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by: Mrs. Oleta Okuneva


Mrs. Oleta Okuneva
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Charles Pringle

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Charles Pringle
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mrs. Oleta Okuneva on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to COB 202 at James Madison University taught by Charles Pringle in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 56 views. For similar materials see /class/214057/cob-202-james-madison-university in College of Business at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
Final Exam Study Guide Dr Pringle COB 202 Libe1ia ain t Louisiana the story sets forth the idea that leadership is situational Charles very strict and aggressive approach to management isn t always best In Louisiana the employees needed some strict guidance to keep the ship running tightly but in Liberia the workers already worked hard and did not need much motivation Contingency theory Persuasion Tips for Persuasion 1 Choose the setting The right place and moment are key 2 Choose your appearance Lawyers dress up their clients 3 Understand your subjects world Know what they can and can t do 4 Appeal to the subjects selfinterest 5 Be positive tactful and calm 6 Present strong hard to refute evidence Leadership Leadership has two primary schools of thought Born a leader and Leadership is learned Born a Leader 3000 years ago leaders were all males with strong psychical features Qualities ofa Leader Someone smart but not a genius can still relate to the people Tend to be tall not a requirement E ective Leader Traits College ofMarylartd Have to have drive motivating ambition and need for achievement 0 Energy 7 physical energy little sleep 0 Tenacity 7 persistent not giving up 0 Initiative a go getter not a procrastinator Need for power Honestyintegrity Selfcon dence I knowI can Cognitive ability ability to take matters into their own hands and make decisions Charisma gift from god people skills Leadership Styles PPT Slides Contingency Theory best leadership style depends on situation Effective Leaders must Have a vision Be prepared to make unpopular decisions Lead by example Do not make unwarranted compliments Do not be ambiguous with new employees Negotiation the goal is to get satisfactory results not beat the other person You can only control what you want and do in a negotiation you cannot control the other person You can make a deal only when both parties see the bene t Make sure the other party understands the bene ts for them Always let the other person make the rst offer After initial offer look shocked Never accept the rst offer in most cases Don t negotiate with yourself let awkward silence stay awkward Power in negotiation Supply vs Demand Look for a newjob while you have a job 50 of college grads want a newjob after 3 years Threefactors that change power in aRelationship Guilt guilty party will give in more easily Time pressure deadlines can weaken your power Desire person who wants it badly will show it and get screwed Deborah Tannen 7 Professor at Georgetown Studied communication of males and females Male emphasizes what they ve done better at negotiations Females try to connect not as good negotiators Power and Politics Power getting someone to do something they wouldn t normally do ability to make things happen he way you want French and Ravens Bases ofPower l Reward power Boss can give promotions bonuses Gives him power 2 Coercive power get red demotion no window in office Gives boss power 3 Legitimate power authority you do what your boss wants because he is your boss First three are given to upper managers by their position in the company Position or formal power 1 Expert Power I do what my boss tells me because he knows more than me and is an eXpert 2 Referent Power Charisma I do what my boss wants me to because I want to be like him These two are god given and not granted by the company willingly accepted not imposed on followers Information power you hold the information so you can control it Beyond French and Raven more types of power 1 Control access to important people info or things EX IT guy 2 Exchange Power I ll do a favor for you and then you owe me a favor later Gives the creditor power a Ingratiation you give someone a false comment so they feel like they owe you something EX complimenting prof at the end of the semester 3 Persistence continue to nag someone until they do something 4 Coalition getting together with others and as a group yielding power Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince It is far safer to be feared than loved Nobody else will keep their promises so why should you You must be able to do the opposite if the situation provides Everyone is an idiot MachevellismWach Appears generally before the age of 10 in personality High Mach Cool and detached can eXhibit emotional feelings even though they don t actually feel it They can be friends with people make promises to them as long as something about the person is bene cial to the high mach If person is no longer useful they can easily discard them Use people to get ahead 0 High mach tends to in uence low machs greatly because they are more trustful people 00 Politics using your power to in uence decisions in your own interest everyone engages in politics often but it is not talked about much Reasons for Politics 1 Every company has a hierarchical structure 2 High machs are everywhere and you need to be aware of them or else they will take advantage of you 3 Managerial Dependency gain more power but also become dependent on people to do well 4 Many organizational decisions are not rational or objective When performance is easy to measure politics is not as important Playing Politics Ethically 1 Read the culture and t in with the company at rst 2 Be nice but not passive or you will get run over FILO Hard work ethic Read your new boss Perform well nothing else matters if you are performing well Stay current in the eld don t get obsolete Speak up give your two cents Become a crucial subordinate and help your boss succeed 9 Document you re accomplishments and let people know you are doing well Don t be a complainer Create an image of professional competence Network Treat the waiter well when your boss takes you out 399535 D ID ID ID I WNt O Networking people helping you and you helping people Setting up the Network 1 Find people who can help you inside the organization a Be someone who will help people 2 Know key people in outside rms 3 JMU friends Goals People who have high goals in life out perform people with lower goals Goals effect performance Speci c leave no room for interpretation Measurable Veri able checkpoints to evaluate progress be able to measure progress Attainable How must have resourcescapabilities Realistic difficult to stretch yourself but not unreasonable Timebound develop deadline Goals should be your own personal goals They should directly re ect your values wants and needs Goal Setting Strategies Visualize the outcome Strive for performance not outcomes Effort not results Develop a support network Limit the number of goals try to focus be speci c Allow for setbacks Be honest with yourself Reward small accomplishments Don t lose sight of the big picture review goals a daily basis Revisit the process goal setting is an ongoing process Tailor your goals to your present values wwsoweww Distributive Bargaining is used when there are limited resources Used if parties don t care about the longterm health of the relationship When short term goals are important WinLose Integrative Bargaining is used when there are unlimited resources Winwin Both parties can reach their goals Egocentrism our group is better than your group Book Notes Negotiation is better than a lawsuit or arbitration Five Steps of Negotiation Prep and planning gather data be clear on your goal determine bottom line De ning Ground Rules determine location and speaking turns time limits are not good Clari cation and Justi cation State clearly what you want and why Enhances understanding Bargaining and Problem Solving nd solutions creative solutions many narrow options Closure implementation only way to ensure both parties fully understand the agreement is to a Document what you agreed on b Review the key points to avoid misunderstanding MewNH c Get it in writing d Discuss issues that were hedged on e Read and fully understand the agreement before signing Types of Networkers selforiented networker approaches a room and surveys it for potential customers or clients thinking who can I sell Might feel taken advantage of Not good for longterm Otheroriented netvvorker approaches a room and identi es who people who need to be connected with others in the room who in this room could use my help Barriers to networking 1 Lack of self of steam 2 Dif culty in asking others for help and being unable to reciprocate the favor immediately 3 Wanting to reach goals without any special help from others 4 Concern about sharing sensitive or competitive information Ethics Ethical barometer stems from persons eXperiences and background Need to be aware of how you make small decisions as a later indicator of how you will make larger decisions Ethical Dilemmas situations where we must make decisions on judgments and determinations rather than pure fact Stake Holders those with an interest in the outcome take into consideration all stakeholders Three Factors which in uence Ethics 1 Individual ethics of organizational members more ambition leads to less ethics 2 Corporate culture of the organization 3 Society as a whole Kohlberg s Moral Maturity 3 levels of moral development 1 Preconventional level a person s morals are characterized by concrete individual perspectives follow rules out of fear of punishment 2 Conventional level basic understanding of a need to conform to societal standards realizing that norms and convention are necessary for upholding society Most perform here Conform to standards 3 Postconvential level 7 reasoning based on personal values and principles Internal beliefs guide decisions Guidelines set up by company when approaching ethical problems bene ts Customer relations customers are treated fairly and unifome with con icts 2 Goodwill doing the right thing makes people want to work with you and gives you respect 3 Employee satisfaction employees experience high comfort levels in companies with ethical guidelines 4 Employee r p39 feel r 39 to think clearly about ethical situations and knowing they are supported in their decisions Most common unethical behaviors 1 Cutting comers 2 Covering up incidents 3 Abusing or lying about sick leave 4 Lying to or deceiving customers Code of Ethics laying out your ethical standards in writing can help your employees understand ethics Ethics Test a series of questions which helps employees make ethical decisions Ethical Audit a broad based system that lets an organization focus and refocus its ethics encourage self re ection Decisionmaking model framework that helps employees make ethical decisions Con ict Positive Con ict supports or bene ts the main objectives Increased involvement cohesion innovation and creativity personal growth and change clari cation of key issues value clari cation Negative Con ict dysfunctional hinders company unresolved anger personality clashes low selfesteem unclear or opposing views problems of ef ciency leaves things un nishe Intragroup con ict con ict between members in one group Intergroup con ict Sources of Con ict 1 Limited Resources 2 Differences in goals or objectives 3 Miscommunication Dr Pringle COB 202 Test 1 Study Guide Perception We see the world not as it is but as we are 4 Forces affecting Personality Societal Culture 7 China US Family Social Class and Group membership 7 malefemale age race ethnicity geographical location Heredity 7 appearances and diseases Inherited Characteristics Shyness Imagination Reaction to Stress Phobia 1Q No Inherited Aggressiveness Need to achieve Social closeness Attribution Theog Behavior if a function of Person Environment Other Person fails Person Other Person Succeeds Environment We fail environment We succeed Us How we perceive each other physical characteristics posture walk gender age race hair weight height 1 social characteristics clothing grooming voice 2 Person doing perceiving own physical characteristics social characteristics past perceptual history 3 Situation in which we perceive the person Social Identity Theog We put others and ourselves into categories Labeling someone a Muslim We identify ourselves with groups We compare our groups with other peoples groups Stereotyping after categorizing we assume everyone in that category is the same Strong stereotypes can be changed only by time or a traumatic experience Weak stereotypes can be changed by more or new information Strong stereotypes cannot because the info will be twisted to t the stereotype Prejudice attitude not a behavior you look down on that person putting them into a lower category E v Used less than prejudice Envy what you perceive someone has better than you Discrimination behavior when prejudice turns into a behavior Not giving a job to a person of a diff race Reciprocal Altruism doing something good because we see someone else do something Locus of Control We all fall somewhere between 1 external and 10 internal person EXtemal locus of control what happens happens Internal control I control my destiny A good internal knows what his or her abilities are Clinton s what vou have to do to not be poor Graduate High School Don t have a baby out of wedlock Don t have a baby before 20 If you don t do these you will be 90 more likely to be impoverished 80 less likely if you do follow this advice Type A one who unnecessarily creates their own stress Nothing ever happens fast enough They don t wait in line hositility talk fast finish type B s sentences Multitask constant bodily movement Type B Mostly opposite to type B s Need for Achievement Get from parents Through praise encouragement role modeling etc High Achiever Characteristics 1 Like to be personally responsible for getting things done 2 Like to set achievable goals for themselves Very high Moderate very low set moderate goals because they like to achieve them 3 Like concrete feedback on their performance Typical professions managers sales rep entrepreneurs Need for power want people to do their ideas Typical professions politicians top managers motivational speakers Need for af liation 7 A desire to be around other people Typical professions social workers nurses teachers guidance counselors Departments head by highpower are more effective because they can be objective and don t have a need to be liked as much Departments headed by highaffiliation are less effective because the managers have a need to be liked over full efficiency Two Types of Groups 1 Formal Established by management based on position 2 Informal arise spontaneously friendship groups based on people Aspects of Group Forming 1 Proximity People we see more often and are physically closer to we tend to form groups with 2 Perceived Similarities we tend to like people we perceive to be similar to us 3 Holmes s Exchange Theopy Rewards Fun advice share things help w problems Cost time do things you don t necessarily want to do bad in uence friends Pro t happy or Loss sad Study Guide from Assigned Reading Dr Pringle COB 202 Personality l Extroversion social outgoing assertive active Introvert antisocial shy passive inactive 2 Agreeableness friendly cooperative exible trusting good natured tolerant too much and you may be taken advantage of 3 Emotional Stability secure happy objective able to control emotions 4 Conscientiousness degree to which someone is dependable or unreliable follows through or reneges 5 Openness to experience degree to which people are open to broadening their horizons learning new things going to new places etc Important to nd a job that ts your personality Traveling salesmen should be Open to experiences and extroverted Self Monitoring tendency to adjust our behavior relative to the changing social demands Attitudes A learned way of reacting to different objects or situations The emotions we choose to act upon determine our attitude Attitudes are shaped by the people and situations we encounter and can be readily changed by these factors Your attitude affects others attitudes around you Perception process by which individuals take in sensory stimuli and make sense of it Stereotyping Making assumptions on a group of people based on generalized judgments and not on facts Selective Perception Constantly bombarded with information so we filter it and only take in what we want to Projection Assuming that our attitudes are the same as everyone else If I cheat everyone else cheats as well Expectations forming an opinion on what we would like to happen Interest basing our activities and inputs on things that are likeable or appealing to us Self serving bias when we blame our problems on external factors and our successes on internal controllable factors Serves the self Fundamental attribution error someone who loses their temper we would assume has weak internal factor control and it had nothing to do with the external factors when really there were some serious external factors pushing them over the edge Increasing Self Awareness social mirror we build a perception or view of ourself through what how other people view us and what they say Self disclosure Diverse Experiences Emotional Intelligence The ability to judge yours and others emotions and accurately use them to guide one s thinking and actions Can be improved through learning Incredibly important to be a successful leader Six factors that affect Emotional Competency self awareness selfregulation self control motivation empathy ability to read and respond to others feelings social skills group work skills Dimensions of Cross cultural differences Power distance Individualism vs collectivism


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