COMM 210 Exam 2 Study Guide
COMM 210 Exam 2 Study Guide COMM 210
Popular in Fundamentals of Public Communication
Popular in Communication Studies
This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caitlyn Ruotanen on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 210 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Denker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 169 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Public Communication in Communication Studies at Ball State University.
Reviews for COMM 210 Exam 2 Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/17/16
Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 1 Comm. 210 Second Exam Review Guide Chapters 8 to 15, Appendix D, and all Lecture and Lab material th th December 7 at 2pm to December 15 at the close of labs 75 questions, hour and a half to complete the exam, same format as the midterm. Chapter 8 Planning and Researching Your Presentations 1 . Citing Sources A. Verbally a. Newspaper Author, full date, and paper’s title b. Scholarly Journals Author’s full name and year of publication c. Magazine Articles Author, full date, and paper’s title d. Articles in Professional Publications Author’s full name and year of publication e. Government Publication title of document, date it was created, and where it was found f. Website website name, organization producing website, date last updated B. In the Bibliography include all sources used in a presentation 2 . Types of Sources Chapter 9 Supporting Your Ideas 3 . Supporting Material (focus on SET) A. Functions helps listener understand, accept, enjoy, and remember the message a. Get audience’s attention b. If goal to inform help listener understand and remember ideas c. If goal to persuade need to change or intensity listener’s views of reality and reactions to the world i. Reach individuals on more personal and emotional level ii. Enhance credibility with sound supporting materials and valid reasoning to back up our ideas B . Using Supporting Material/ Statistics a. Balance the details (accuracy) and briefness (simplicity) of the material. b. S.E.T. = Stories, Examples, Testimonials A. Examples a. Can make abstract ideas concrete, understandable, persuasive, and memorable b. Real examples usually more meaningful to audience than hypothetical, but carefully constructed hypothetical can provide the specific support for situation. c . Functions: i. Serve as evidence in the reasoning process known as induction draw general conclusions from specific cases ii. Can increase the persuasiveness of our messages by showing that our examples are typical. Back up examples, when possible, with statistic or testimony to refute negative examples that are likely to be in the minds of your listeners d . Types of Examples: Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 2 i. Specific Instances frequently use brief examples to clarify an idea, present one idea after another to make their point ii. Stories extended examples, illustrations, narratives Most enjoyable way to support speech Effective contrast to the scientific nature of statistics Must make a point iii. Hypothetical Examples emphasize conjecture, possibility, and probability, not certainty Might have happened in past, may be happening now, or could happen in the future If you believe likely to occur, influences your beliefs, attitudes, and actions Must seem realistic or damages credibility C. Quantification numerical data a. Measurements of quantity, distance, length, and time i. Help listeners bridge gap between known and unknown b. Statistics numerical data about entire set of measurements i. Avoid overusing statistics and measurements ii. Round off your statistics iii. Make statistics meaningful to audience iv. Help listeners visualize the meaning of stat v. Show how stat affects your listeners D. Testimony support your ideas with experiences, beliefs, or words of other individuals i. Testimony of experts or authority helps build credibility b. Indirect Quotations paraphrased c. Direct Quotation exact words d. Proverb short familiar sentence that expresses an accepted truth E. Analogy looking for similar patterns of form and function. a. Compare and Contrast important similarities and differences b. Literal Analogies comparison used to convince or persuade. True in one situation, should be true in another c. Figurative Analogies comparison of unlike things that share common characteristic. Ex: insurance and umbrella that provides protection when situations bad. d. Metaphors and Similes don’t use clichés, avoid mixing metaphors F. Explanation provide more detailed information to clarify meaning a. All forms of support, except repetition b. Provide answers to questions like what? How? Why? c. Definitions are explanations d. Use simple, vivid language e. Present ideas in orderly fashion f. Avoid overusing abstract explanations instead of the other forms of support like examples and comparisons G. Repetition and Restatement saying something again is repetition, saying something in new words is restating. a. Reinforces ideas and promotes learning Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 3 b. Restatements are less boring that repetition c. Repetition can be used to emphasize points H. Audiovisual aids a. Increase audiences understanding, interest, and retention b. You can’t emphasize everything, or nothing will be remembered 4. Types of Claims (or Questions as referred to in lecture of Ch 13) A. Claim of Fact a. asserts or denies that something exists (present), exist (past), or will exist (future) OR b. defines what something is or is not B. Claim of Value answers question “Of what worth or morality is something?” C. Claim of Policy answers question “What should be done?” 5 . Visual Aids 6. Types of Fallacies (look here if you don’t have notes from Ch13 lecture) A. “Believable arguments or premises that are based on invalid reasoning” B. “Keep in mind that a logical fallacy is not necessarily false, but its process of inference is invalid” a. Ad Hominem Attacking the person, not the claim. b. Post Hoc If A happens before B, A is the cause of B. c. Non Sequitur Claim that doesn't contain any logic. d. Ad Populum Claim that involves jumping on the "bandwagon". e. False Dilemma Either claim X is true or claim Y is true (when X and Y could both be false). Claim Y is false, therefore claim X is true. f. Hasty Generalization Takes characteristics from unfair sample population and creates claims based on unfair sample. g. Straw Man Ignores a position and substitutes a distorted or misrepresented position to attack. h. Slippery Slope Event A has or might happen, therefor event B will inevitably happen. i. Red Herring Person discusses unimportant topics in order to draw attention away from the main claim. Chapter 10 – Developing and Using Your Presentational Aids 1 . Value of Presentational Aid A. Increase audience comprehension, more memorable, create interest 2 . Characteristics of Presentational Aid A. Will enhance presentation B. All audience should be able to see/hear your aid C. Simple enough to grasp immediately D. Look as professional as possible 3 . Types of Presentational Aids A . Types of Graphs a. Pie Graph divides into percentages, showing the size of the parts that make the whole Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 4 b. Bar Graph expresses relationships among multiple variables side to side using amounts or percentages as the height c. Line Graph shows trends or changes over time, also can compare categories with multiple line graphs B . Uses of Handouts a. Allow audience to take useful record away from speech, usually distribute at end because can distract audience from speaker C . How to Use an Electronic Visual Aid a. Need to know how to operate with ease b. Video Aids i. Depict situations in action ii. Use brief segment because of limited time for speech c. Audio Aids i. Music d. Slideware i. PowerPoints include no more than one textslide per minute Make sure font and size is easy to read ii. Prezi nonlinear format, keep audience interested Can make difficult to follow 4 . Goals of Presentational Aids A. Better understanding B. More memorable C. Create interest 5. Selecting Presentational Aids 6. Common errors of visual aid use/ NICE aids Chapter 12—Wording Your Speech 1 . Characteristics of Language A. With a focus on Connotative and Denotative a. Denotative dictionary definition of a word b. Connotative feelings and attitudes associated with a word. 2. Bypassing A. Definition a. Bypassing when receiver attaches different meaning to a word than the sender intended B. Types a. DenotativeDenotative bypassing i. Sender intends one definition for a work and receiver attaches another to it. Speaker says “trip” meaning like on a drug, receiver thinks of “trip” like a voyage and travel b. DenotativeConnotative bypassing i. Sender intends denotative meaning and receiver attaches a unintended connotative meaning to it. Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 5 Using “postman” to refer to men and women in this profession, but receiver thinks person is sexist for using that language instead of “mail carrier” c. ConnotativeDenotative bypassing i. Speaker trying to convey feelings, but receiver attaches literal meaning ii. Speaker says something sarcastically, but receiver thinks of it literally Student misses first weeks of class and asks if missed anything important. Teacher sarcastically says “I never cover anything important in the first few weeks.” Receiver says “Good I was hoping so.” d. ConnotativeConnotative bypassing i. Sender implies one meaning while receiver infers another Boss says “Boy you’re hot today!” as in he’s gotten a lot of work done, but boy thinks of sexual harassment 3. Imagery 4. The Stylistic Devices 5 . Triangle of Meaning A. We must make sure our listeners will assign to our symbols (words) the meaning we intend B. Line between the word and the thing is broke, communicators must fix this 6 . Three Standards of Effective Language A. Appropriateness B. Clarity C. Vividness Chapter 13—Your Persuasive Presentations (Keep in mind we spent 4 weeks on this in lecture) 1 . Definition of Persuasion A. Persuasion the process of changing, shaping, or reinforcing, attitudes, beliefs, values, or behaviors. 2 . Approaches to Persuasion A. Coactive approach (verbally & nonverbally) a. Bridging b. Support B. Combative approach a. Distance: that the speaker is better than aud b. Threats C. Expressivistic Approach: argues that all persuasion is bad and manipulative and not worthy to be studied. = Ignorant 3 . Audience Types (and how we adjust our speeches for different audiences) A. Receptive: friendly and receptive a. Rapport & common ground b. Clear goals: we can tell them what our argument is c. Emotional example: bc we recognize that emotions last for a short time, use them to pull them further. d. Call for Action: tell them to take action. Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 6 B. Neutral: a. Interest & attention: pull them in b. Rapport & common beliefs: similarities, want aud. 2 identify w u c. Appeal to needs of loved ones d. Modest goals: asking for and getting change. Change may be small C. Unreceptive/ Hostile: audience doesn‘t want to listen what u have to offer a. Be Subtle b. Rapport & common beliefs c. Credibility & Sources: other knowledge leaders that believe what we do d. Underlying concerns & values: e. Acknowledge others: f. Modest goals 4 . Requirements of a Persuasive Question A. Must have TWO sides 5 . What are Persuasive Questions/ Claims/ Propositions? A. Question of Fact a. Truth Claims (We are arguing that something is true or will happen in the near future.) b. Topically i. Primacy ii. Recency c. Who killed JFK? d. The world will end in 2012 B. Question of Value a. Right or wrong, better, best ( we need to get our audience on border) b. 2 pt organizational pattern i. Set standard ii. Fulfill the standard c. Diet mtn. dew is the best breakfast drink ever d. Comprehensive finals are unfair C. Question of Policy a. “Should statement” b. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence c. Problem solution d. Problem cause solution e. Comparative advantage f. Refutational approach 6 . Organizational Patterns Including Monroe’s (and when to use each) A. Comparative Advantage B. Refutational Approach C. Topical D. Spatial E. Chronological Order F. TwoStep G. Monroe's Motivated Sequence a. Attention b. Need c. Satisfaction Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 7 d. Visualization e. Call to Action 7. Aristotle’s A. Ethos – credibility appeal a. Types i. Competence: knowledge about information ii. Trustworthiness: worthy of trust and confidence, dependable, reliable iii. Dynamism: energy, enthusiasm, and determination to succeed iv. Charisma Attractiveness Talent b. Stages i. Initial: giving credibility even before they begin their presentation ii. Derived: giving credibility during presentation. iii. Lasting: giving credibility at the end of the speech to reflect on what they presented. iv. B. Pathos – emotional appeal a. Appeals i. Pleasure and pain Material items Achievement Popularity Success ii. Dominance and powerlessness Safety Fear Guilt Intimidation iii. Arousal and nonarousal Sex Love Excitement b. Effective Pathos i. Concrete ii. God/devil words iii. Nonverbals iv. Visual images v. Vivid language vi. Variety of emotions vii. Big myths C. Logos – logical appeal a. Organization b. Logical Fallacies Definition i. Types of fallacies 8 . How to Appeal A. Appeals Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 8 a. Appeal to Tradition Assumes A is a better idea than B because A is an older, more accepted idea. b. Appeal to Authority Al claims to be an authority on topic B, therefore any claim made by Al about topic B must be true. c. Circular Reasoning Conclusion to claim A is assumed to be true, therefore claim A is true. (Ex.: "X is true. The evidence for this claim is that X is true.") B . Positive and Negative a. Positive Motivational Appeal i. Benefit to Our Life ii. Outweighs the Costs b. Negative Motivational Appeal i. Fear Not Responding (if u don’t do something, theres consequences) ii. Hurt Loved one ( taking about how loved one may be impacting) iii. Real and Close at Hand iv. High Speaker Credibility C . Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs a. Physiological b. Safety c. Social d. SelfEsteem e. Self Actualization D. General Dynamics/ Other Principles 9 . Theories of Persuasion A. Consistency Theory Inconsistent cognitions create pressure for (mental) change, thus persuasion a. Resistance b. Similar views i. Inoculation effect ii. Social judgment B. Social Judgment Theory suggests that when people are presented with an idea or any kind of persuasive proposal, their natural reaction is to immediately seek a way to sort the information subconsciously and react to it. a. Comparison b. Latitude i. Acceptance Perceive closer Assimilation ii. Rejection More discrepant Contrast iii. Noncommitted C. Cognitive Dissonance there is a tendency for individuals to seek consistency among their cognitions (i.e., beliefs, opinions). When there is an inconsistency between attitudes or behaviors (dissonance), something must change to eliminate the dissonance. a. Selective exposure b. Matching Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 9 c. Balance to relieve discomfort d. Attacking source/stop listening e. Focus f. New information g. Changing D. Theory of Reasoned Action focuses on a person's intention to behave a certain way. a. Attitudes b. Subjective norms c. Behavioral intention d. Behavior E. Theory of Planned Behavior states that attitude toward behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control, together shape an individual's behavioral intentions and behaviors. a. Attitudes b. Subjective norms c. Perceived behavioral control d. Behavioral intention e. Behavior F. Gradual Change Approach a. Slow b. Magnitude of change Chapter 14—Speaking on Your Special Occasions 1. Goals of Ceremonial Speaking A. Goals listed for each type below… and a. Markers of rituals b. Create group identity c. At most special occasions, you will be speaking for others as well as for yourself 2 . Types of Special Occasion Speaking A. Speech of Introduction a. Goal is to create a mood, build interest, and the speaker’s credibility. B. Speech of Presentation a. Goal is to establish worth of recipient in receiving the award: why they are the person that won the award, why they won it b. Plan in advance i. Match speaker’s mood ii. Be correct, brief, and do not repeat yourself c. Start i. Attention getter ii. Connect yourself (when appropriate) d. Bibliographical achievements as points, vivid language e. Wrap up i. Highlight topic of the speech, speaker’s credibility, speaker’s name and welcome C. Speech of Acceptance a. Goal is to express appropriate gratitude, thank others Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 10 b. Thank you’s as main points i. Award presenter ii. The organization iii. Those who made it possible iv. Vivid example and selective language wrap up acknowledge other nominees/ tough competition, memorable statement D. Commemorative Speaking a. Pay tribute to a person, group, institution, or event b. Setting up this speech i. Introduction attention getter, occasion, connection, background/overview ii. Body Virtues or traits as main points, vivid examples as support, language iii. Conclude appropriately emotion, purpose in mind at all times 3 . Principles of Special Occasion Speaking A. Reflect cultural norms B. Be inclusive C. Focus on the people being toasted D. Be selective pick best examples E. Get it right double check info 4. Special Speaking Situations especially A. Speaking on Camera B. Oral Readings Chapter 15 Your Communication in Other Settings 5 . Group/Team Presentations A. Panel Discussion B. Symposium C. Forum D. Group Presentation 6 . Group Roles A. Task Leader B. Central Negative C. Stress Reliever D. Information Provider E. Socioemotional Leader 7. Cohesion 8. Decision Making Appendix D Reasoning with the Toulmin Model 9 . Parts of the Argument (claim, data, qualifier, etc.) A. Claim Point trying to be proven. B. Data Evidence gathered in order to make a claim. C. Warrant Justification for making claim based on data. D. Backing Provides additional support for the warrant of the argument. E. Qualifier Word or phrase that estimates the arguer's confidence of the claim. (Ex.: "possibly", "certainly") Denker 210 Second Exam Fall 15- 11 F. Reservation/Rebuttal Exploits possible weaknesses or ways to attack a particular type of argument. 10 . Forms of the Basic Argument A. Starting an Argument a. Data b. Claim c. Warrant B. Completing an Argument a. Backing b. Qualifier c. Reservation (Rebuttal) 1. Inductive Reasoning what is true of individuals is also true of the group. 2. Deductive Reasoning what is true of the group is also true of the individuals. 3. Reasoning from Parallel Case what happened in one situation will hold true in a similar situation. 4. Reasoning from Authority Authority is an expert whose opinions should be believed as correct. 5. Sign Reasoning X is a sign of Y. 6. Causal Reasoning The warrant presents a 'cause and effect' relationship between antecedents and consequences.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'