BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY [C3T1G3]
BIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY [C3T1G3] GANTH 196
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Alverta Gutkowski on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GANTH 196 at James Madison University taught by Leslie Harlacker in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 99 views. For similar materials see /class/214000/ganth-196-james-madison-university in OTHER at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
GANTH 196 Fall 2008 Exam 1 StudV Guide As mentioned on your syllabus exams cover lecture material assignments readings activities 7 anything is fair game In general the best way to begin studying is to go over your notes because it s the most important things that get mentioned and emphasized in class Your text will be helpful in terms of rming up your understanding of topics that emerge as problematic from your notes It s likely that you ll see a couple of questions from the Annual Editions readings which will require substantial familiarity with these readings so be sure to review them As I finish composing the exam I may post additional hints as to what will be important from the Annual Editions readings so keep checking Blackboard The exam will consist entirely of multiple choice items unlike the quizzes there will be five answer choices for each question In some cases you may have to interpret a figure or other illustration to answer a question or two but you won t need to do any complicated math In terms of content here are some suggestions of things to focus on 7 these are topics that have a high probability of appearing on the exam Know what the four fields of anthropology are and know the subdisciplines within biological anthropology enough to be able to recognizedefine them The scientific method how it works ie hypothesis testing Know the difference between science and nonscience explanations for the worldnatural phenomena focusing on creation scienceintelligent design How can religion and science coexist This is one area where you may find it beneficial to spend some extra time reviewing the Annual Editions readings on the topic Of course you should be able to define evolution History of evolutionary thought 0 Major elements of the preevolutionary world view that made it difficult for Darwin s theory to be accepted f1xity of species young Earth How these elements developed including the major people responsible for them You will also want to review what the 17ml9Lh century naturalists didhow their work fit in 0 Challenges to this world view 7 extinction disappearance of dodo discovery of fossils 7 and the attempt to reconcile these challenges with the old world view catastrophism o Lamarck lst explicitly evolutionary though nonmodem framework inheritance of acquired charateristics o Uniformitarianism Lyell and its importance 0 Charles Darwin and the development of evolutionary theory 0 Know Darwin s major in uences 7 observations made on the Beagle voyage domestic animal breeding Malthus Lyell s uniformitarianism 7 and what he got from each 0 3 key observations and where they came from variation is the norm variation characteristics are inherited overproduction of offspring o 4 principles of natural selection there is a struggle for survival some individuals have an advantage due to characteristics that suit them particularly well for the environment 00 these characteristics become more common in populations due to differential survival and reproduction of individuals that have them over time this change can produce new species Don t forget that Lyell s work allowed for the long spans of time necessary for this process to occur What does tness mean in the context of natural selection What was missing from Darwin s theory mechanism of inheritance Know some of the thencurrent ideas about this especially blending inheritance Types of natural selection 7 know the de nitions and examples 0 O Directional stabilizing and disruptive selection Sexual selection as a special case acting on ability to get mates usually through competition with others of the same sex rather than just on ability to survive which includes everyone in the same boat What have some results been Mendelian genetics and the reaction to the rediscovery of his work 0 O 0 What were Mendel s experiments and what did they show Law of Segregation Law of Independent Assortment 7 de ne why are they important Be able to use a Punnett Square to work out genotypes you might be asked to do this for a singletrait problem Rediscovery of Mendel s work in 1900 why did some scientists initially consider genetics and evolution to be incompatible and how was this problem resolved DNA and its function 7 review the material but not too many questions on this 0 O O 0 DNA structure doublehelix Functions replication for accurate transmission of genetic information protein synthesis Mitosis and meiosis 7 why is meiosis important Have a very basic idea of how protein synthesis works and why it is important The Modern Synthesis 0 0 De ne Darwin Mendel mutation enriched by our understanding of DNA Leads to a more speci c de nition of evolution change in allele frequencies over time The Four Forces of Evolution 7 the factors that cause at minimum changes in allele frequencies 0 O O Mutation de ne remember that it s random and that it s the only source of new genotypic variation Genetic drift de ne know founder effect and genetic bottleneck as examples Gene ow de ne know that it can add new alleles or change the frequency of alleles already present Admixture and migration Natural selection de ne know that it s the most important force and the only one that produces new adaptations and over time new species Know how it works Scale of evolution 7 microevolution and macroevolution Includes species de nitions 0 Know the difference between the two levels O 0 Know the main species concept generally in use 7 the biological species concep 7 including mechanisms of reproductive isolation Also review the major alternative species concepts Patterns of macroevolution Should be able to identifydefine them and know examples also be able to identify how they are important to classi cation Convergent evolution ie homoplasy parallel evolution adaptive radiation Be able to differentiate between homology and analogyhomoplasy and explain which is useful in classi cation Speciation the major way macroevolution occurs I Modes how Anagenesis and cladogenesis be able to differentiate these I Processes where allopatric parapatric sympatric differentiate know the most important Tempo how fast phyletic gradualism punctuated equilibrium differentiate Microevolution smallscale change Adult lactose tolerance in humans as key example 0 Population genetics 0 O O 0 What does this field study Key term Polymorphism be able to define it Examples ABO and Rh blood group systems review text and notes for additional examples Applications be able to identify instances of evolutionary change in populations study population movements admixture make phylogenies HardyWeinberg equilibrium what is itwhat does equilibrium mean What do the parts of the equation apply to What are the major assumptions If there are calculations on the test you ll be given the formula 0 Modern human variation 0 OO 00 0 Know that the study of racial variation was really the beginning of biological anthropology as a discipline also review the Annual Editions articles on race and the adaptive explanations for skin color Subspecies biological term for race Define Biological determinism what it is where it came from practical results politicalsocial 7 racism scientificsocial 7 eugenics movement The adaptive perspective how does it explain human variation Levels of J quot to stress Know what the levels are The best way to learn these is probably to review them in the context of the examples They are acclimation immediate acclimatization short term adaptabilitydevelopmental over the course of a lifetime genetic evolutionary and culturalbehavioral Examples skin color altitude thermal stress disease resistance Darwinian medicine I Skin color how it s determined and its adaptive value sun protection folate protection vitamin D synthesis Be able to tie these factors in to the geographic clinal distribution of skin color Altitude hypoxia why it s a problem what the responses are and their levels which level is not generally available culturalbehavioral Thermal stress why tlrer 39 im is important how the body responds immediatelyshortterm to heatcold stress acclimationacclimatization Also at another level surface areamass ratio and its importance here Bergmann s and Allen s rules and applicationsexamples
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