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PHYS 215 Exam 1 Study Guide

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by: Caitlyn Ruotanen

PHYS 215 Exam 1 Study Guide phys 215

Marketplace > Ball State University > phys 215 > PHYS 215 Exam 1 Study Guide
Caitlyn Ruotanen
GPA 3.541

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About this Document

This is a study guide from Spring 2016 for PHYS 215 Exam 1 covering chapters 1-3
Human Physiology
Dr. Kelly-Worden
Study Guide
50 ?




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"Can you just teach this course please? lol :)"
Ms. Lillie Wisoky

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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlyn Ruotanen on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to phys 215 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Kelly-Worden in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 53 views.


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Date Created: 03/17/16
Physiology 215 Exam 1 Study Sheet 1. Cell theory/cell roles a. Cell Theory  i. All living things are made of cells. ii. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. iii. Living cells come only from other living cells. b. Basic Cell Functions i. Obtain food and oxygen ii. Utilize nutrients and oxygen to generate energy iii. Eliminate byproducts and waste iv. Synthesize proteins v. Control exchange of materials vi. Move materials within the cell vii. Respond to environmental changes viii. Undergo cell division/reproduction (most) 2. Cell organelles (types and function) 3. Roles of individual organs a. Organs­ composed of 2 or more types of primary tissue, Body structure  that integrates different tissues and carries out a specific function 4. Roles of body systems b. Contributions to Homeostasis i. Circulatory system (heart, blood vessels, and blood) transports  materials from one part of the body to another ii. Digestive system (mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines, and  related organs) breaks down food into small nutrient molecules  that can be absorbed iii. Respiratory­ Obtains oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide,  maintains pH iv. Urinary­ absorbs nutrients, balances electrolytes, eliminates  wastes, maintains proper pH v. Skeletal system­ (bones and joints) provides support and  protection for soft tissues and organs, enables the body and its  parts to move, serves as a storage reservoir for calcium, bone  marrow is the source of all blood cells  vi. Muscular system (skeletal muscles) moves bones attached to  skeletal muscles, voluntary movements range from fine motor  skills to powerful movements, generates heat; maintains body  temperature  vii. Integumentary­ (the skin) protects against micro­organisms,  regulates temperature viii. Immune system (white blood cells and lymphoid organs) defends  against foreign invaders and helps in replacing injured or worn­out  cells ix. Nervous­ controls and coordinates body activities x. Endocrine system secretes hormones into the body, regulates long term activities related to homeostasis xi. Reproductive­ perpetuation of the species (not necessary for  homeostasis) xii. 5. Homeostasis c. Maintaining a stable internal environment  i. Dynamic­ continuously being adjusted ii. Disruptions could cause death d. Control i. Intrinsic controls­ Built in ii. Extrinsic­ Outside of the organ (nervous or endocrine systems) e. Regulates i. Concentration of nutrients ii. Concentration of O2 and CO2 iii. Concentration of waste products iv. pH Changes v. Concentration of H2O, salt and electrolytes vi. Temperature vii. Volume and pressure a. Pathophysiology­ Abnormal functioning of the body associated with  disease 6. RNA types and protein synthesis 7. Roles of organelles 8. Endocytosis 9. Gycolysis 10. The Citric Acid Cycle 11. The Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 12. Negative verses positive feedback a. Negative Feedback i. End product shut system off  E.g. Thermostat ii. Most systems in the body are controlled by negative feedback b. Positive Feedback i. Increase in release  Child birth and oxytocin 13. Cell Communication a. Membrane Receptors i. Bind chemical messengers  ii. Receptor may  Activate a channel  Receptors may be an enzyme   Receptors may activate a second messenger pathway  (we will discuss this later) iii. a. Signal Transduction i. Extracellular messenger binds to a receptor triggering an  intercellular response  Activation of Ion channels  Activation of second messengers 14. Composition of the plasma membrane o Phospholipid bilayer o Proteins o Cholesterol o Sugar coated­  15. Epithelial cells (from lab) 16. Diffusion/osmosis o Diffusion­ the movement of an ion down its electrical/chemical gradient  Dependent on:  Concentration gradient  Membrane permeability  Surface area  Molecular weight  Membrane thickness 17. Roles of Proteins o Channels­ forms a pore in membrane, allow ions to travel from one side  to another  Bilayers are impermeable to ions, so proteins that allow the  movement of ions are necessary.  Leak channels­ always open  Gated channels­ not always open, need something to happen for  them to open.  Voltage gated­ membrane potential change that leads to  opening of gate  Chemical messenger­ ligand gated, molecule binds to it  and opens the gate  Mechanoreceptor (e.g. stretch) o Carriers­ changes components to move molecule to other side of  membrane   Active transport – use of ATP (pumps)  Passive transport­ use of electrical/chemical gradient  Facilitated diffusion­ use gradient to move a molecule via  a carrier across a membrane  Cotransport­ use the gradient of one molecule to move  another eg. Na+ and glucose  o Docking Proteins­ holds vesicles at membrane until ready to release  v­SNARES  ­VAMP  t­SNARES  ­Syntaxin  ­SNAP  o Enzymes­ clips, cleaves or adds something to proteins o Receptors­ interacts w/ molecule (usually from outside cell) o Adhesion molecules­ help connect the cell either within, or to other cell  structures  o Self­Identification 18. Types of enzymes (from examples given in class) o Kinases­ add phosphate groups (phosphorylation) o Phospholipases­ convert phospholipids to fatty acids and other products o Acetylcholinesterase­ can associate with plasma membrane, breaks down  ACh 19. Membrane transport a. Integral proteins­ penetrate the membrane, go through/across bilayer b. Peripheral proteins­ sit on top c. 20. Tonicity o Hypertonic­ higher concentration outside than inside (water wants to  move out of the cell) o Isotonic­ equal concentration of particles outside and inside o Hypotonic­ lower concentration outside than inside (water wants to move  into the cell) 21. Signal transduction a. Signal Transduction i. Extracellular messenger binds to a receptor triggering an  intercellular response  Activation of Ion channels  Activation of second messengers 22. Second messengers a. low molecular weight compounds (cAMP & Ca2+)  b. transmit the biological signals initiated by receptor­ligand binding at the  cell surface to intracellular targets  ii. Takes the small molecule that bound and turns it into a message to  the cell to change in some way a. Can activate additional enzymes, ion channels and can alter cellular  metabolism (metabotropic receptors) 23. The membrane potential o Membrane potential (Vm)­ the voltage across a membrane at any given  time  Determined by the amount of positively and negatively charged  particles inside and outside of the cell.  Neurons have an unequal distribution of charge across the  membrane and are negatively charged with respect to the outside.  Potassium is more permeable than sodium... They have leaky  channels that allows them to constantly move, whereas sodium  must wait for channels to open. 24.  Ions of the ECF, ICF o Equilibrium Potential for Ions  o ECF (outside) ICF (inside)  Na+ +60 mV 150 mM  15 mM  K+  ­90 mV 5 mM  150 mM  Cl­ ­70 mV 125 mM 10 mM  A­ 0 mM \65 mM   A­ Anion ^ means proteins inside cell 25. Aerobic vs. Anaerobic  o Aerobic – requires oxygen  citric acid cycle and electron transport chain  32 ATP  2 glycolysis  2 citric acid cycle  28 electron transport chain o Anaerobic – doesn’t require oxygen  Glycolysis  2 ATP o Which cell in the body relies only on glycolysis?  Red blood cells: because don’t want them to use the oxygen  they’re carrying o How many ATP can you produce when oxygen is present?   32 ATP o How many ATP can you produce only under aerobic conditions?   30 ATP o How many ATP can you produce only under anaerobic conditions?   2 ATP Bonus?


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