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FCFN 340 Exam 2 Study Guide

by: Caitlyn Ruotanen

FCFN 340 Exam 2 Study Guide FCFN 340

Caitlyn Ruotanen
GPA 3.541
Principles of Human Nutrition
Christy Tunnel

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This is an 18-page study guide for FCFN 340 Spring 2016 Exam 2.
Principles of Human Nutrition
Christy Tunnel
Study Guide
nutrition, Human Nutrition
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlyn Ruotanen on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FCFN 340 at Ball State University taught by Christy Tunnel in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Nutrition in Child and Family Studies at Ball State University.

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Date Created: 03/17/16
Study Guide Exam 2 Ch 46 FCFN 340 1 Be familiar with mono di polysaccharides What are they examples etc How are they each digested a Monosaccharides one unit of sugar simple carbohydrate i Three nutritionally important monosaccharides 1 Glucose Most abundant monosaccharide in the body and foods Is the preferred and main source of energy for the brain and red blood cells 2 Fructose Sweetest of natural sugars Found abundantly in fruits Part of highfructose corn syrup 3 Galactose Commonly occurs as part of the disaccharide lactose Rarely found on its own ii The structure of the three monosaccharides is a hexose b Disaccharides formed when two monosaccharides join together through a process called condensation remove water simple carbohydrate i Three disaccharides 1 Sucrose table sugar Most common Found naturally in sugar cane and sugar beets 2 Lactose milk sugar Found in dairy products 3 Maltose Least common Formed from digestion of starches c Polysaccharides consist of many sugar units longchain carbohydrate made from smaller carbohydrates complex carbohydrate i Starch Plants store glucose in chains of starch 1 Amylose Straight chain of polysaccharides found in starch 40 percent of starch is amylose More resistant to digestion than amylopectin 2 Resistant starch is not digested in the GI tract May improve health of digestive tract May improve glucose tolerance May stimulate growth of bene cial intestinal bacteria 3 Amylopectin Branched chains of polysaccharides found in starch 60 percent of starch is amylopectin Easier to digest ii iii Fiber Most forms are nondigestible polysaccharides and occur naturally as a structural component called cellulose 1 2 Most plant foods contain both soluble and insoluble bers Overall ber intake is the most important aspect of the diet rather than the type eaten 3 Animal products do not contain ber 4 Functional ber is a type of ber that has been extracted or isolated from a plant or manufactured by the food industry and has been shown to have health bene ts Glycogen FPOONH 5 6 Storage form of glucose in animals Long branched chains of glucose Stored in liver and muscle Liver glycogen response to blood glucose BG levels lvBm glycogen breakdo l t BG Muscle glycogen can be broken down for energy for the muscle Animal products do not contain glycogen 2 What is the storage form of glucose in animals Plants a Glycogen Storage form of glucose in animals b Starch Plants store glucose in chains of starch 3 What is ber What types of ber are there Examples of each How is it processed within the body a Fiber Most forms are nondigestible polysaccharides and occur naturally as a structural component called cellulose 39 Most plant foods contain both soluble and insoluble bers Overall ber intake is the most important aspect of the diet rather than the type eaten 1 ii iii iv b Types i Animal products do not contain ber Functional ber is a type of ber that has been extracted or isolated from a plant or manufactured by the food industry and has been shown to have health bene ts Insoluble ber Does not dissolve in water 1 2 Not easily fermented by bacteria in the intestine Examples Cellulose lignins some hemicelluloses Health bene ts Increases stool bulk ii Relieves constipation Soluble ber Dissolves in water 1 Easily fermented by bacteria in the intestine Examples Pectins mucilages betaglucans 2 Health bene ts Lowers cholesterol Lowers blood glucose Appetite control 4 What are carbohydrates CHO What food groups contain CHO 5 Where does the majority of CHO digestion occur a Most in small Intestine b Digestion i ii iii iv Begins in mouth the teeth grind the food and mix it with saliva i Saliva contains salivary amylase The food mixture travels down the esophagus to the stomach i The amylase continues to break down the starch ii There are no carbohydratedigesting enzymes in the stomach The pancreas releases pancreatic amylase when the carbohydrates enter the small intestine i Enzymes break down the disaccharides into monosaccharides When they reach the large intestine all starch and simple sugars have been broken down and absorbed i Only the indigestible ber remains 6 Pancreatic amylasewhat is the function a Pancreatic Amylase when carbs enter the small intestine the amylase enzymes break down the disaccharides into monosaccharides 7 What is glucose Eunction What is glycogen Eunction What is glucagon Eunction a Galactose and fructose Used by the liver for energy Converted to glucose b Glucose Used for energy Converted to glycogen through glycogenesis Excess glucose is converted to glycerol and fatty acids for storage in adipocytes c Glycogen Storage form of glucose in animals Long branched chains of glucose Stored in liver and muscle iii Liver glycogen response to blood glucose BG levels 1 BG glycogen breakdown BG iv Muscle glycogen can be broken down for energy for the muscle v Animal products do not contain glycogen d Glucagon Increases blood glucose levels i Stimulates the release of glucose into the blood ii Stimulates glycogenolysis iii Stimulates glucose production iv Promotes the conversion of lactic acid to glucose AWIOSD Two types of starch are amylase straight chain and amylepectin branched Starch Dietary fiber is a nondigestible iood component found in the cell walls of plants Most dietary fiber is in the form of cellulose a straight chain of glucose units with a heta glycosidic bond that humans Fiber lack the enzyme to digest Glycogen the storage form of glucose in animals including humans is more branched than amylopectini e Glycogen 8 What are ketones What effect do they have on the body a Ketone a chemical produced when there is a shortage of insulin in the blood and the body breaks down body fat for energy i Ketones in the urine is a sign that your body is using fat for energy instead of using glucose because not enough insulin is available to use glucose for energy ii Ketosis is an excess number of ketone bodies in the blood 9 Which hormones have an effect on blood glucose levels a The body wants to keep blood glucose between 70 mgdl and 1 1 0 mgdl b Two hormones are responsible for maintaining this level i Insulin Lowers blood glucose levels 1 Needed for glucose to enter the cell from the bloodstream 2 Liver kidney and brain cells can use glucose without insulin 3 Stimulates glycogenesis 4 Stimulates lipogenesis 5 Inhibits lipolysis ii Glucagon Increases blood glucose levels 1 Stimulates the release of glucose into the blood 2 Stimulates glycogenolysis 3 Stimulates glucose production 4 Promotes the conversion of lactic acid to glucose 10 What are Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes What are the differences between the two a Type 1 Diabetes Autoimmune disease where the immune system destroys beta cells of the pancreas i No insulin produced ii Usually begins in childhood or early adulthood iii 5 to 10 percent of diabetics iv Common symptoms of elevated blood sugar 1 Polydipsia Uncontrollable thirst 2 Polyuria Excessive urination 3 Polyphagia Strong desire to eat v Requires daily insulin injections and blood glucose monitoring b Type 2 Diabetes Produce insulin but have become insulin resistant pancreas overproduces insulin and eventually decreases production from overuse i Overweight and obesity increase risk for developing Type 2 diabetes ii 90 to 95 percent of diabetics iii Produce insulin but have become insulin resistant iv Pancreas overproduces insulin and eventually decreases production from overuse v Can go undiagnosed for some time 1 Damages vital organs without individual being aware of it vi Screening 1 Everyone over 45 years of age should be tested every 3 years overweight people should be tested earlier 2 Overweight children should be screened at age 10 and older 11 What are lipids Food sources a Lipids refer to a category of compounds that include i Triglycerides 12 13 9 ii Phospholipids iii Sterols Contain carbon oxygen and hydrogen Hydrophobic which means they don39t dissolve in water Basic functions in the body i Store and provide energy ii Provide insulation iii Help manufacture steroids and bile iv Play a role in transporting fatsoluble nutrients in the blood v Used to manufacture major seX hormones vi Key to the structure of cell membranes Roles i Used as a source of energy ii Form body structures including cell membranes iii Regulate metabolism iv Enhance the absorption of fatsoluble vitamins v Provide a layer of insulation to help regulate body temperature vi Help cushion the major organs Know short medium and longchain fatty acids Carbon length of fatty acids is 2 to 80 carbons long i The most common fatty acids contain 12 to 24 carbons Shortchain fatty acids i 2 to 4 carbons Mediumchain fatty acids i 6 to 10 carbons Longchain fatty acids i 12 or more carbons Longchain fatty acids are the most common type in foods and take longer to digest than short or mediumchain Know the three types of lipids and their functions Triglycerides i Most common lipid in both foods and the body ii Make up about 95 percent of lipids found in foods iii A triglyceride molecule has three fatty acids connected to a glycerol backbone iv Functions Add texture to baked goods Make meats tender Preserve freshness Stored as adipose tissue for energy FPOONH an Water Lalycerol bacmone Stearic acid 18 O b Phospholipids 1 ii iii iv V1 Vii Viii Made of a glycerol backbone and two fatty acids a phosphate group and different nitrogencontaining compounds Hydrophilic on one end hydrophobic on the other Make up the phospholipid bilayer in the cell membrane Lecithin aka phosphatidylcholine is a type of phospholipid Synthesized by the liver Functions 1 Used as an emulsifier in foods eg salad dressing 2 A major phospholipid in the cell membrane Phosphate Choline group F h osph ol ipid Polar head Nonpolar tail hydrophl lic hydrophobic attracts water repels water H Glycerol Two fatty acids c Sterols i Made of four connecting rings of carbon and hydrogen 1 They do not contain glycerol or fatty acids 2 They do not provide energy ii Cholesterol is the best known sterol 1 Found in every cell in the body 2 Helps with numerous body processes 3 Precursor to Vitamin D seX steroids and adrenal corticoids iii Phytosterols and phytostanols are major plant sterols HE CH CH CH5 I IO quot Cholesterol ch CH9 CHQCHIQ 7 39 CFCH Cchb CH3 I Io 39 1V SIlosteroI 14 What causes fats to go rancid a Rancidity Spoiling of fats through oxidation a Double bonds are less stable than single bonds b Foods with unsaturated fats become rancid faster than foods with saturated 0 I II II r f C c cc C cc C H HT I quot Ho H C Manufacturers have enhanced the stability of fatty acids by reducing rancidity a Adding antioxidants b Limiting food exposure to oxygen heat and light c Hydrogenation 15 Know what dietary recommendations for fats will promote good health a Americans39 fat intake is within the guidelines at 32 percent of total kilocalories but the type of fat consumed must be considered a AMDR recommendation i 20 to 35 percent of daily kilocalories should come from fat b Excess fat consumption does not lead to weight gain unless excess kilocalories are eaten c Because fat contains concentrated kilocalories a diet high in fat is more likely to result in excessive kilocalorie intake b For heart health a Consume no more than 10 percent of total kilocalories from saturated fat lt7 percent of total kilocalories is ideal b Replace saturated fats with monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats c Limit trans fats to lt1 percent of total kilocalories c AMDR for the essential fatty acids a Linoleic acid i 5 to 10 percent of total kilocalorie intake b Alphalinolenic acid i 06 12 percent of total kilocalorie intake c For people diagnosed with heart disease i Consume 1 gram of essential fatty acids each day ii 2 4 grams of EPA and DHA daily may reduce blood triglycerides d Currently Americans only consume about 01 02 gramsd of EPA and DHA 16 How are fats processed and distributed throughout the body a How are Lipids Digested Absorbed and Transported in the Body a The digestion of fat begins in the mouth with chewing i Food mixes with saliva and lingual lipase ii Lingual lipase hydrolyzes the mediumchain fatty acids b The bolus of food travels through the esophagus into the stomach i Gastrin is released from the gastric pits lining the stomach and stimulates the release of gastric juices rich in gastric lipase ii Gastric lipase hydrolyzes one fatty acid from the triglyceride which produces a free fatty acid and a diglyceride b Most Triglycerides Are Digested and Their Components Absorbed in the Small Intestine a Fat globules in chyme tend to cluster together b In the intestine bile acid emulsifies larger fat droplets into smaller fat droplets i This allows pancreatic lipase to digest the lipids easily ii The resulting lipid complex is a micelle 1 Micelles transport the lipid complex across the small intestinal wall c Cholecystokinin CCK is the hormone that stimulates the gallbladder to release bile acid i CCK is released by the cells of the duodenum in the presence of lipids d Phospholipids i Emulsified by bile during digestion ii Dismantled into two free fatty acids and the phospholipid remnant iii Packaged as micelles iv Transported through intestinal wall e Sterols i Not digested ii Carried by the micelle and absorbed intact through intestinal wall iii Bile emulsifies sterols f If lipids are undigested and not absorbed in the small intestine they i Bind with fiber ii Are eliminated in the feces a Role of bile in emulsifying fat I 39 I O Pancreatic lipase I I I I I l TWO 18 11V acids 1 l39flElITCLVQWCBFIFJES C 0 B BI u391itr II 39 9 r H p Ir quot1 in NE new Ml u I J J l I l l l Moncgly39ccridosand truerocyte l39 any acids are absorbed imlo the emerocyte micelles cross the intestinal cell membranes quot1quot b Chylomicrons Facilitat Lipid Absorption a Lipids are absorbed based on their structure Glycerol and short to mediumchain fatty acids are absorbed directly into the bloodstream Longchain fatty acids combine with phospholipids and cholesterol to form chylomicrons b Chylomicrons are too large to be absorbed directly into the bloodstream i Travel through lymph uid rst Exit the lymph and enter bloodstream through thoracic duct next to the heart Lipoprotein lipase LPL hydrolyzes triglycerides in i ii ii iii the chylomicrons as they travel to the liver via the bloodstream iv Chylomicron Phospholipid Cholesterrol Fat droplet 1 triglycerides c Absorption of dietary lipids Micelle rm quot c 7 r 1 1 a if quot397 llml l miles I 5 FIN i 1 l1 1 I ll I ll 2 2 llgy w n Enlerocyie Phospho Iipxds Free Monogly my cerides l and Short chain fatty acids A39 r U39 5 Glycerol 7 TO bluodalrear n C hyzlom icmn Hydrogenation Replacing saturated fat with hydrogenated fat During the hydrogenation process some of the double bonds 1 The unstable 0139s fatty acids in the double bond form trans Trans fat may actually be worse for heart health than are The FDA requires trans fat to be listed on food labels iii Precursor to vitamin D sex steroids and adrenal Dietary cholesterol comes mainly from animal products The cholesterol produced in plant cell walls and oils is so 17 What is hydrogenation a b are recon gured fatty acids c Some trans fats are naturally occurring d saturated fats i Raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol e 18 What is cholesterol Function a Cholesterol is the best known sterol 1 Found in every cell in the body ii Helps with numerous body processes corticoids b c minimal that they are considered cholesterol free 01 Phytosterols and stanols 1 Lower LDL levels by competing with cholesterol for absorption ii Are found in soybean oil many fruits vegetables legumes sesame seeds nuts cereals and other plant foods iii Food manufacturers are fortifying foods with them to help lower cholesterol 19 What are transfats Trans fats raise LDLs and blood triglycerides and lower HDLs Hydrogenation Replacing saturated fat with hydrogenated fat c During the hydrogenation process some of the double bonds are recon gured i The unstable 0139s fatty acids in the double bond form trans fatty acids d Some trans fats are naturally occurring e Trans fat may actually be worse for heart health than are saturated fats i Raise LDL and lower HDL cholesterol f The FDA requires trans fat to be listed on food labels F75 20 What are proteins Function a Protein made up of chains of amino acids that are made based on an individual39s DNA i Proteins are macronutrients found in each cell in the body ii They participate in every cellular activity that helps the body to function iii Hormones and enzymes are made of proteins iv Proteins contain nitrogen in addition to carbon hydrogen and oxygen 1 Some protein foods contain sulfur not found in carbs or lipids v Functions 1 Provide structural support and enable movement 2 Act as a catalyst 3 Enzymes speed up reactions 4 Act as a chemical messenger 5 Hormones regulate cell actions 6 Regulate uid balance 7 Help maintain acidbase balance vi More Functions 1 Transport substances throughout the body Transport proteins shuttle oxygen waste products lipids some vitamins and sodium and potassium through the blood and cell membranes 2 Contribute to a healthy immune system Antibodies are proteins that bind and neutralize pathogens that would harm the body 3 Provide energy 21 4 kcalsgram 4 Improve satiety and appetite control The Many Roles of Proteins Role of Protein How tt Works Structural and mechanical support and maintenance Proteins are the body39s building materials providing strength and flexibility to tissues tendons ligaments muscles organs bones nails hair and skin Proteins are also needed for the ongoing maintenance ot the body Enzymes and hormones Proteins are needed to make most enzymes that speed up reactions in the body and many hormones that direct specific activities such as regulating blood glucose levels Fluid balance Proteins play a major role in ensuring that body fluids are evenly dispersed in the blood and inside and outside cells tcid base balance Proteins act as buffers to help keep the pH ot body fluids within a tight range A drop in pH will cause body fluids to become too acidic whereas a rise in pH can make them too basic Transport Proteins shuttle substances such as oxygen waste products andl nutrients such as sodium and potassium through the blood and into and out of cellls Antibodies and the immune response Proteins create specialized antibodies that attack pathogens that may cause illness Energy Because proteins provide 4 kilocalories per gram they can be used as fuel or energy Satiety Protein increases satiety which can help control appetite and weight Vii What are essential vs nonessential amino acids 22 Essential i Must be consumed in the diet ii Nine essential amino acids Nonessential i Can be synthesized in the body ii Eleven essential amino acids Conditionally essential i Nonessential amino acids that become essential because the body cannot make them 1 Examples Tyrosine and glycine l The Mighty Twenty Nonessential Amino Acids Conditionally lEssentiaIlJ Amino Acids in Italics Essential Amino Acids Histidine Hisa lsoleucine Ile Leucine Leu Lysine Lys Methionine Met Phenylalanine Phe Threonine tThr Tryptophan Trp Valine Val Alanine Ala Argini39ne Are Asparagine Ash Aspartic acid Asp Cysteine st Glutamic acid Glu Glutamine Gin Glycine City Proiine Pro Serine Ser Tyrosine Tyr quot Hislidine was once thought to be essential onty tor inlants it is now known that small amounts are also needed lor adults 3 These amino acids can be quotconditionally essential quot if there are either inadequate precursors or inadequate enzymes available to create these in the body How are proteins processed within the body Protein digestion begins in the stomach i The bolus enters the stomach 1 Gastrin stimulates the release of HCl 2 HCl denatures the protein and converts pepsinogen to pepsin 3 Pepsin breaks polypeptides into shorter chains b Digestion continues in the small intestine i Polypeptides enter the small intestine and are broken down into smaller peptides 1 Cholecystokinin stimulates the release of proteases by the pancreas 2 Proteases break apart the polypeptides to tripeptides and dipeptides 3 Dipeptidases and tripeptidases break the dipeptides and tripeptides into amino acids c Amino acid absorption i Amino acids are absorbed in the small intestine ii Amino acids are transported to the liver from the intestines via the portal vein iii In the liver amino acids are 1 Used to synthesize new proteins 2 Converted to energy glucose or fat 3 Released to the bloodstream and transported to cells throughout the body iv Occasionally proteins are absorbed intact Protein digestion begins in the stomach Irilith the aid of hydrochloric acid Hill and the enzyme pepsin Proteases ccntinue the idigieetien in the small intestine releasing single amino acids to be absented into the portal vein for deliveryr to the liver iRGlANS OF THE G TRACT ACCESSORY DREAMS Mechanical digmlicn cl prninirl begins with cllewirlg learirig and ITIIKillg Iced willl salivary juices to IDrm a bcIus STDMA H m le Hydrochloric acid denatures prclem and activates pepsinngen 13 fcrrn pepsin Pansin breake 1hr pglcpgplida chain irlln entiller mlypeptidee ti M i PAthIlREAS hi i Produces nrleleases that are re leased llllt the Small lnltlHllllD via the pancreatic duct u 39L ireugh he INBF an re urn o the blood Id be picked up and used by body cells SMALL39NTEST39NE eaiieiiaiiii Picteases ccrllirlue In cleave ceplide hands IGSI ll ti rig in dipeptides llipeplidtm and single arnlnu acids f r esh Tripeplidases and dipeplirlases on the surface at llle enterecyiee in quot5h the ligeelicn to yield single 0 aci 3 which can than be absorbed into the hicodeueam and travel through the mortal vein ln lhe Inger 23 What are enzymes a Enzymes made of protein are catalysts speed up reactions 24 What is nitrogen balance What ponulations are generally in or out of nitrogen balance a Healthy adults should be in nitrogen balance i Should consume enough to replace what is used every day b Individuals in positive nitrogen balance i Pregnant woman people recovering from surgery or injury and growing children ii Should consume enough to build new tissue c Individuals in negative nitrogen balance i Immediately after surgery ghting an infection or severe emotional trauma ii Need to consume enough kilocalories and protein to meet demand d Proteins contain nitrogen in addition to carbon hydrogen and oxygen 25 What is satiety a Satiety feeling full appetite control i Eating protein causes greater satiety 26 What is a complete protein a Complementary and complete proteins i Complete proteins 1 Contain all nine essential amino acids 2 Usually animal sources are complete proteins Exception Soy protein 3 Are considered higher quality ii Incomplete proteins 1 Low in one or more essential amino acids 2 Usually plant sources b What Are the Best Food Sources of Protein i Eggs meat sh soy and dairy contain signi cant amounts of protein ii A 3ounce serving of cooked meat poultry or sh 1 Provides 21 to 25 grams of protein 2 Provides about 7 grams of protein per ounce 3 Is about the size of a deck of cards 4 Is an adequate amount for one meal iii Eating a wide variety of foods is the best approach to meeting protein needs iv Taking protein supplements is unnecessary and generally not recommended 27 What percentage of a healthy diet should come from CHO Protein Fat 2 Saturated Fat Choosel yPlaiegov 2Wquot 112131115 8 El Ell 5 5 l W16 6J5 l 2 393 I f 30 W 1 4m 1391 25m 340 354 350 i I I 35053931 0 3530 quot13911 395 IL l imam u llil 1 ELI i ll 2quot Vegetables Fruits Grams 28 How many calg do CHO Pro Fat Alcohol provide Carbs 4 calg Protein 4 calg Pat 9 calg Alcohol 7 callg 9065 29 What is the RDA for protein a Protein intake recommendations 1 RDA 08 gkg daily for adults over 18 ii AMDR 10 to 35 percent of total daily kilocalories iii Overweight individuals39 needs are not much greater than normalweight individuals of similar height h The American College of Sports Medicine the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and other experts advocate i 50 to 100 percent more protein for competitive athletes participating in endurance exercise or resistance exercise Typically this population eats more and therefore gets additional protein c Best Protein Sources i Not all protein is created equal 1 Highquality protein Is digestible Contains all essential amino acids 30 Provides sufficient protein to synthesize nonessential amino acids What is marasmus kwashiorkor a Kwashiorkor i Severe protein de ciency 1 Generally the result of a diet high in grains and de cient in protein ii Symptoms include 1 2 3 4 5 quot4 f b Marasmus Edema in legs feet and stomach Diminished muscle tone and strength Brittle hair that is easy to pull out A pale sad and apathetic appearance Being prone to infection rapid heart rate excess uid in lungs pneumonia septicemia and water and electrolyte imbalances i Results from a severe de ciency in kilocalories 1 2 NFEP PPO Frail emaciated appearance Weakened and appear apathetic Often cannot stand without support Appears old beyond their years Hair thin dry and lacks sheen Low body temperature and blood pressure Prone to dehydration infections and unnecessary blood clotting ii C Marasmic Kwashiorkor both i All are types of PEM proteinenergy malnutrition ii Chronic de ciency in kilocalories and protein 1 Edema in legs and arms 2 A quotskin and bonesquot appearance 3 With treatment the edema subsides and appearance becomes more like someone with marasmus d Treatment for PEM i Medical and nutritional treatment can dramatically reduce the mortality rate ii Should be implemented carefully and slowly 1 Step 1 Address lifethreatening factors Severe dehydration Fluid and nutrient imbalances 2 Step 2 Restore depleted tissue Gradually provide nutritionally dense kilocalories and highquality protein 3 Step 3 Transition to foods and introduce physical activity 31 Which nutrient only occurs naturally in animal foods 32 Where are proteins found in the body a Everywhere cell membranes enzymes DNA 33 What are antibodies a Antibodies proteins that bind and neutralize pathogens that would harm the body i Aid immune system


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