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by: Ms. Vergie Ledner


Marketplace > James Madison University > Science > ISAT 350 > BIOTECH NEW MILLENNIUM I
Ms. Vergie Ledner
GPA 3.66

Cynthia Klevickis

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Cynthia Klevickis
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ms. Vergie Ledner on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISAT 350 at James Madison University taught by Cynthia Klevickis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see /class/214010/isat-350-james-madison-university in Science at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Embryonic STem Cells QuesTions for Review Your names Thanks To Amber Janine Paul and 1 Abom how many differenf Derek for many of These answers I also used human cell Types are Ideas from many of your answers To quesTIons 10 and 11 There 210 Some examples are eryThrocyTes red blood cells neurons The cells ThaT TransmiT nerve impulses and asTrocyTes helper cells in The brain WhaT is a blasTocysT A blasTocysT is a sTage in embryonic developmenT ThaT is characTerisTic of animals Only animals have a blasTocysT sTage and you are noT an animal if you don39T go Through a blasTocysT sTage In humans This occurs abouT 4 days afTer ferTilizaTion AT This sTage There is a spherical TrophoblasT ouTer layer which goes on To form The placenTa and The amnioTic sac and an inner cell mass which goes on To develop The feTus iTself 3 Why didn39T These researchers JusT use cells from a fourcell embryo If They Took cells from a fourcell embryo and plaTed Them in Tissue culTure The cells would grow divide and become a blasTocysT BuT ThaT isn39T whaT They wanT They wanT cells ThaT will divide in Tissue culTure wiThouT differenTiaTion For ThaT They need cells from The inner cell mass 4 Compared To differenTiaTed human cells whaT makes embryonic sTem cells imorTal If you Transferred a cell culTure of differenTiaTed cells There would be a limiT To The number of Transfers you could make AT some poinT The cells would no longer be viable WiTh embryonic sTem cells There is no such limiT One reason for The difference is ThaT differenTiaTed cells have low levels of Telemerase AnoTher facTor ThaT conTribuTes To The immorTaliTy of These cells is The growTh condiTions Dr Thomson39s cell lines are mainTained in a culTure dish on a layer of feeder cellsquot derived from irradiaTed mouse fibroblasTs The layer of feeder cells arresTs The differenTiaTion of The sTem cells by releasing various inhibiTory facTors such as leukemia inhibiTion facTor 5 WhaT is The significance of high levels of The enzyme Telemerase in embryonic sTem cells Telemerase is an enzyme ThaT adds ends called Telemers To chromosomes In The case of differenTiaTed cells wiTh each round of cell division The Telemers geT shorTer and shorTer unTil They geT so shorT The cell can no longer divide BuT since embryonic sTem cells have high N levels of Telemerase The lengTh of Their Telemers remains sTable over a number of cell division cycles 6 WhaT are primordial germ cells In The conTexT of The work of Dr GearharT39s lab primordial germ cells are The cells ThaT give rise To sperm or eggs Grown under appropriaTe condiTions These resemble sTem cells derived from blasTocysTs I should have asked a separaTe quesTion abouT The Three germ layers These are The endoderm The ecToderm and The mesoderm 7 How does The meThod of sTem cell isolaTion used by Dr GearharT39s lab differ from Dr Thomson39s meThod Dr GerharT39s lab used sTem cells found in The sex organs of aborTed feTuses Dr Thomson39s lab used sTem cells derived from The inner cell mass of The blasTocysT sTage of frozen embryos 8 How does an embryonic sTem cell differ from oTher Types of sTem cells such as hemaTopoeTic sTem cells WhaT is The difference beTween a pluripoTenT and a ToTipoTenT sTem cell Which kinds of sTem cells are referenced in Dr Thomson39s arTicle A ToTipoTenT sTem cell can form all kinds of cells whereas a pluripoTenT sTem cell can only form many kinds of cells Dr Thomson39s ES cells can give rise To The cells in all Three of The germ layers HemaTopoeTic sTem cells are furTher differenTiaTed They are The precursors To all of The differenT Types of blood cells 9 Dr Thomson has noTed ThaT one of The immediaTe applicaTions of These embryonic sTem cells could be To quickly screen chemicals for effecTive medicines Briefly elaboraTe on how you Think This mighT be done The idea is To sTarT wiTh embryonic sTem cells TreaT Them wiTh The appropriaTe growTh facTors To make Them differenTiaTe inTo The appropriaTe cell Type For example you mighT be inTeresTed in cardiac drugs For ThaT you would need cardiac cells For iniTial TesTing for Things like ToxiciTy and dosage you could add The drug To The cell culTure insTead of using animal models or human TesT subjecTs TesTing This way would be safer more humane fasTer and less cosle Than currenT pracTice 10 One of The reasons for The federal funding ban on embryonic sTem cell cell research was a general ban on federal funding for any research involving human embryos This ban has since been lifTed wiTh respecT To sTem cell research YeT even if This research did noT require The use of human embryos iT would sTill generaTe conTroversy WhaT are some of The oTher conTroversial issues relaTed To This new Technology Here is a link To a shorT arTicle wiTh some of The argumenTs on boTh sides of This conTroversy hTTpwwwwirednewscomnewsmedTechO12863594700hTml 11 JusT This summer The NIH has recommended ThaT federallyfunded researchers be allowed To use human embryos in sTem cell research as long as The embryos are noT produced specifically for This research WhaT argumenTs were used To supporT lifTing The ban on human embryo research as iT applies To The isolaTion and growTh of human sTem cells Here is a leTTer from The SocieTy for DevelopmenTal Biology in supporT of lifTing This ban IT ouTlines some of The argumenTs February 18 1999 The Honorable Arlen SpecTer UniTed STaTes SenaTe WashingTon DC 20510 Dear SenaTor SpecTer On behalf of The Board of TrusTees and The Public InformaTion CommiTTee of The SocieTy for DevelopmenTal Biology we should like To commenT on The imporTance of research wiTh human pluripoTenT embryonic sTem cells and express our supporT for The ruling ThaT NIH funding can be used for research wiTh such cell lines Many diseases ThaT exacT a heavy Toll on our socieTy involve damage degeneraTion or funcTional failure of cells or Tissues This lisT would include diseases such as Alzheimers Parkinsons diabeTes congesTive hearT failure liver diseases and many oThers The possibiliTy of TreaTing such condiTions by implanTaTion of cells wiTh The capaciTy To repair The damaged Tissue is an exciTing one ThaT deserves To be explored from all possible angles STudies have shown ThaT several adulT organs conTain socalled sTem cells which have The capaciTy To proliferaTe in culTure and differenTiaTe inTo a number of differenT cell Types Indeed such adulT sTem cells may have a greaTer capaciTy for making differenT cell Types Than generally ThoughT Judging by a recenT reporT suggesTing ThaT sTem cells obTained from The nervous sysTem of The mouse can generaTe blood cells afTer bone marrow TransplanTaTion More research on The capaciTy of adulT sTem cells is clearly warranTed However iT is noT clear ThaT adulT sTem cells will ever be capable of making all cell Types of The body which is The properTy possessed by pluripoTenT embryonic sTem cells In The mouse embryonic sTem cell lines can proliferaTe indefiniTely in culTure and can differenTiaTe inTo a wide varieTy of cell Types when given The righT inducing signals These properTies suggesT ThaT embryonic sTem cells hold enormous poTenTial for fuTure cellbased Therapies The recenT derivaTion by Two groups of human pluripoTenT sTem cell lines ThaT appear To have many of The properTies of mouse embryonic sTem cells has broughT This possibiliTy closer To realizaTion There are sTill many obsTacles To be overcome we need To undersTand beTTer how To regulaTe The differenTiaTion of sTem cells inTo differenT Tissue lineages suiTable modes of delivery of The cells To The requisiTe organs need To be developed and The grafTed cells need To be proTecTed from immune rejecTion If The poTenTial of sTem cell research is To be rapidly TranslaTed inTo TherapeuTic realiTy iT is criTical ThaT all aspecTs of sTem cell research including research on boTh adulT and embryonic sTem cells in nonhuman mammals and in humans be a high prioriTy for Federal funding We need The besT scienTisTs doing worldclass science To move This area forward The sTringenT peerreview and oversighT mechanisms of The NIH will ensure ThaT This occurs We supporT The recenT ruling by NIH ThaT research on human embryonic sTem cell lines is noT covered by The prohibiTion on use of Federal funds for human embryo research Embryonic sTem cells do noT have The capaciTy To compleTe developmenT inTo an adulT org anism on Their own and so are noT equivalenT To inTacT embryos IT is clear ThaT boTh The derivaTion and The poTenTial fuTure use of human embryonic sTem cells raise difficulT eTh ical issues relaTing To The use of human embryos or feTal maTerial for research purposes We are confidenT ThaT The NIH will seT in place suiTable Review QuesTions for ISAT 350Exam 2 Chapfer 5 pp 169end Haw Prafeins bind To Their Ligands 1 50 5 Define VmaX and Km Be able To illusTraTe boTh on a graph of enzyme velociTy as a funcTion of subsTraTe concenTraTion WhaT are Their uniTs Which binds more Tigthy To iTs subsTraTe an enzyme wiTh a high Km or an enzyme wiTh a low Km Define The following Terms ligand cofacTor Turnover number allosTeric Show graphically how The enzyme kineTics of an allosTeric enzyme is differenT from Michales MenTon kineTics WhaT kinds of bonds do proTeins make wiTh Their subsTraTes Chapfer 6 DNA Sfrucfure Fundan Repica an and Repair 6 7 HHH MNH HHH 001 Be able To draw The chemical sTrucTure of a nucleoTide Label each of The carbon aToms of The sugar and show where The base and phosphaTe groups are aTTached ElaboraTe on whaT is meanT by each of The following sTaTemenTs The sTrands of a DNA molecule are anTiparallel DNA replicaTion is semiconservaTive OuTline in words The sequence of evenTs ThaT occurs aT a replicaTion fork and draw a diagram To illusTraTe your answer In which direcTion does DNA synThesis proceed Show a closeup view of The sugar porTion of The 339 nucleoTide of a growing chain To highlighT where The new nucleoTide is added Include a discussion of each of The enzymes and oTher facTors needed To accomplish The simulTaneous replicaTion of boTh The leading and lagging sTrands Why are primers needed Why is Topoisomerase needed WhaT are Okazaki fragmenTs and why do They exisT WhaT are The Three differenT enzymaTic acTiviTies of DNA polymerase III and whaT is The funcTion of each Describe The shape of an E coli DNA polymerase molecule How does DNA polymerase correcT many of iTs own misTakes In DNA mismaTch repair how does The cell know which is The newlysynThesized sTrand WhaT is The funcTion of The DAM meThylase How is DNA repair relaTed To aging The average life span of a species cancer How does UV lighT damage DNA How do cells repair This damage Give examples of inheriTed human condiTions ThaT are relaTed To a defecTs in The mismaTch repair sysTem b defecTs in repair of miTochondrial DNA c defecTs in The repair sysTem associaTed wiTh UVlighTdamaged DNA Chapfer 7 Transcripfian and Transafian 17 18 19 Why is DNA chemically more sTable Than RNA Define The following Terms TranscripTion promoTer sigma subuniT rho OuTline The sTeps in posT TranscripTional processing of mRNA in eukaryoTes Include a definiTion of exons and inTrons in your answer 20 21 22 Give one example of The funcTion of a small RNA ThaT is noT a TRNA molecule WhaT is wobble Briefly ouTline The sTeps in TranslaTion of a mRNA molecule Chapfer 8Chramasames and Gene Reguafian 1 D NN NH Define The following Terms heTerochromaTin euchromaTin imprinTing enhanser silencer nucleosome Telomere 19 How does Telomerase work WhaT is The sequence of human Telomeres 20 Draw a diagram of The lac operon and show The locaTions for each of The following The operaTor The CAPCAMP binding siTe The promoTer The sTrucTural genes The lac I gene Explain why The lac operon is noT expressed in The presence of glucose Specifically for The lac operon idenTify each of The following The repressor The inducer The acTivaTor WhaT does consTiTuTive mean In eukaryoTes whaT is an enhancer a silencer a promoTer The TATA box WhaT oTher DNA sequences mighT There be involved in TranscripTion regulaTion for an RNA polymerase II gene How does The epidermal growTh facTor acT To enhance gene expression How do sTeroid hormones acT To enhance gene expression LisT Three common DNA binding moTifs and give an example of a parTicular proTein ThaT uses each Draw a diagram ThaT illusTraTes how an enhanser can acT from a disTance WhaT proTeins bind To The TATA box WhaT are homeodomain proTeins How is DNA meThylaTion relaTed To imprinTing In This case which base would be meThylaTed Chapfer 9 Genefic Variafian L L JBMMMMM 00031001 How do bacTerial cells exchange geneTic informaTion Define The following Terms F plasmid F pilis HFR F conjugaTion In The conTexT of The process of TransformaTion whaT does The Term compeTenT mean Under whaT circumsTances would a bacTerial cell become compeTenT WhaT is meanT by homologous recombinaTion OuTline The life cycle of a reTrovirus and idenTify key enzymes needed aT each sTep WhaT is a Transposon a reTroTransposon a LINE a SINE Make a lisT of as many facTs as you know abouT Alu How mighT a Transposon lead To cancer How mighT a reTrovirus lead To cancer Review Quesfians for DNA from The Beginning ChapTers 16 17 19 and 20 ChapTer numbers here refer To The web siTe DNA from The Beginning 1 WhaT evidence supporTs The sTaTemenT one gene makes one proTeinquot 2 WhaT does haploid mean 3 WhaT organism did Beadle and TaTum use 4 How did researchers firsT show ThaT genes are made of DNA 5 Problem WhaT would happen if you did Avery39s experimenT and used R DNA insTead of 5 DNA 6 DNA building blocks are called 7 Draw a chemical sTrucTure for deoxyribose and show where The phosphaTe and The base are aTTached 8 The DNA helix is righT handed WhaT does ThaT mean Draw boTh a righT handed helix and a lefT handed helix To illusTraTe The difference 9 WhaT is The name of The enzyme ThaT polymerizes DNA 10 How did Messelson and STahl show ThaT DNA replicaTion is semiconservaTive Transcripfian and Transafian Review Quesfians for DNA from The Beginning 1 A How many DNA wordsquot are possible from a TwoleTTer codon combinaTion B How many DNA wordsquot are possible from a ThreeleTTer codon combinaTion C How many DNA wordsquot are possible from a fourleTTer codon combinaTion 2 WhaT Techniques did Rich roberTs and phil Sharp develop ThaT led To The discovery of inTerrupTed genes 3 Very shorle afTer The discovery of The doublehelix sTrucTure of DNA Francis Crick predicTed ThaT an quotadapTerquot molecule was presenT during DNA replicaTion WhaT is The adapTer and whaT does iT do 4 WhaT is The CenTral Dogma 5 WhaT mRNA sequence codes for SERLYSVALLEUARGCYSquot 6 How does RNA do selfsplicing 7 WhaT is The minimum number of TRNA molecules ThaT you would need in a cell WhaT is The maximum number 8 WhaT is wobble How is The concepT of wobble relaTed To The number of TRNA molecules needed in proTein synThesis Which base is ofTen redundanT 9 Why is DNA needed if RNA can sTore geneTic maTerial on iTs own 10 WhaT was The firsT selfreplicaTing molecule 11 WhaT is an inTron WhaT is an exon 12 WhaT chemical feaTures make RNA less sTable Than DNA 13 OuTline RNA splicing 14 OuTline The MillerUrey experimenT 15 How did researchers prove ThaT The Three leTTer codes called codons are responsible for all 64 DNA words 16 How does a TRNA molecule recognize and bind To iTs appropriaTe amino acid 17 WhaT are resTricTion enzymes and how were They used To map DNA 18 How does The efficiency of gene expression affecT cell processes 19 Marshall Nirenberg and his coworkers aT NIH and Har Khorana and his coworkers aT The UniversiTy of Wisconsin quotcrackedquot The geneTic code by figuring ouT which codons correspond To which amino acids How did They do This 20 In whaT direcTion does RNA polymerizaTion proceed 21 True or False Messenger RNA has The abiliTy To TranslaTe geneTic informaTion inTo proTeins while ribosomal RNA has The abiliTy To sTore geneTic informaTion 22 OuTline The experimenT ThaT proved ThaT one half of The DNA ladder serves as a TemplaTe for replicaTion ie DNA replicaTion is semiconservaTive 23 Give Three similariTies and Three differences beTween RNA and DNA 24 Describe The differences beTween mRNA TRNA and rRNA Lac Operan Review QuesTions15 refer To The diagram shown below I 80 50 l 35 gt10 I z YA 1 The lacTose repressor proTein binds To a locaTion wiThin region a a b b c c d d 2 RNA polymerase binds To region a a b b c c d d 3 The repressor i gene is locaTed wiThin region a a b b c c d d 4 The primary operaTor locaTion is wiThin region 9057 LOUD 01 0 gt1 O H The CAP binding locaTion is wiThin region a a b b c c d d In E cai galacTosidase genes are noT Transcribed if There is adequaTe glucose To meeT meTabolic needs This is an example of a general gene regulaTion mechanism called a inducTion b feedback inhibiTion c The sTringenT response 1 caTaboliTe repression In The presence of lacTose plus glucose E cai Transcribed due To a repressor binding To The operaTor region b cAMPCAP binding To The operaTor region 0 lack of inducer 1 lack of cAMP which is needed To form a cAMPCAP complex galacTosidase genes are noT The oc muTaTion resulTs in a modificaTion of The DNA sequence in The operaTor region of The lac operon Repressor molecules cannoT bind To This alTered sequence Thus in This case a The muTanT E cell cell is able To uTilize lacTose even in The absence of glucose b The muTanT E cell cell is noT able To uTilize lacTose even in The absence of glucose 0 The muTanT E cell cell Transcribes The galacTosidase genes in The absence of boTh glucose and lacTose d The presence of lacTose prevenTs TranscripTion of The galacTosidase genes even in The presence of glucose A virus or plasmid can be used To inTroduce a second copy of The lac operon inTo E cai cells If The second copy conTains a muTaTion ThaT prevenTs The synThesis of The repressor proTein an i39 muTaTion and The original bacTerial chromosome is wild Type a galacTosidase TranscripTion would be consTiTuTive b There would be no change in The phenoType of The cell c The cell would loose The abiliTy To respond To The inducer d The cell would loose The abiliTy To exhibiT caTaboliTe repression The inducer of The lac operon is a CAMP b glucose 0 CAP d a meTaboliTe of lacTose 11 If The I gene repressor gene were moved downsTream of The lacTose operon a The sTrucTural genes would become inacTivaTed b The operaTor region would become inacTivaTed c The sTrucTural genes would be consTiTuTively expressed 1 There would be no effecT on The cell39s abiliTy To regulaTe The expression of The lacTose operon 12 The operon hypoThesis was firsT proposed by 8 Jacob and Monod b GilberT and MullerHill c Lederman DeVries and Zubay d WaTson and Crick 13 A group of ISAT 350 sTudenTs consTrucTs a synTheTic operon in which They deleTe The sTrucTural genes for lacTose uTilizaTion They replace These genes wiTh The sTrucTural genes for alanine biosynThesis jusT downsTream of all of The regulaTory sequences for The lac operon To induce expression of Their recombinanT alanine genes They need To add To Their growTh medium a alanine b glucose 0 allolacTose d gaacTosidase RegulaTion of Gene Expression in EukaryoTes 1 EukaryoTic gene TranscripTion is associaTed wiTh consTiTuTive heTerochromaTin faculTaTive heTerochromaTin euchromaTin Barr bodies 993 2 The microscopic sTrucTure ThaT corresponds To an inacTive highlycondensed X chromosome is called a euchromaTin b a Barr body 0 a poyTene chromosome 1 a Philadelphia chromosome 3 Which of The following individuals would have Two Barr bodies in each of Their cells a a Turner female X b a normal female XX 0 an XXY male 1 an XXX female 4 In poyTene chromosomes The puffs are ThoughT To be a heTerochromaTic b correlaTed wiTh acTively Transcribed genes 0 insensiTive To hormones 01 9 N 0quot 0 1 highly meThylaTed Some invesTigaTors believe ThaT gene expression may be associaTed wiTh redisTribuTion of nucleosomes along The DNA duplex One direcT line of evidence ThaT may supporT This hypoThesis is a In some cases The paTTern of micrococcal nuclease digesTion is differenT in acTive chromaTin compared To inacTive chromaTin b InacTive chromaTin is more highly condensed Than acTive chromaTin c InacTive chromaTin has a higher level of CpG meThylaTion Than acTive chromaTin d Genomic imprinTing which illusTraTes The possibiliTy of parenTalspecific inheriTance of parTicular TraiTs supporTs The hypoThesis of nucleosome redisTribuTion in highly acTive genes Of The following The DNA binding moTif uTilized by homeodomain proTeins mosT resembles a leucine zippers b helixTurn helix moTifs c zinc fingers d hisTones Genomic imprinTing leads To differenTial expression of a parTicular allele depending on wheTher ThaT allele was inheriTed from The moTher or The faTher The molecular mechanism ThaT leads To genomic imprinTing may be a The acTion of maTernaI effecT genes b The acTion of homeoTic genes 0 The acTion of Transposable elemenTs d The effecTs of parenTalspecific inheriTance of DNA meThylaTion paTTerns Which of The following sTaTemenTs abouT The differences beTween eukaryoTic enhancers and prokaryoTic TranscripTion regulaTory sequences is NOT TRUE 8 Enhancer siTes may be several kilobases or more away form The regions They conTrol whereas prokaryoTic regulaTory sequences are locaTed immediaTely upsTream of The genes They regulaTe b Enhancers may be locaTed downsTream as well as upsTream of The genes They regulaTe whereas prokaryoTic regulaTory sequences are locaTed immediaTely upsTream of The genes They regulaTe c Enhansers may be effecTive in eiTher orienTaTion in The DNA molecule whereas whereas prokaryoTic regulaTory sequences are only effecTive in one orienTaTion d Enhancers may be TransacTing elemenTs whereas prokaryoTic regulaTory sequences are always cis wiTh respecT To The genes ThaT They regulaTe A number of differenT proposals have been advanced To explain how enhancers can influence TranscripTion over long disTances Which of The following sTaTemenTs besT describes The mosT sTroneg favored hypoThesis H O H A H F E ProTeins bound aT enhancers may bind To proTeins bound To promoTer regions causing The DNA To fold or loop To bring The enhancerproTein complex inTo close conTacT wiTh The gene ThaT iT regulaTes b TranscripTion may be sTimulaTed by The enhancer elemenT funcTioning as an aTTachmenT poinT To sTrucTural componenTs of The nucleus 0 The enhancer may be jusT The iniTial binding siTe for a facTor required for TranscripTion which Then moves along The duplex To The TranscripTion iniTiaTion poinT d Enhancers acT by a combinaTion of all of The mechanisms described above STeroid recepTor proTeins are a class of closelyrelaTed DNA binding proTeins ThaT each conTain Tandem DNA binding moTifs called a zinc fingers b homeodomains c helixTurn helix moTifs d leucine zippers The zinc ion in zinc finger proTeins is bound by a four amino acid residues ThaT are eiTher cys or his b guTamaTe or asparTaTe residues 0 leucine residues d DNA DifferenT Transcrist from a single Tropomyosin gene lead To a seT of differenT polypepTide producTs Through a process called aTTenuaTion gene rearrangemenT alTernaTive splicing anTiTerminaTion 993 True or False ProTeins ThaT bind To DNA in prokaryoTes are almosT always symmeTrical whereas eukaryoTic TranscripTional regulaTors are ofTen asymmeTrical EukaryoTic TranscripTion regulaTors ofTen work in Tandem One example of a binding mechanism ThaT is used To hold Two such parTner proTeins TogeTher is a leucine zippers b zinc fingers c helixTurn helix domains d covalenT bonding Review Quesfians an TranscripTion Reguafion in Eukar39yafes 1 WhaT is meanT by a cisacTing sequences and b TransacTing facTors in The conTrol of eukaryoTic gene expression 2 WhaT TranscripTion facTors are required by RNA polymerase II 3 All of These feaTures are DNA sequences associaTed wiTh parTicular genes How is each involved in TranscripTion The promoTer CCAAT box 6C box enhancers silencers 4 How is DNA meThylaTion involved in The conTrol of eukaryoTic gene expression 5 Use The Table below To lisT four classes of DNA binding proTeins and briefly describe The DNA binding moTif associaTed wiTh each class DNA and 6 How do sTeroid hormones such as glucocorTicoids acT To regulaTe gene TranscripTion


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