U S HISTORY [C4AE]
U S HISTORY [C4AE] GHIST 225
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Oliver D'Amore on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GHIST 225 at James Madison University taught by Gabrielle Lanier in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see /class/214079/ghist-225-james-madison-university in OTHER at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
7m caning ofthe term 7139ts Izistozical sigm39 cancc and its HIRE gen39od Enclosure 7 putting up fences that occurred because English went from grain farming to tending sheep this was in ENGLAND 7 this kicked tenant farmers out who then went to cities and overpopulated 7 late 1500s to early 1600s Push and Pull factors 7 Push factors forced people to immigrate to colonies overpopulation religious intolerance lack of resources pull factors created a desire to immigrate to colonies wealth land opportunities 7 These factors helped encourage immigration from England to the colonies 7 late 1500 s early 1600 s Columbian exchange 7Old to New World Disease smallpox measles flu yellow fever etc animals horses cattle pigs honeybees cockroaches sheep rats etc and plants wheat sugar barely coffee rice weeds also tools and religious ideas New to Old World Disease syphilis Animals turkeys and Plants lVlaize beans peanut potato tomato pineapple chili pepper 7 Evolution of food and crops eX corn native Americans had no resistance to diseases so Indian population dropped deaths paved way for conquests and less stru le 71500s into 1600s during colonization7 till present Protestant Reformation Martin Luther s opposition to the Catholic Church s definition of Christianity and Hierarchy claimed everyone had the same power that priests have 95 Thesis on church wall lead to Protesmntism and turned England s attention away from the colonies while other countries were colonizing 71513717 ideas spread to 1530 s Reformation 7 The English Reformation King Henry VIII wished to annul marriage to Catherine but Catherine s father convinced the pope to refuse so he divorced her in retaliation Henry made himself the head of the Church of England Act of Supremacy and kept teachings and rituals of the church more Catholic versus Protestant Protestants gained ground with Edward VI then were persecuted with Queen Mary then Elizabeth supported Protesmntism but not enough for some Purimns 7 shattered unity of Christendom in western Europe religious groups competed for political power sometimes by trying to gain land as in colonies led to Puritanism 7 153071560s Puritanism 7Radical sect of Calvinists who called for English church to purge itself of Hierarchy and ceremonies catholic impurities 7Part of religious power struggle in Europe encouraged people to go to America 7mid 1500 s Calvinism 7the idea that God is all knowing and has predestined people to go to heaven called Christians to become activists in shaping the law to conform with God s laws 7encourage people to rise up in their government to match God s law and added to the English Reformation 71530 s Roanoke 7Raleigh sails to America and lands at Roanoke and not Chesapeake as intended tensions between whites and Indians were bad so White sailed home for reinforcements but tensions with Spain kept him from returning until 2 years later when he returns all the colonists are gone and CROATOAN was carve don a post lost colony 7 shows Indiansettler tensions no successful English settlement was established also shows how preoccupied England was with Spain 7 158771590 Plantation 7large areas of land used to groups crops including tobacco rice etc for commerce or substance 7main source of commerce during the earliest part of colonization tobacco used in New England during their early colonization as the main source of supplies they practiced subsistence farming 7 1607 and ongoing Headlight system 7 old settlers received 100 acres ofland new settlers received 50 acres a piece and anyone who paid the passage of other immigrants to VA family or servants received 50 acres per head 7 increased wave ofimmigration to VA but many died because of high death rate people used land to plant tobacco and those people prospered from high demand 7 16 1 8 Indentured Servant 7 servants who were brought over from England to work a predetermined amount of time then were set free with a set of clothes part of headright system 7 built up land and labor for wealthy increases immigration rate but many died before end of servitude because of disease and conditions 7 began in 1618 Monoculture 7 planting only one type of crop 7 the early colonies specificallyjamestown only planted tobacco this was risky when more planters planted the same crop the price dropped 166071680 so only wealthy planter could really benefit 716177167Os and 80s Separatists 7 devout Congregationalists who concluded that the Church of England was too corrupt to be reformed radical Puritans 7 they left England because of their beliefspersecution to go to Holland but when their children began adopting Dutch ways they decided to move to VA Pilgrims who ended up in Plymouth 7 1570s71620s landed in Plymouth Plymouth Colony 7 Separatists who believed the English church was too corrupt to be reformed decided to move to VA after first retreating to Holland to escape persecution errors in charting the ship landed them in New England where they set up Plymouth with little supplies and no time to plant crops 7 The Pilgrims got along well with the Native Americans and learned to plant corn set up a government lVlayflower Compact overcame difficulties to build successful colony 7 1620 Utopian society 7 a model for a successful society 7 The Massachusetts Bay Colony was seen as this because it was a commercial enterprise with a strong sense ofmission investors took a role in establishing colony it was independent from onset they used the charter for the colony as a framework for setting up a government first governorJohn Winthrop called it a city upon a hill migration in faInilies versus just single men and skilled individuals as well colony had rapid settlement which fostered solidarity 7 1630s Massachusetts Bay Colony 7 Mass Bay Company was independent used charter for the colony as a framework for setting up a government commercial enterprise but with a strong sense of mission investors took an active role in establishing colony people thought church of England could be reformed but had been prosecuted so they immigrated to build a better society and attack corruption from across the sea 7 was a model for a successful society gave power to the individual through Puritanism more faInilies came and better land population grew 7 1630s Quakers 7One of the most radical religious groups produced by the Protestant Reformation in England attached a great significance to an inward state ofgrace Light Within through which God revealed his will directly to believer enabling them to attain spiritual perfection 7 many Quaker missionaries were women and believed to be the devil of dissent many executed or convicted ofwitchcraft Quakers gave more power to women than other religions could be missionaries or oversee meetings 71650 s Mercantilism 7 called for the smte to regulate and protect industry and commerce enrich the nation by creating a favorable balance of trade the role of the colonies was to supply the mother country with raw materials and markets 7 became the purposebasis for the Navigation Acts and then for acts that taxed goods being importexported tofrom colonies which eventually paved the road for revolution 7 1600s speci cally 1660 s Navigation Acts Navigation Acts lstSpecified that the colonies could export certain enumerated commodities only to England and other British ports 2ndGave British Merchants a virtual monopoly on the sale of European manufactured goods to American by requiring that most imports going to the colonies pass through England 3 Placed duties on the coastal trade of the American colonies and provided for customs officials to collect mriffs and enforce the regulations Chesapeake planters couldn t trade with Dutch and worsened the economic and social difficulties of the Chesapeake because of falling tobacco rates 166016631673 39 139 39 or Droducts 7included sugar tobacco cotton ginger and indigo 7signif1cance could only sell to England because they were in need their and this minimized the market for colonies 7important during Navigation Acts Slave codes 7 laws each smte had defining the status of slaves and rights of their masters 7 defined the rights of slaves made them property versus actual people 7 mid 1600s to early 1700s Bacon s Rebellion 7Bacon wanted to lead armed men to attack Indians from their recent attacks on their plantations because Berkley had a monopoly on their trade and wanted to build forts that Bacon was not included in Bacon joined in with poorer neighbors who couldn t afford the forts Marched into Jamestown had assembly government into allowing atmck Berkley claimed Bacon a rebel and Bacon attacked them this dispute continued until Bacon died 7Rebellion to the assembly s power of raising taxes limiting trade and liberties 71676 Glorious Revolution 7 the eXile ofJaInes H and proclamation ofWilliam and Mary as King and Queen because James had tried to dispense with Parliament and embrace Catholicism called glorious because it was bloodless 7 Boston militia seized royal governor Androswho abolished land charters and sent him back to England William and Mary reinstated represenmtive assemblies in the colonies and restored all charters 7 1688 Board of Trade 7Parliament established this in order to in force the regulations of trade and levies discouraged smuggling and channeled colonial trade through England 7Enforced English rulemercantilism enforced Navigation acts 71696 Great Awakening 7 revival of religion speci cally Protestant Christianity Calvinism throughout the colonies evangelical messages and new births through conversion preachers Jonathan Edwards and George Whit eld preached on streets and not only on Sundays 7 heightened religious tensions among Americans showed common people that they could criticize old ministers preach to anyone willing to 7 1730 s French and Indian War 7 war between the French and Indian Allies with the British in order to gain land 7 the colonists role during the war led them to have cermin expecmtions after the war lowering of taxes recognition as being English and settling land in the Ohio River Valley these were not met which added to colonists resentment of British 71754 until 1763 Seven Years War 7 war between France and Indian Allies Austria and Russia against Britain and Prussia part of the war over American land also known as French and Indian War 7 the colonists role during the war led them to have cermin expecmtions after the war lowering of taxes recognition as being English and settling land in the Ohio River Valley these were not met which added to colonists resentment of British 71756 until 1763 Imperial Crisis 7 After the Seven Years War Brimin chose to leave a standing army in colonies create new axesacts and enforce old taxesacts in order to keep colonies profitable and territory protected 7 Taxes created without colonial representation along with the actionspresence of colonial soldiers made colonists feel like their liberty was being threatened led to desire for less British rule and more independence 7 early 1760s to early 1770s English Opposition 7minority of radical English thinkers who drew their inspiration form the ancient tradition of classical republicanism which held that representative government safeguarded liberty more reliably than either monarchy or oligarchy one person cannot govern because they will have too much power and turn into a tyrant 7 they were revered by political leaders in the colonies confirmed colonists anxieties about England suspected that Greenville s new laws ambitious men in England conspiring against American liberties 7important to Americans in 1760s 7 rst ended French presence on the continent of North America gave British title to all French territory east of Mississippi and second gave boundaries for new independent nation lVlississippi River on West 31St parallel on South and present day Canada on North 763 American s expected end ofwar to mean end of axes access to Ohio Valley and treatment as English 83 more land and independence for colonies allies with French 71763 1783 Proclamation of 1763 7prohibited white settlement past the crest of the Appalachian Mounmins in order to ease Indian fears to reduce conflict and to keep colonists at coast where they were easier to rule and control 7gave reason for standing British army in colonies to protect line impaired the colonists right to property and thus threatened their liberty 7 1763 Proclamation line 7 line across the crest of the Appalachian Mountains which colonist could not settle beyond to the West of the line 7gave reason for standing British army in colonies to protect line impaired the colonists right to property and thus threatened their liberty 7 1763 I 39 39 VS 1quot 39 39 Authoritv 7 Legitimate authority was that of elected of cials while Illegitimate authority was that of crown appointed of cials 7 degraded the role of crown appointed of cials colonist mocked those of cials ex cross dressing Lord 7 1760s Viceadmiralty courts 7 juryless court at which people convicting of smuggling would face trial 7 took away one right ofbeing English because they did not face a jury of their peers and more likely than not would be found guilty 7 1760s 7lowered the duty on foreign molasses but intended to enforce it and crack down on the smuggling that was happening smugglers were tried in admiralty courts 7This pushed the colonists away because they weren t being tried by fellow citizens also colonists sued to use bribes to smuggle molasses so they ended up having to pay more anyways 7April 1764 7Placed taxes on legal documents custom papers newspapers almanacs college diplomas playing cards and dice Had to display a stamp to show had paid the tax whoever broke this would be tried in admiralty courts 7sugar and stamp act seemed to defy their right to trial in local courts and taking their freedom also represented taxation without representation 7Nov 1 1765 actual or direct representation 7actualdirect rep7representative had to live in the district and the colony that he was elected to represent 7colonist wanted direct rep to feel like they were being represented in the legislative process 7after 1766 stamp act as a response Virtual representation 7all people whether they voted or not were virtually represented just by the very fact of their being English 7The English had this sort of system and people who represented them did not know the concerns because they didn t live in America 7prior to the revolution Townshend Duties 7 Charles Townshend as new chancellor of the exchequer persuades parliament to taX lead paint paper glass and tea imported from Britain to colonies in order to strengthen authority of Parliament and royal officials in colonies He also regulated previous acts more strictly paid royal officials through tariff money and created American Board of Customs Commissioners and more vice7admiralty courts 7 Americans saw this as evidence that they were not being treated like the English Dickinson calls for consummation ofless English luxuries leads to nonimpormtion 7 1767 Boston Massacre 7Crowd of Bostonians and soldiers got into a dispute and the soldiers fired on the citizens after remarks and snowballs were thrown 5 rioters were killed 7Used as propaganda by the US against British control 71770 Committees of Correspondence New communication network that harbored an intercolonial agreement on resistance to British measures spread resismnce from sea ports to rural areas 7it united colonies against British while engaging farmers as well 71772 Boston Tea Party 7 Bostonians and farmers from surrounding countryside reacted to Adams telling them they could do nothing more to save the country by breaking casks of tea and throwing it into the Boston harbor while dressed as Indians 7 Colonial resismnce to Tea Act and proved to Britain that the colonies aimed at independence 71773 Coercive or Intolerable Acts Laws designed to punish for Boston Tea Party Boston Harbor was closed until the tea debt from the party was repaid and colonies government was taken over by royal officials any royal official accused ofa crime could be tried in England or another colony basically would be found innocent Quartering Act 7colonials saw them as proof to oppress their liberties and lead to a call for intercolonial congress 71774 Quartering Act 7Forced the housing of British troops in private homes 7Citizens saw it as an act against their property and for their liberty Locke 71765 and 1774 7After parliament passed Coercive acts they established a permanent government in French Canada 7Was a British colony whose subjects had no voice in their own government and pushed for a continental congress also forced recognition of the Roman Catholic Church in the province 71774 First Continental Congress 7 meeting of delegates with the goal to reach an agreement on the basis ofAmerican rights the limit s of Parliamenfs power and the proper tactics for resisting the Coercive Acts 7 revealed the similarities from the once very separate colonies such as a mistrust of England civic virtue and self7reliance led to the adoption ofthe Declaration of Rights and Grievances which limited Parliamenfs power over Americans 7 1774 Nonimportation 7 in response to the coercive acts the First Continental Congress agrees to have merchants stop importing goods from Britain one year later a ban ofAmerican exports to Brimin and West Indies Continenml Association 7 this was a middle course between war against Britain and passive agreement to Britain s Coercive Acts but it did draw colonies closer to independence 7 1774 Olive Branch Petition 7 affirmed American loyalty to George III and asked the king to disavow the policies of his principal ministers at Second Continental Congress and declared colonies were not seeking independence 7 George III refused to receive the petition and mobilized Navy his response led to a greater colonial support for independence 7 1775 Lexington and Concord 7 British marched toward the arms and ammunition stored by the Provincial Congress in Concord so Revere spread news to the countryside when news reached militia in Lexington they mustered out to the Green on the road to Concord British ordered militia to disperse and when they began to a shot fired out and the British left for Concord leaving 8 Americans dead 7 the deaths in this incident committed colonists to a course of rebellion and independence 7 1775 Common Sense 7Thomas Pain s writing that denounced the monarchy as foolish and dangerous form ofgovernment violated reason and the word of the bible rejected the ideas that colonials should want to be English denounced heredimry kingship 7First piece ofwriting to go against crown also encourage American independence January 1776 Declaration of Independence 7 Document drafted by Thomas Jefferson which declared the American s decision to be independent from England and justi ed their decision based on rights and liberty 7 served notice that Americans no longer considered themselves English and denied England any authority in the colonies 7 1776 Second Continental Congress 7 conducted the common business of the federal states created and maintained the Continental Army issued currency and negotiated with foreign powers 7 the Congress lacked any basis for its authority which led to drafting of the first national constitution Articles of Confederation these provided a lot ofpower to the states and much less to the national government 7 1776 Articles of Confederation Provide a government by a national legislature that had the authority to declare war conduct diplomacy and reg domestic affairs could not make mxes or regulate trade Created a confederation independent of England however it was made up of 13 different independent states therefore not a national 1777 sapproved 1781 rati ed States Rights 7 states had more rights than the national government after the revolution according to the Articles of Confederation congress could not levy taxes regulate trade or make laws 7 this caused a big problems because people ended up needing the national government to protect their liberties eX Shay s rebellion but the colonist did it this way at first for fear that a national government would eventually become like a corrupt monarchy 7 late 1770s7 1887 7f1rst ended French presence on the continent of North America gave British title to all French territory east of Mississippi and second gave boundaries for new independent nation lVlississippi River on West 31St parallel on South and present day Canada on North 763 American s expected end ofwar to mean end of axes access to Ohio Valley and treatment as English 83 more land and independence for colonies allies with French 71763 1783 critical period 7Period of testing the new republic state constitutions 7proved their was a need for a strong national government for a smble republic and provided opportunities for the rebellions 71783787 1812 Ordinance of 1784 7 Ordinance of 1784 outlined the path to statehood by saying a territory equals a states when its population equals that of one of the existing states and these territories can have democratic self7government 7 began attempts to integrate west into the union and statehood gave new states more power 7 1784 Land Ordinance of 1785 7 1785 Ordinance provided for dividing territory into sections and into townships of 6 square miles each to be bought 7 created a method for setting land when no one could afford the plot 6 million acres were sold to land speculators which becaIne present day Ohio 7 1785 Shay s Rebellion 7 a rebellion by western farmers in order to gain relief from debts they closed courts to halt creditors from foreclosing their farms and march on the federal arsenal at Spring eld 7 some saw rebellion as consequence of radical democracy showed that people believed the government existed to provide protection in order to be a republican government need for national government 7 1786 Northwest Ordinance of 1787 7 created a political structure for the territories created a phased process for achieving smtehood and prohibited slavery Congress held sway in colonies through appointed officials until population reached 5000 men at which legislature could be established at 60000 population it could apply for smtehood 7 scrapped Jefferson s old democratic design of upcoming smtes less self government ignored the Indians in the area extended republican government to the West and incorporated frontier into the new nation 7 1787 Constitutional Convention 7delegates came from states to recognize the need for a united nation more centralized government vs old state governments 7Lead to the creation eventually ofa federal constitution 71787 7created by Madison proposed a central government with three branches Congress to have the power to veto all smte legislation bicaIneral legislature lower house chosen by direct voting and lower chosen by nominations by state legislature both appointed accordingly to population an executive elected by Congress and an independent federal judiciary vs Paterson s New Jersey Plan of one vote one congress was rejected quicker 7This split the larger and smaller smtes over representation was greatest influence to the Consitution 71787 iwas a compromise between big and small states over representation suggestion that a slave would count as 35 s ofa person in counting the population in order to satisfy the larger states iwas a compromise in creating two houses one with equal representation and another based on population and lead to agreement of represenmtion furthered the immorality of slavery by calling a slave less than a whole person July 2nd 1787 Anbl demIist vs chcmlist dcba te debate on ratifying the constitution or not antiopposed Fed s for Federalist papers solved the debate Anti feared ratifying would expand the central governments power leading to corrupt rule ie King 1 787788 U armers iFarmers who relied on their selves or small community in order to obtain commodities that were essential for living wealth was not a necessity iDiffering types of agriculture didn t require foreign trade self sustaining in 1780s Jefferson believes this is the superior way oflife on going throughout the Southern Colonies 1780s as well Democratic Republican Party Democratic7Republicans7 lead by Madison and Jefferson strict interpretation of the Constitution agricultural economy citizenship based on virtue sacri ce for common good liberty over order proifrench favors limiting role of national government oppose Hamilton s prograIn generally support French revolution drew support from South and West Historical significance is its opposition to Hamilton s program and in favor of liberty and less national power 1790 s Federalist Party Federalists7 lead by Hamilton required a loose interpretation of constitution Elastic Clause and a mixed economy citizenship based on self interest order over liberty national bank national debt tax on whisky following the creation of the constitution proiBritish stance on foreign relations favors strong central government opposed French Revolution and drew strong support from New England In favor of HaInilton s programs and for the loose interpretation of constitution allowing greater national government power 1790 s Bill of Rights iMadison s response to antifederalits explicit statement or rights to prevent the freedoms of individuals and minorities from being infringed on by the federal government iUnited states under constitution and helped convince people to ratify the constitution 71791 adopted Elastic Clause 7 clause in the constitution that permits Congress to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out its duties 7 Hamilton used this clause as defense against the claim that the Constitution did not speci cally authorize Congress to charter a bank 7 used in early 1790 s First Party System 7 Formed from Federalist Party Hamilton New England Loose Interpretation and Republican Part lVladison and Jefferson South and West Strict lnterpremtion everyone was anti7party there were few elected offices few offices people could vote for it was relatively short7lived lack ofpolitical participation 7 voting became partisan 7 1790 s Hamilton s Report on 7ln order to use federal power to encourage manufacturing and commerce in order to make the US economically strong and independent of Europe and to link the interests of the wealthy with those of the new government Hamilton proposed that 52 million of federal debt be paid in full gov t to assume responsibility of debt from Revolutionary War 25 taX on whiskey 7 cause permanent rupture among supporters of the Constitution led to political parties caused Whiskey Rebellion 7 1790s Loose lnternretatinn of the C 7 Hamilton s stance the elastic clause allows Congress to do what is necessary and proper for the country to function 7 allowed for Hamilton s financial plan to be approved led to the first political parties Federalists loose and Republicans strict 7 early 1790 s Strict internretati on of the C Jefferson and Madison suggest if it s not in the document you can t do it speci cally Harnilton s plan to create a national bank 7 showed how some Americans were afraid that using loopholes in the Constitution would allow the federal government to be the judge ofits own powers leading to abuse ofpower 7 earl 1790 s 7Response to congress 1791 excise taX on distilled liquors because sale ofwhiskey provided essential income this made people refuse to pay and take violent action in parts of PA 7Harnilton overreacted because he suggested this was a question of authority Shall there be government or no government 71791 7an economy using both manufacturing and agriculture is involved 7 Hamilton believed this would make the country independent but Madison and Jefferson wanted a purely agricultural economy in part led to the creation of political parities Madison gave into Harnilton s plan and mixed economy slowly grew to be the primary form of economy 7 1790 into early 1800s 7People have own farms yeomen farmers and they will use agriculture as their main form of economy Jefferson believed that their property will make them wealthy and keep them virtuous the plow makes us strong and independent also believed ifyou become dependent on others in manufacturing you will depend on others on how you vote must have your property finally agreed to accept Harnilton s plan if the capital could be where there isn t to much wealth and power and directly between the colonies DC helped in forming first political parties 7 1790s and died out by mid 1800s Louisiana Purchase 7 purchase of Louisiana from French for 15 million by Livingston and Monroe 7 western commerce could flow down the Mississippi this land acquisition by treaty was not stated in constitution but was ratified anyways pragmaticism over principle 7 1803 War of 1812 7 War between the US and Britain because Britain would not suspend the Orders in Council tightly controlled neutral trade with France and they harassed US ships 7 known as a second war for independence nation was unprepared but managed a victory Treaty of Ghent which ended war accomplished nothing 7 181271814 1 What were the most important difference between colonial New England and the colonial South Think about their different founding years ways of making a living social structure and early family development also consider differences of religion and culture and even geography South Founding years 1607 Ways of making a living Tobaccos and cotton plantations Social structure More hierarchy based large plantations rich land owners vs slavesservants Early family development Mostly men few boys death killed off families Religion Church of England just going to seek wealth Culture Slaves commercial greed Indian con ict individualism Geography Swampy land peninsula New England Founding years l620 s Ways of making a living Subsistence agriculture not commercial lack of resources Social structure More equality based small communities religious toleration middle class Early F amily development Most came as families Religion Protestants escaping wrath of the crown Culture Strong social appeal plain clothing literate and skilled Geography Better environment and climate ground better for growing 2 What kinds of labor systems developed in the New World and how did those labor systems change over time Think about the system of slave1ry and what factors in uenced its development and change from the early 1600 s to the eve of the n 39 Headright system indentured servants and iust afterward Slaveryislaves could adapt to atmosphere in American and made them worth buying Had more rights in the start could marry be baptized less racism until started to be seen as property and discriminated against because whites feared becoming minority Breed them to have children and slave trade slowed Slave codes Children born were slaves for life baptism could no longer be used as grounds for freedom Provided freedom on both sides for slaves who fought during the revolution Northwest Ordinance of 1787 3 What very large events and gradual changes were occurring in EuropezEngland between about 1450 and 1600 that might help account for the timing and nature of rising empires Improvements of technology in Maritime latten sail Carvel quadrant Limited resource from population boom Enclosure 14927 Search for new route to Asia by Portuguese Columbus Rumors of over ow ofwealth 15201590 Price revolution ProtestantRe xmation Religious Reformation lrish colonization Spanish Armada Roanoke 4 Why did relations between colonists and Englishmen reach significant levels of tension during the period between 1763 and 1776 To answer a question like this you need to know what happened who was affected by events and what kinds of responses colonial and English people made As you are thinkin about wh events escalated the wa the did t to ima ine other Dossible too and think about th these other quot quot39 39 did not occurs Proclamation of 1763 colonists affected because they couldn t settle past proclamation line ecolonists didn t feel English because they weren t allowed in Ohio Valley iBritish didn t think they were really helped that much or were pro British SugarStamp Act 1764 1765 ecolonists had to pay taxes without representation and tried in admiralty courts iEnglish felt it was to crack down on smuggling and that it was it was an English thing to do actual or direct 39 Virtual Townsbend Duties iAmericans saw this as evidence that they were not being treated like the English Dickinson calls for consummation ofless English luxuries leads to nonimpormtion iEnglish responded by sending armed forces to enforces laws Boston Massacre people were killed iAmericans responded and didn t feel like British citizens iEnglandi felt they wanted independence Committees of Correspondence Boston Tea Pargzz Tea Act Coercive or Intolerable Acts Quartering Act First Continental Congress Olive Brancli Petition Lexington and Concord Common Sense De cla ra tion of In dependen ce Second Continental Congress
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