BIOTECH NEW MILLENN II
BIOTECH NEW MILLENN II ISAT 351
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ms. Vergie Ledner on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ISAT 351 at James Madison University taught by Cynthia Klevickis in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/214009/isat-351-james-madison-university in Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Review for The ISAT 351 FirsT Exam UpdaTed on 12401 This is noT a comprehensive lisT RaTher iT is meanT an aid in geTTing you sTarTed in Thinking abouT The Topics ThaT will be covered on This exam Topics ThaT have been or will be covered before The firsT exam Nerve signal Transmission Muscle conTracTion Signal TransducTion ProTein Processing and SorTing Vision The cyToskeleTon I Exam FormaT 3040 poinTs of shorT answer and mulTiple choice 3040 poinTs of shorT essay shorT problems ouTlines or diagrams 2 Ten poinT longer essay problems or diagrams Even Though I haven39T explicile covered everyThing on The exam There may be some quesTions ThaT I hope ThaT you will be able To figure ouT from The informaTion ThaT I did cover Guidelines for Exam Answers CourTesy of The Human AnaTomy and Physiology Case STudy ProjecT HAPCS hTTpwwwniagaraedubcliffhapcssuchTml If a quesTion asks Your answer should supply The name of someThing Name The process by which The cyToplasm of a eukaryoTic cell divides To produce Two cells v 39 cyTokinesis If a quesTion asks measuremenT of The em 39 The correcT answer requires you To idenTify or give a m IIWhaT is The role of volTagegaTed poTassium channels in producing The acTion poTenTialII quot The opening of The volTagegaTed poTassium channels causes The repolarizaTion and hyperpolarizaTion of The membrane poTenTial aT The end of The acTion poTenTial If a quesTion asks You should provide an explanaTion in YOUR OWN WORDS of whaT is being asked Don39T merely reiTeraTe whaT was in The lecTure or in The book L quotExplain The difference beTween an ion channel and a pumpII m An ion channel is a membrane proTein ThaT permiTs ions To passively move across The cell membrane from regions of high concenTraTion To regions of low concenTraTion A pump is a membrane proTein ThaT acTively TransporTs subsTances across The cell membrane from regions of low concenTraTion To high concenTraTionII If a quesTion asks L39 Your answer should provide a lisT of ALL of The iTems requesTed IILisT aT leasT Two regulaTory roles for Ca2 in muscle conTracTionII Answer 1 Ca2 is involved in exocyTosis of neuroTransmiTTer conTaining vesicles in The synapTic knob 2 Ca2 binds To TroponinC and is said To be The Trigger for skeleTal muscle conTracTion If a quesTion asks in You should describe a process a mechanism or a series of cause and effecT evenTs whereby someThing occurs IIHow does ATP use by skeleTal muscles lead To conTracTionII AuWS lhl m ATP binds To The myosin crossbridge formed beTween The Thick and Thin filamenTs and causes The myosin head To be released from iTs acTive binding siTe on acTin The hydrolysis of ATP Then causes The myosin head To be reorienTed and reacTivaTed reenergized in preparaTion for iTs reaTTachmenT To anoTher acTin molecule swiveling of The myosin head and The exerTion of The force of conTracTion If a quesTion asks E Your answer should presenT a logical coherenT series of sTepsacTions ThaT would SOLVE The problem IIPropose a way To TreaT cancer ThaT relies upon whaT you know abouT The causes of unconTrolled growTh of cellsII Since unconTrolled growTh in many cancer cells is associaTed wiTh abnormaliTies in proTooncogenes and Tumor suppressor genes iT would be reasonable To inTervene in The acTiviTies of These genes or The proTeins ThaT are made from Them For cancers arising from defecTs in proTooncogenes iT would be useful To pharmacologically inhibiT The acTions of The growThpromoTing oncogenes once They are produced or To enhance The counTerbalancing acTions of exisTing Tumorsuppressor genes Conversely for cancers arising from a loss of Tumor suppressor gene acTiviTy iT would be useful To also suppress The acTions of proTooncogenes or To resTore The normal acTions of The Tumor suppressor genes by gene Therapy or by giving pharmacological agenTs ThaT mimic The acTions of The Tumor suppressor proTeins ThaT have been losT I Review QuesTions 1 Which of The following sTaTemenTs abouT Transmission across a Typical chemical synapse is 0 True a NeuroTransmiTTer molecules are sTored in vesicles in The synapTic knob b AcTion poTenTials Trigger chemical changes ThaT make The neuroTransmiTTer vesicles fuse wiTh The plasma membrane of The TransmiTTing cell c Vesicles conTaining neuroTransmiTTer diffuse To The receiving cell39s plasma membrane d The binding of neuroTransmiTTer To recepTors opens ion channels in The membrane of The receiving cell 2 In a resTing neuron a The poTassium concenTraTion is higher inside The cell Than ouTside b The ouTside of The cell membrane is negaTively charged wiTh respecT To The inside c The sodium poTassium pump in The cell membrane is inacTive d The membrane is impermeable To sodium ions and poTassium ions T quotf 39h 3 AcTion poTenTials are usua ly l propagaTed in only one direcTion along an axon because a The Nodes of Ranvier only conducT in one direcTion b The refracTory period prevenTs movemenT in The direcTion from which The acTion poTenTial came c The nerve cell body has a higher poTenTial Than The axon Terminals d ions can only flow along The axon in one direcTion 4 M mbrane proTeins are criTical componenTs in neuron funcTion Which neuronal process is NOT mediaTed by one or more mem rane proTeins a AcTive TransporT of sodium ions b AcTive TransporT of poTassium ions c RecepTion of neuroTransmiTTer molecules d PropagaTion of an acTion poTenTial How is myelin differenT from oTher cell membranes 0 A second sTimulus applied To a neuron or muscle fiber less Than 0001 second afTer The firsT will noT Trigger anoTher impulse This is called The refracTory period From whaT you know abouT The acTion poTenTial explain why There is a refracTory period and whaT is happening during This period 0 7 Draw a graph of an acTion poTenTial and label The Threshold volTage and The resTing poTenTial When do Na channels open When do They close When do K channels open When do They close When is The NaK ATPase acTive 8 From whaT you know abouT The sodium pump you would expecT ThaT The Na and K concenTraTions across The membrane of a gianT squid axon are a Na K inside 50 mM 400 mM ouTside 440 mM 20 mM b Na K inside 440 mM 20 mM ouTside 50 mM 400 mM c Na K inside 440 mM 400 mM ouTside I 50 mM I 20 mM I d Na K inside 50 mM 20 mM ouTside 440 mM 400 mM 9 The unequal disTribuTion of ion concenTraTions across a nerve membrane is mainTained by 8 ion channels b neuroTransmiTTers c neuroTransmiTTer recepTors d The Na KATPase 10 The resTing poTenTial across an axonal membrane is abouT a 0 mV b 60 mV 0 40 mV d variable beTween 60 mV and 40 mV 11 The long range signaling componenT of a nerve cell is called The a axon b dendriTe c myelin sheaTh 1 cell body 12 The nexT quesTions refer To The figure shown below 40 30 0 l 20 m cm brane l g mmho cm potcintial W A 10 1 7 J 0 60 time milliseconds The TimedependenT change in The membrane poTenTial in The figure shown above is called a The acTion poTenTial b The resTing poTenTial c The Threshold poTenTial d hyperpolarizaTion During The porTion of The curve marked quotBquot a only The K channel is open b only The Na channel is open 0 boTh The K and Na channels are open 1 neiTher The K nor The Na channels are open The Threshold value for The iniTiaTion of The change in membrane poTenTial in The figure shown above is a 20 mV b 40 mV 0 60 mV d 60 mV During The porTion of The cycle marked quotCquot a only The K channel is open b only The Na channel is open 0 boTh The K and Na channels are open 1 neiTher The K nor The Na channels are open answer b The sTaTe indicaTed by The porTion of The cycle marked quotDquot is called a depolarizaTion b repolarizaTion c hyperpolarizaTion d hypopolarizaTion 13 The specific connecTion beTween nerve cells and TargeT cells is called a an axon b a dendriTe c a synapTic vesicle d a synapse 14 The funcTion of aceTylcholinesTerase is To a prevenT The fusion of synapTic vesicles wiTh The plasma membrane b degrade aceTylcholine To aceTaTe and choline in The synapTic clefT 0 add aceTyl CoA To choline To form aceTylcholine d sTimuIaTe release of aceTylcholine from synapTic vesicles 15 Release of aceTylcholine from synapTic vesicles in The nerve cells is Triggered by a Ca2 upTake b ATP hydrolysis c neuroTransmiTTer upTake d K upTake 16 17 18 Parkinson39s disease is a neurological disorder ThaT is associaTed wiTh overproducTion of gama aminobuTyric acid underproducTion of monoamine oxidase overproducTion of dopamine underproducTion of dopamine moo 9 NeuroTransmiTTer recepTors are locaTed wiThin gap juncTions presynapTic membranes posTsynapTic membranes The synapTic clefT moo 9 Which of The following sTaTemenTs is TRUE a NeuroTransmiTTers bind To Their recepTor proTeins on The same side of The membrane as The ion gaTe b NeuroTransmiTTers bind To Their recepTor proTeins on The exTerior face of The recepTor proTein c NeuroTransmiTTers bind To Their recepTor proTeins wiThin The ion pore d NeuroTransmiTTers bind To Their recepTor proTeins on The inTerior face of The recepTor proTein Dopamine recepTorblocking drugs are used To TreaT a Parkinson39s disease b Alzheimer39s disease 0 poisoning by aceTyIchoIinesTerase inhibiTors d psychological diseases such as schizophrenia Binding of aceTyIchoIine To The acelecholine recepTor proTein iniTiaTes an acTion poTenTial in The recipienT membrane Through a b c d selecTively increasing The inward flow of K relaTive To The influx of Na decreasing The ionic permeabiliTy of The posTsynapTic membrane inducing aceTyIchoIine release from The posTsynapTic cell Transienle opening an ion channel IIAdulT zebrafish reTinaII Muscle ConTracTion 21 WhaT role do ATP molecules play in The process of conTracTion of a skeleTal muscle fiber a ATP molecules cause The cross bridges of Thin filamenTs To bind To Thick filamenTs b ATP molecules cause The binding siTes for Thick filamenTs To be exposed on Thin filamenTs c ATP molecules provide energy To enable myosin cross bridges To change conformaTion so ThaT They are able To bind To The acTin molecules on Thin filamenTs d ATP molecules provide energy To enable myosin cross bridges To deTach from The acTin molecules on Thin filamenTs 22 Muscle TeTany resulTs from depleTion of ATP during sTrenuous or prolonged muscle conTracTion Describe whaT happens during TeTany How does iT end 23 Calcium regulaTes muscle conTracTion Where is iT sTored WhaT causes iTs release To which proTein does iT bind WhaT proTein is responsible for reTurning calcium To iTs inTercellular sTore 24 Why are dead people called sTiffs Describe whaT happens during rigor morTis 25 WhaT is The difference beTween fasT TwiTch whiTe muscle fibers and slow TwiTch red muscle fibers The CyToskeleTon 26 WhaT subuniTs make up microTubules WhaT is The energy source for polymerizaTion 27 LisT aT leasT 3 cell funcTions for microTubules 28 WhaT molecular moTors are associaTed wiTh microTubules 29 The TransporT of neuroTransmiTTer vesicles in nerve cells is one example of The use of microTubules in inTercellular TransporT Briefly describe how This process occurs 30 Name aT leasT 5 inTermediaTe fibers and briefly describe The funcTion of each 31 AcTin is The mosT abundanT proTein in a Typical cell WhaT kinds of acTin are There How is acTin polymerized WhaT is The energy source for This process Briefly describe aT leasT Three cell funcTions of acTin Signal TransducTion 32 4 H Give a specific example of a membrane recepTor proTein ThaT acTs a as a ligand gaTed ion channel b as a Tyrosine kinase c by inTeracTing wiTh a 6 proTein 6 proTeins are involved in many signal TransducTion paThways Briefly ouTline The essenTial componenTs of how a 6 proTein is sTrucTured and how iT works in general WhaT does adenlyaTe cyclase do Where is iT locaTed WhaT does phosphodiesTerase do WhaT molecule inhibiTs phosphodiesTerase WhaT does The cyclic AMP dependenT proTein kinase do Draw a sTep by sTep diagram of how an exTernal sTimulus can acTivaTe adrenaline release and ulTimaTely resulT in an increase in blood glucose The locaTion of epinephrine synThesis is a The beTa cells of The pancreas b The Thyroid c The adrenal medula d The skin Hormone recepTors ThaT acTivaTe or inhibiT adenyl cyclase musT firsT acTivaTe proTein kinase C a 6 proTein phospholipase C proTein kinase A a b c d cAMP is a second messenger ThaT acTivaTes a proTein kinase A b The insulin recepTor proTein c 6 proTeins d phospholipase C In The absence of a hormone signal The alpha subuniT of a 6 proTein binds To a CAMP b Ca2 0 GDP 1 GTP 42 Preproinsulin conTains a hydrophobic signal sequence ThaT does noT exisT in The acTive hormone The funcTion of This hydrophobic sequence is To a insure correcT folding of insulin inTo iTs acTive form b TargeT The proTein for TransporT across The endoplasmic reTicular membrane 0 inhibiT hormone acTiviTy unTil iT is secreTed inTo The blood sTream d direcT cell proTeases in correchy processing proinsulin To form insulin Vision 1 Rhodopsin is a member of a family of membrane recepTor proTeins ThaT all have Transmembrane helical segmenTs a Two b four 0 seven 1 Ten answer c 2 11cis reTinal is derived from a viaTmin A b viTamin 312 c viTamin C d viTamin D answer a 3 The cofacTor in The acTive form of rhodopsin is linked To The proTein a by a proTonaTed Schiff base linkage To an arginine residue b by a nonproTonaTed Schiff base linkage To an arginine residue 0 by a proTonaTed Schiff base linkage To a lysine residue 1 by a nonproTonaTed Schiff base linkage To a lysine residue answer c 4 The ouTer segmenT of each rod cell conTains a 3 disks b beTween 10 and 40 disks 0 beTween 500 and 2000 disks 1 abouT 200000 disks answer c 5 The lens of The eye is made of a TransparenT proTein called a crysTallin b opsin c baThorhodopsin d lumirhodopsin answer a In rod cells rhodopsin absorbs lighT maximally aT a 220 nm b 380 nm 0 500 nm 1 750 nm answer c Human cone cells are sensiTive To color because a lighT of differenT wavelengThs has differenT energies which are more or less efficienT in acTivaTing rhodopsin b human cone cells have filTers ThaT allow only lighT of cerTain wavelengThs To peneTraTe Their disc membranes 0 lighT rays enTering The eye are refracTed differenle depending on The wavelengTh and because The cofacTor of rhodopsin is orienTed specifically wiThin The disc membranes rhodopsin acTivaTion is sensiTive To The angle of refracTion d cone cells have Three differenT rhodopsin molecules each of which is maximally sensiTive To a differenT wavelengTh answer d The orienTaTion of The reTinal wiTh respecT To The plane of The disc membrane is a parallel b perpendicular 0 parallel when iT is in The form of 11cis reTinal buT perpendicular when iT is all TransreTinal d perpendicular when iT is in The form of 11cisreTinal buT parallel when iT is all TransreTinal answer a When The elecTron densiTy increases near The niTrogen aTom of The Shiff base linkage in rhodopsin a The wavelengTh of The absorpTion maximum decreases b The wavelengTh of The absorpTion maximum increases 0 The wavelengTh of The absorpTion maximum remains The same d There are Two absorpTion maxima in The region beTween 380 nm and 630 nm answer CI 10 When opsin is mixed wiTh r39eTinal in Who N H A a neiTher 11cisr39eTinal nor39 allTr39ansr39eTinal will bind b boTh 11cisr39eTinal and allTr39ansr39eTinal will bind c only 11cisr39eTinal will bind d only allTr39ansr39eTinal will bind answer c BaThor hodopsin is The fir sT meTasTable producT of The phoTochemical r39eacTion of rhodopsin The cofacTor39 in baThor39hodopsin is a 11cis r eTinal b allTr39ansr39eTinal c 9cis r eTinal d 13cisr39eTinal answer b Which of The following acTivaTes Tr39ansducin a baThorhodopsin b lumir hodopsin c meTarhodopsin I d meTar hodopsin II answer d Tr39ansd ucin is a a Ca2 binding pr39oTein b a phosphodiesTerase c a Na channel acTivaTor39 d a 6 pr39oTein answer d The sequence of evenTs following absor39pTion of a phoTon of lighT by a r39hodopsin molecule in a rod cell is as follows Fquot 1 Tr39ansducin is acTivaTed 2 phosphodiesTer39ase is acTivaTed 3 cGMP is hydrolyzed 4 Na channels close 1 Tr39ansducin is acTivaTed 2 cGMP is synThesized 3 phosphodiesTerase is inacTivaTed 4 Na channels close H H H H c 1 Transducin is acTivaTed 2 phosphodiesTerase is acTivaTed 3 cGMP is hydrolyzed 4 Na channels open 1 1 Transducin is acTivaTed 2 phosphodiesTerase is acTivaTed 3 cGMP is synThesized 4 Na channels open answer a When rhodopsin is acTivaTed by lighT The rod cell is a depolarized by The TransienT opening of Na ion channels b hyperpolarized by The TransienT closure of Na ion channels 0 hypopolarized by The TransienT opening of Na ion channels 1 polarized by The TransienT opening of Na ion channels answer b Of The following which is a single subuniT inTegral membrane proTein wiTh a molecular mass of abouT 38000 a Transd uci n b phosphodiesTerase c gyanlylaTe cyclase d opsi n answer d As rhodopsin cycles Through exciTaTion by lighT followed by regeneraTion a 11cisreTinal is isomerized To allTransreTinal which is Then regeneraTed insiTu Through a process ThaT involves 9cisreTinal and phosphaTidylcholine b AllTransreTinal is isomerized To 11cisreTinal which is Then released from The rhodopsin The 11cisreTinal is Then Transferred To The pigmenT epiThelium where iT is converTed back To allTransreTinal c 11cisreTinal is isomerized To allTransreTinal which is Then released from rhodopsin The allTransreTinal is Transferred To The pigmenT epiThelium where iT is converTed back To 11cisreTinal in a series of reacTions ThaT involve reducTion by NADH esTerificaTion conversion To 11cisreTinol and finally oxidaTion To form 11 cisreTinal d AllTransreTinal is isomerized To 11cisreTinal which is Then converTed back To form allTransreTinal in a reacTion ThaT requires lighT answer c GyanylaTe cyclase The enzyme ThaT converTs GTP To cGMP is sTrongly inhibiTed by a arresTin b Na 0 Ca2 d The I subunit of transducin answer c 19 PhosphodiesTerase is acTivaTed by N O N N 3 a phosphorylaTion aT mulTiple serine and Threonine siTes b a complex beTween The I subunit of transducin and GTP 0 Na d allTransreTinal answer b The elecTrochemical poTenTial across The rod cell cyToplasmic membrane is generaTed by a The Na KATPase b The plasma membrane Ca2ATPase c phosphodiesTerase d movemenT of proTons across The plasma membrane in response To lighT acTivaTion of rhodopsin answer a The funcTion of arresTin is To a inhibiT producTion of cGMP b phosphorylaTe rhodopsin c bind To phosphorylaTed rhodopsin Thus prevenTing conTinued acTivaTion of Transducin d bind To phosphodiesTerase Thus rendering iT inacTive answer c Reversal of The acTivaTion of TheDII subunit of trans ducin is achieved by a replacemenT of bound GDP by GTP b binding of cGMP c hydrolysis of bound GTP leaving bound GDP and free inorganic phosphaTe d release of cGMP answer c In The pigmenT epiThelium The energy required To converT allTransreTinal To 11cis reTinaI is supplied by a GTP hydrolysis b lighT c The Na gradienT across The cell membrane d hydrolysis of a phospholipid answer d 24 Each molecule of rhodopsin ThaT is converTed To meTarhodopsin II causes acTivaTion of a 1 molecule of Transducin b abouT 500 molecules of Transducin c abouT 25000 molecules of Transducin d abouT 25 x 106 molecules of Transducin answer b 25 GuanlylaTe cyclase caTalyzes The synThesis of cGMP from GTP If you Transienle inhibiTed This enzyme for lt 10 milliseconds a you would Transienle arresT The abiliTy of a rod cell To respond To lighT b The effecT would be The same as if The rod cell were responding To a lighT signal 0 There would be no effecT on The rod cell39s abiliTy To respond To lighT however There would be a negaTive effecT on The abiliTy To regeneraTe 11cis reTinal d 11cis reTinal would sponTaneously isomerize To form allTransreTinal even in The absence of lighT answer b 26 Gppr is a nonhydrolyzable analog of GTP ThaT can bind To Transducin in The presence of lighTacTivaTed rhodopsin FurThermore The complex beTween The Transducin I subunit and 6ppr can bind To The reguIaTory pepTide of phosphodiesTerase Thus in The presence of 6ppr you would expecT ThaT a rhodopsin Transducin and phosphodiesTerase would all funcTion normally b rhodopsin would noT acTivaTe Transducin c rhodopsin would acTivaTe Transducin buT Transducin would noT acTivaTe phosphodiesTerase d rhodopsin would acTivaTe Transducin and Transducin would acTivaTe phosphodiesTerase buT The signal To acTivaTe Transducin could noT be reversed answer d 27 Transducin DJ GDP binds to a The reguIaTory pepTide of phosphodiesTerase b The caTalyTic subuniT of phosphodiesTerase c The ll and UEIubunits of transducin d gyanlylaTe cyclase answer c
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