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Date Created: 09/26/15
Poulson GSOCI 210 Social Issues in a Global Context Fall 2008 Test ll Study Guide To prepare for the test you should know the following concepts 3 Wealth Flows Theory 0 The wealth flows theory explains the reproductive decisions made by families When children contribute wealth to the family when wealth flows from children to parents parents will maximize the number of children they produce When wealth flows from parents to children parents will minimize family size In order for there to be wealth flow change there must be a fundamental change in family structure 3 Demographic Transition Theory 0 World population growth increased only very slowly from human beginnings to around 1750 This was maintained largely because high birth rates were offset by high death rates Toward the end of the 18th beginning of 19th century mortality began to decline in developed countries because of advances in medicine and sanitation whereas birth rates remained the same consequently population rose rapidly Because of population pressures and the availability of contraception birth rates declined close to replacement levels and the rate of population growth stabilized at least in the developed countries 0 Population increase in the periphery came later beginning in mid20th century It was particularly explosive because mortality rates were reduced much more quickly than in core countries especially among children Fertility rates in the periphery are only now beginning to decline in response to population growth This occurs when the increasing costs of education and childcare in modernizing societies along with the availability of modern forms of contraception provide the incentives and means for people to reduce their family size 0 Argues that lowered fertility will result from economic development 0 Critical assessment I Assumes that throughout history fertility rates have always been uniformly high Assumes that the only way of stabilizing population growth is to make available Western methods of birth control and contraception Assumes that the resistance of people in poor countries to adopt Western standards of fertility is the result of irrational thinking outmoded religious values or traditional or fatalistic worldviews I Ignore the fact that human populations have consistently adjusted fertility rates to local economic and social conditions 3 NeoMalthusian arguments and a critical assessment of these arguments O O O 0 Unless we take measures to reduce population growth especially in the periphery the whole planet faces ruin It is impossible for poor countries to escape poverty when their populations grow at a rate greater than 2 per year because resources that could be used to increase living standards must instead to go maintaining the people added to the population Any economic innovations will provide only temporary relief because the gains are quickly offset by the increase in population The only way economic development can provide benefits is for these countries to lower their birth rates Critical assessment I China and India 0 China has a decreasing birth rate lndia an increasing birth rate but both countries have economic growth Predictions of decline in resources accompanying population growth have not been born out resources are neither scarcer nor more eXpensive NeoMalthusians tend to see people as consumers only they fail to take into account that people also produce and that what they produce is often greater than what they consume Economies of sale the benefits of resources multiplying by their use Since the consumption of commodities is what drives a capitalist economy the more people there are the greater theoretically is the demand for goods and services I Human population growth can serve as a stimulus to agricultural and technological innovation 3 Polayni s Paradox O 0 How is it possible to get the market to perform efficiently without at the same time annihilating the human and natural substance of society Market externalities To produce goods at the cheapest cost certainly an admirable economic goal we must use up more environmental and social capital 3 Kuznet s Curve 0 Kuznets curve is the graphical representation of Simon Kuznets39s theory 39Kuznets hypothesis39 that economic inequality increases over time while a country is developing then after a critical average income is attained begins to decrease Kuznets Curve can be interpreted as follows The transition from an agrarian sector to urban industrialization in which we see a growth in income inequality as income in agriculture is relatively low compared to income earned in the city With this opening up of inequality we also see that the level of income people earn in rural areas is similar to one another wh reas we see wide range of income level in the industrialized city which further opens up inequality What then generates decline in Kuznets Curve First a rise of mass education movement may open up opportunity for all and reduce the gap in income inequality Second social policy put forth by the government as a country becomes rich may explain a decline in inequality as t e government provides transfers welfare retirement pension health care in an effort to redistribute income throughout different levels of income ear39nin ou s o Kuznets39 conclusion that inequality must increase before decreasing however rests on shaky ground in the case of crosssectional data The Ushape in the curve comes not from rogression in the development of individual countries but rather from historical differences between countries O mum quot cm gt How wealth and income are distributed throughout the United States Wealth is concentrated in the hands of the ew o In the US since roughly the beginning of the 1980s both income inequality and the amount of wealth controlled by the richest in society has been increasing gt Latino Experiences in Richmond VA 0 Mos Latinos settle in ethnic enclaves regardless of educational and occupational levels They were more geographically concentrated than nativeborn Americans and more likely to be urban living in ar c1 1es o Educated Latinos leave ethnic enclaves in large urban areas Professional and entrepreneurial immigrants more than laborers and refugees have greater geographical mobility professionals go where the jobs are and entrepreneurs have the business expertise and economic means to resettle in other areas 0 Two distinct waves earl arrivals were typically Latino professionals or businessowners that through their settlement provi e an opening for less skilled laborers to follow White collarbusinessowner immigrants depend on a number of ethnic services to sustain their O O O 0 connections with the culture of origin The cultural needs of middle class Latinos determined the socioeconomic levels of the next wave Professionals and business owners often move individually laborers move in clusters As more Latinos settled into a region the benefits of their newly created communities provide more newcomers with job opportunities serving as a buffer between them and the larger metropolitan area Class differences from the home country are replicated in the host country Slowly the social hierarchy present in the country of origin becomes the pattern for the local Richmond hierarchy First wave more professional or business owners in orientation more likely to exemplify the traditional model of assimilation choosingopting for dominant white middleclass values Second wave more workingclass along with middleclass immigrants to the area Social class unites Latinos rather than national origin or ethnicity although only within social classes 3 Patterns of immigration to the United States 0 O O 0 Beginning of 20th century European immigrants Job opportunities fastpaced urbanization and modernization attracted largely white European populations to our shores Irish Italian German Swedish Polish and Jewish immigrants adopted the American culture End of 20th century Asian African and Latin American immigrants reached our shores during a time of structural readjustments and economic transition The new economy offered less solace and opportunity for social mobility Turn of 21st century immigrant wave far more diverse cutting across religion social class ethnic identity and country of origin Greater variety of languages and worship faiths other than Christianity Now new migration patterns are emerging Latinos in Richmond 3 Demographic trends in the United States include EG age race and ethnic makeup of people in the United States 3 Demographic trends in the World eg general population growth rates in the West as compared to the periphery 0 Examples US China India 3 Wealth definition and Income definition differences in the United States 0 O O O Wealth includes all the material resources that a person or family owns property investments etc not just monetary income lncome is the amount of money that an individual makes usually per capita from jobs and investments Measurement of wealth controlled by individuals are always more concentrated than measures of income inequality lncome inequality increases thorough the life cycle true for both the poor racial and ethnic minority groups 3 Differences between race and ethnicity 0 Race refers to physical and biological appearance Hair color skin color etc Socially constructed with its meaning created by both in groups and outgroups 0 Ethnicity classification or affiliation based on customs language common history nationality and other nonbiological characteristics 3 Theories of nationstate development eg How was French nationalism developed 0 Theory as population increased and food production became more compleX a class of specialist emerged and created a stratified society 0 Theory increase in population requires more formal means of government and control and will lead to greater social stratification and inequality I Differential access to wealth and resources creates stratification which created internal conflict that leads to disintegration of group or elite imposing authority by force 0 External conflict competing states Combination of all theories Construction of the NationState I Nationstates are constructed through invented tradition and social engineering I War is important in nation building uniting diverse people and groups against outsiders is one of the most effective ways to create bonds among them I Outsiders outsiders distinguish nation I Colonial empires created additional others from whom Britons could distinguish themselves I Others include those of a different race religion or language 0 Language Bureaucracy and Education Classic nation building France I Language unification I lncreased ease of travel I lncreased access to media literacy I Military trainingarmy I National education system 3 Market Externalities 0 Market externalities of an economic transaction are an impact on a party that is not directly involved in the transaction In such a case prices do not re ect the full costs or benefits in production or consumption of a product or service cup of coffee example 0 As the sticker price of items goes down the externalized costs go up 3 Feminization of Poverty 0 Result of increasing number of singleparent families headed by women in the US 00 O O O 3 White 0 0 One income families headed by women are much more likely to be in poverty More women and children have been sliding into poverty as a percentage of the total population in poverty Many of these women are new poor who were not born into poverty Women of color are disproportionately poor Black women s work patterns in the US Historically black women have been the lowest paid workers in the US not anymore White women did not enter the paid labor force in high numbers until the 1970s 3 Dissimilarity index 0 0 Measures the percentage of women who would have to change jobs in order to balance workplace professions Women of color experienced dramatic drops in the DI during the 1970s jobs in governmentseniority 3 Employment Tokenism O O 0 Describe women in male dominated professions as being treated as symbols or representative category rather than as an individual worker Because tokens are highly visible they tend to be scrutinized more heavily This places intense pressure on these individuals to do well Problems with tokenism I It assumes that if women or minorities penetrate the workplace and achieve parity that they will have equal power This is not what happens Token men are actually given benefits financial status for being tokens 3 How does modernization process affect traditional values 0 0 Traditional vs SecularRational values I Traditional values emphasize God is very important in respondent s life Respondent believes it is more important for a child to learn obedience and religious faith than independence and determination Respondent believes abortion is never justifiable Respondent has strong sense of national pride Respondent favors more respect for authority SecularRational values emphasize the opposite Survival vs SelfExpression Values I Survival values emphasize Respondent gives priority to economic and physical security over selfexpression and quality of life Respondent describes self as not very happy O O O 0 Respondent has not signed and would not sign a petition Respondent believes homosexuality if never justifiable Respondent believes you have to be very careful about trusting people 0 Selfexpression values emphasize the opposite Economic development is associated With pervasive and to an extent predictable cultural changes Industrialization promotes a shift from traditional to secularrational values postindustrialization promotes a shift toward more trust tolerance and emphasis on wellbeing Economic collapse propels societies in the opposite direction Economic development tends to push societies in a common direction but move along paths shaped by their cultural heritages US is a deviant case its people hold much more traditional values and beliefs than do those in any other equally prosperous society Economic development causes shifts in the values of people in developing nations
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