A&P Exam 1 Study Guide
A&P Exam 1 Study Guide BIOL 2457
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chelsea Peterson on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2457 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Timothy L Henry in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 934 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY I in Biology at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Anatomy and Physiology I Exam 1 Review Chapter 1 Introduction Scienti c Principles A Natural Causality B Uniformity in Space and Time C Common Perception 1 objectivity vs subjectivity Scienti c Method A Observation B Hypothesis C Experiment D Conclusion Theory E Law Anatomy and Physiology A Form and Function B Different subspecialties 1 Generally know what they are one word summary is good C Structure and function closely related Levels of Organization A Chemical 1 Atoms 2 Molecules 3 The main 7 elements that make up the body B Cellular C Tissue 1 Epithelial 2 Connective 3 Muscular 4 Nervous D Organ E System 1 11 different systems in the body a Generally know what they are and what they do again one word summary is good F Organism Characteristics of Life mentioned several times in his review might be several questions A Organization and Complexity B Metabolism 1 catabolism vs anabolism C Homeostasis 1 Stimulus to response 2 Receptor afferent Control Center efferent Effector 3 Negative vs positive feedback D Growth and Development E Reproduction and Differentiation F Evolution 1 Reproduction natural selection variation inheritance adaptation 2 Descent with Modi cation vs Special Creation 3 Science and Religion 4 Magical thinking G Responsiveness to Stimuli Vl Homeostasis in more detail A Equilibrium B Body Fluids 1 Intracellular uid 2 Extracellular uid a Interstitial uid C Speci c Examples 1 Blood Pressure 2 Labor 3 Blood oss Vll Anatomy Vocab A Anatomical Positions 1 Prone 2 Supine B Directional Terms Anterior Posterior Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Intermediate psiatera Contralateral Proximal Distal Super cial Deep nes Sagitta Frontal Corona Transverse Oblique Sec ons D Cavities 1 Cranial and Vertebral a Meninges 2 Thoracic a Peura b Pericardial c Mediastinum 3 Abdominal a Abdominal b Pelvic E Cavity Membranes 1 Serous membrane Thoracic and Abdominal a Parietal b Visceral Pleura Pleural Cavity Pericardium Pericardial Cavity C U1S quotquot39 PquotPP quotquot UJN 4 Peritoneum Abdominal Cavity F Abdominopelvic Regions know generally what organs are in each region 1 Right and left hypochondriac epigastric 2 Right and left lumbar umbilical 3 Right and left inguinal iiac hypogastric pubic G Quadrants same deal but more organs in each area 1 RUQ LUQ RLQ LLQ Vlll Medical Imaging know how they produce image and generally what images used to diagnose A Radiography XRays B Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI C Computer Tomography CTscan D Ultrasound Scanning E Radionuclide Scanning F Positron Emission Tomography PET G Endoscopy Chapter 2 Chemical Level I Chemical Elements A Chemical symbols B Atoms 1 Nucleus protons neutrons 2 Electrons C Atomic number D Mass number E Ions F Molecules G Free radicals II Chemical Bonds A Valence electrons B Ionic bonds 1 Cations and anions C Covalent bonds 1 Polar and nonpolar 2 Hydrogen bonds Energy A Kinetic energy B Potential energy IV Chemical Reactions A Exergonic B Endergonic C Activation energy D Factors in Collisions in Reactions 1 Concentration 2 Temperature 3 Catalysts E Types of Reactions 1 Synthesis 2 Decomposition 3 Exchange 4 Reversible V Water A Universal Solvent B High Heat Capacity Vl Mixtures A Solution B Colloid C Suspension Vll pH A 0 14 7 considered neutral B lt7 is acidic gt7 is basic C Logarithmic scale based on concentration of H ions D Acids Bases and salts 1 SA WB WA Salt 2 SB WA WB Salt 3 SA SB Water Salt E Buffer Systems Vlll Carbon Compounds A Carbohydrates 1 Monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharide 2 Made of C H O 3 Ratio of 21 for H to O B Lipids Triglycerides Made of C H 0 Ratio greater than 21 for H to 0 Bond called ester linkage Phospholipids a Amphipathic b Properties and how that39s important for cell membrane c Micelle 6 Steroids C Proteins 1 Amino acids 2 Made of C H O N 3 Bond called peptide bond 4 Dipeptide polypeptide D Bonds 1 Dehydration synthesis 2 Hydrolysis IX Organization A Primary 1 Amino acid sequence B Secondary WF 1 Hydrogen bonds 2 Alpha and beta C Tertiary D Quaternary X Enzymes A Substrate B Song to help you understand what happens Xl Nucleic Acids A Nucleotides 1 Nitrogenous base 2 Pentose sugar 3 Phosphate group B Purines 1 Adenine and Guanine C Pyrimidines 1 Cytosine Thiamine DNA and Uracil RNA D DNA and RNA 1 Know differences a How many strands b What kind of sugar forms backbone c Thymine or uracil 2 Types of RNA a Messenger b Ribosomal c Transfer E Adenosine Triphosphate 1 Releases terminal phosphate via ATPase to provide cell with energy 2 Synthesis when energy added a 1 glucose is 36 to 38 ATP Xll Cell Transport Song Chapter 3 Cellular Level Cell Theory A All organisms are composed of one or more cells B The cell is the most basic unit of structure function and organization in all organisms C All cells arise from preexisting living cells ll Plasma Membrane A Fluid mosaic model Glycoproteins Glycocalyx 1 lntegral proteins 2 Transmembrane pro ins 3 Peripheral proteins many different functions including transport 4 Lipid bilayer enzyme cellidentity receptor linker 5 6 B Passive vs Active Processes 1 Passive a Diffusion i Simple ii Facilitated 1 Channelmediated 2 Carriermediated b Osmosis i Across semipermeable membrane ii Tonicity 1 Isotonic 2 Hypotonic gt hemolysis 3 Hypertonic gt crenation 2 Active a Antiporters b Symporters c In Vesicles i Endocytosis 1 Receptormediated endocytosis 2 Phagocytosis 3 Bulkphase endocytosis pinocytosis ii Exocytosis iii Transcytosis 3 Cell Tranport Song I Components of Generalized Cell summarize function in one word A Plasma Membrane detaiI above B Cytoplasm 1 Cytosol 2 Organelles C Rough ER D Smooth ER E Ribosomes F Golgi complex G Mitochondria H Lysosome I Proteasome J Peroxisome K Centrosome L Cytoskeleton 1 Micro lament 2 Microtubules 3 Intermediate lament M Cilia N Flagella O Nucleus 1 Nuclear envelope 2 Nuclear pores 3 Nucleolus 4 Genes chromosomes IV Central Dogma VI A DNA B Transcription 1 DNA polymerase C RNA D Translation 1 Ribosomes E Protein Mitosis A Diploid cell dividing into two diploid daughter cells B Humans have 23 pairs of homologous chromosomes 46 total C Stages 1 lnterphase a 61 b5 c 62 2 Mitosis a Prophase b Metaphase c Anaphase dTeophase e Cytokinesis Meiosis A Diploid cell dividing into four haploid daughter cells B Only in gonads results in each daughter cell having single set of 23 chromosomes Meiosis l 1 Prophasel 2 Metaphasel 3 Anaphasel 4 5 C Telophasel Cytokinesisl Meiosis ll Prophase ll Metaphase ll Anaphase ll Telophase ll Cytokinesis II D wewwe Chapter 4 Tissue Level Development of Tissues A Germ layers what organs originated from each 1 Endoderm 2 Mesoderm 3 Ectoderm CeHJuncUons A Tightjunctions B Adherenjunctions C Desmosomes D Hemidesmosomes E Gap junctions 1 Connexicons HEp heHa A Major functions 1 Selective barrier 2 Secretory surface 3 Protective surface B General features Apical surface Lateral surface Basal surfaces Basement membrane a Basal amina b Reticular lamina 5 Avascular C Classi cation 1 Layers a Simple b Strati ed c Pseudostrati ed 2 Shapes a Squamous b Cuboidal c Columnar 3 Know the different combos of each what is general function of that ewNH speci c type of cell D Glands 1 Endocrine 2 Exocrine a Classi ed by branched or unbranched different shapes b Classi ed by method of secretion i Merocrine ii Apocrine iii Holocrine IV Connective A Functions Binds Supports Protects and insulates Transport Energy reserves B Ex racellular Matrix 1 Fibroblasts 2 Adipocytes fat cells 3 Mast ces wewwe a Histamine 4 White blood cells a Immune response b Neutrophils and Eosinophils Macrophages Plasma cells Ground substance Fibers a Collagen bers b Elastic bers c Reticular bers C Classi cation 1 Embryonic a Mesenchyme b Mucous 2 Mature a Loose connective tissue i Areolar ii Adipose iii Reticular b Dense connective tissue i Dense regular ii Dense irregular iii Elastic c Cartilage i Chrondrocytes ii Perichondrium iii Types 1HyaHne 2 Fibrocartilage 3 Elastic cartilage iv Repair and Growth 1 Interstitial growth 2 Appositional growth d Bone tissue i Compact H Spongy iii Osteons Haversian system e Liquid connective tissue i Blood ii Lymph D Membranes 1 Epithelial a Mucous membranes b Lamina propria c Serous membranes serosa d Cutaneous membrane 2 Synovial V Muscular A Classi cation Know differences and where muscles found in the body Uquot VI VII 1 Skeletal 2 Cardiac antercaated discs 3 Smooth Neural A Two types of cells 1 Neurons or nerve cells 2 Neuroglia B Central nervous system 1 Brain 2 Spinal chord C Peripheral Nervous system 1 Sensory Afferents 2 Motor Efferents D Parts of neuron 1 Cell body 2 Dendrites 3 Axon 4 Repair from damage a Granulation tissue Aging Chapter 5 lntegumentary System Development A Ectoderm gt epidermis 1 vernix caseosa B Mesoderm gt dermis Types of Skin A Thin hairy B Thick hairless C Comparison and differences Found on which areas of the body Number of layers Hair follicles Glands Sensory receptors FuncUons A Body temperature B Blood reservoir C Protection D Cutaneous sensation E Excretion F Vitamin D production G Lipid storageSt wewwe Structure A Epidermis 1 Epidermal ridge V VI VII VIII IX XI XII B Dermis 1 Dermal papilla C Hypodermis subcutaneous layer Types of Cells A Keratinocytes B Melanocytes C Langerhans cells D Merkel cells 1 Tactile discs Layers in Epidermis A Stratum basale stratum germinativum B Stratum spinosum C Stratum granulosum 1 Keratohyalin 2 Lamellar granules Stratum lucidum 1 Only in thick skin Stratum corneum 1 corneocytessquames Keratinization Disorders Dandruff Psoriasis Rickets Skin damage Cancer a Carcinoma b Melanoma Layers in the Dermis Papillary region Reticular layer Epithelial Growth Hormone EGF Characteristics of the Dermis A Lines of cleavage B Epidermal ridges D E F G wewwe A B Skin Color A Melanin 1 Nevus 2 Albinism 3 Vitiligo B Carotin C Hemoglobin D Jaundice Hypodermis subcutaneous subQ layer A lamellated pacinian corpuscles Accessory Organs A Hair 1 Shaft 2 Root 3 Hairfollicle 4 Epithelial root sheath 5 Dermal root sheath B Types of Hair 1 Lanugo 2 Vellus 3 Terminal C Sebaceous oil glands D Sudoriferous sweat glands 1 Holocrine 2 EccrineMerocrine 3 Apocrine 4 Modi ed a Cerumen in the ear E Nails 1 Free edge 2 Nail body plate 3 LunuIa 4 Nail root F Nails and Health 1 Refer to extra PowerPoint slide nothing really added in lecture XIII Decubitus Ulcer A Stage I B Stage II C Stage III D Stage IV XIV Burns A Firstdegree B Seconddegree C Thirddegree D Fourth degree E Rules of nines XV Aging and Integumentary System
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