions? 2 ATP Bonus?
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