Midterm 1 notes
Midterm 1 notes Hlth 460
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joslyn Stucki on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Hlth 460 at Brigham Young University taught by Dr. Lindsey in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Substance Abuse and Addiction in Health Sciences at Brigham Young University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
ATOD Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drugs Economics social criminal justice health issues meolical Health 0 Deaths 0 Years of potential life lost YPLL Disability Morbidity Sickness o DALYS Tobacco is getting worse in trends Economic cost Familyindividual Corporationemployer Government 0 Alcohol230 billion 0 Tobacco193 billion 0 Drugshalf a trillion Crime 0 crime to get money 0 crime under the in uence biggie breaking drug usepossessionselling law gang warfare Social 0 family stresscon ict etc Exam 1 Etiology causeswhy people use drugs and epidemiology of ATOD Exam 2 Speci c drugs Exam 3 Reducing the problem De ne 0 Drug anything but food taken into the body that alters structure or function 0 Medicine has a positive intended affect on the body Psychoactive drug anything alters perception mood or consciousness they in uence our nervous system mostly what we will talk about except performance enhancing drugs Pharmacologic action Uppers stimulants caffine Downers depressants alcohol Betweeners mixed effect weed Outers hallucinogens LSDschrooms lnside outers disassociate anesthetics laughing gasPCP Neurons send messages and have a gap between them called a synapse neurochemicals bridge that gap 1 neuron has 1000 synapses to other neurons Neurons can be excitatory or inhibitory o The Big 7 on exam 0 Acetylcholine days Norepinephrine Serotonin Dopan ne GABA Endorphks o Glutamate Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine causing tons to stay vvhereitis Central Nervous System 0 Hindbrain o Midbrain o Forebrahw Limbic System pleasure center 0 The frontal quotnogo section is not fully developed in teens although same size as adult brain 0 4 ways to administer inhale fastest way to get to the brain ingest snort inject 3 ways intervenous intermuscular skin popO absorb multiple oral not swallowed rectal vaginal ocular otic nasal not inhalation transdermal patches The liver breaks down the drugs Drug with half life of 12 hours will have 116 left in the body in 2 00000 00000 Main effects and side effects of drugs not the reason you took it Drug interactions 0 Antagonistics 651 Additive 235 o Synergistic 2317 alcohol and sleeping pills Potentiation 0317 makes second drug super powerful Dose response patterns Usual dose 90 of population works for them 0 Threshold no more desired effects only side effect 0 Lethal dose kills 50 of people then LD50 then up for more etha Effective dose produces desired effect 0 Margin of safety we like wide ones LD1ED99 Potency how much active ingredients in solution 3 alcohol in beer Blood brain barrier how quick something can get to the brain Behaviora tolerance brain gures out how to deal with changes Pharmacokinetic tolerance metabolic changes Pharmacodynamic tolerance pruning receptor sites Reverse tolerance gets high on less Cross tolerance take one drug that makes you tolerant to something you haven t had Objective effects 0 age dose body weight gender ethnicityrace disease tolerance Subjective mindset expectations in uence actual experience and environmental setting relaxed or not Major Social Factors of ATOD FarnHy Peers 0 School lWedka Cultureethnicityreligion Peer Pressure 0 Direct telling you to smoke it 0 Indirect everyone else is doing it more pressuring Risky Shift Adolescents in a group will do things and take risks they normally wouldn t 0 When younger family has way more in uence than peers It then shifts to peers from about 1426 and then back to family Alienation Cliques drive some kids to the druggies who always have room Parenta example 0 Be careful what you do don t do what you don t want them to do 0 Spend more time with your children quality AND quantity Utah is lowest for tobacco and alcohol but highest for painkilling meds Rev Calvin Butts said ATOD in movies does in uence people while Jack Valenti Pres of American Film Asso says no it doesn t Rap then Country are highest for ATOD references Dominant monkey s in social house has high dopamine The subordinate would be more likely to be addicted to drugs because they don t get pleasure in any other way Same with humans High biological susceptibility and environmental in uences have VERY high chance of addiction 0 It s not one or the other Social and biological in uences work together Tobacco industry de nitely believes we are their future They target teens The money is de nitely in the industry not in public health lndustry really recruits they have professional drugpushers Warren Buffet says cigs are cheap to make easy to sell for more addictive and brand loyalty They say you don t have to use it just get the uneducated to do it Philip Morris JT ReynoldsBAT Lorillard are cigarettemaking companies the main 3 90 Anheuser Bush is largest beer company was purchased by lnBev in Belgium SABMiller MolsonCoors Again 3 main companies Addiction brings us repeat customs The industry allowed for 4 warnings including heart disease but would not allow an addiction warning People will trade ridiculous things for cigs food stamps sex take the city etc CEOs lied in court saying nicotine is not addictive Light drinker is 13 a week 83 of all alcohol consumed Moderate 414 drinks a week 242 Heavy 14 a week consumes 675 targeted in advertising Top 3 alcohol days New Years Superbowl weekend Halloween Crappy wines are made by sophisticated winemakers but not with their name Just for the poor to get their x Advertising 0 TV etc list on LS Effects of advertising 0 New customrers Brand loyaltyswitching Use more of the product 0 Norm perception lnhibits cessation attempts Buy silence on health issues 0 January has most ads to get rid of new years resolutions Even magazines will compromise their values to have cig companies advertise in them Winston cigs used to advertise in Flintstones Reason to target kids 0 Age of decision 0 More future product use Younger they start less likely to quit 0 Brand loyalty More easy to in uence 0 Your competitor already is Target an 18 year old with a shotgun younger kids will see and want the product Ads have younger and younger people as time continues Advertising to women 0 Triple L 0 Low Tar 0 Low Cost 0 Length make them long and skinny weight control device 71615 Why do people take drugs 0 Feel goodbetter do better curiosity social in uences they are addicted What does it mean to be addicted Can t function normally wo being on it 0 Getting the drugs becomes an obsession Chronic and relapsing brain disease by uncontrollable drug seeking behavior and use even when they know its bad 0 Unable to stop when you want to spend more and more time ful lling obsession Drug abuse is a disease of the decisionmaking part of the brain 0 Loss of control drug craving persistent use despite negative consequences 0 Biopsychosocial condition 0 The Atonement ofJesus Christ is what gives us the power to overcome Midbrain is where the addiction occurs 0 Amygdala o Nucleus accumbens 0 10000 dopamine producing cells does not think but just goes for the next 15 seconds during addiction the midbrain controls you before a thought is able to get to the rational cortex It runs on the pleasure circuit between the VTA and NA The experiment with mice shows that environment does not have a huge in uence on drug addiction seeing as they don t have gangs or something else in uencing them Drugs mix uphijack the part of the brain that tell us what is good or bad for survival Pleasure is morally loaded while deafness and blindness is not The brain can change though just like a canyon with help from ourselves and the Savior Survival hierarchy in the drug addicts brain 0 The drug Food Defend eesurvive Sex The drug is survival to an addict while its just a drug to a normal person 0 You change the brains structure AND function 0 Changes the receptor sites 0 Hard to quit because of uncomfortablepainful withdrawal symptoms Anhedonia the inability to experience pleasure pleasure deafness may last for a long time depending on drug and how long you take it Withdrawal does not allow for any simple joys 92115 EASY program selling offpremises products 000 Addict to Athlete What role do cues and triggers play in addiction It can really make you want just one last shot Relapses almost always preceded by cravings your whole body seems to tingle with anticipation Roles of stress BLAST O O O O O Bored Lonely Angry Stressed Tired Brain of an addict is different from a nonaddict after using drugs and also before using drugs Genetically inclined 40 60 genetics Relapse is the norm basically part of rehab It s so hard to quit O 0 Repeated use changes the body s function and natural reward system Behavioral track compulsion to use drugs Drugs compromise the prefrontal cortex that control quotnogo Cues and triggers Withdrawal symptoms Anhedonia depends on drug and how long for long time Addiction creates stressful life which impedes good decision making Early use messes up frontal cortex and shrinks brain decreases likelihood of stopping later METH use doesn t allow adolescent brain to grow up Peter Pan phenomenon You CAN quit using A person is absolutely responsible for getting out of addiction Are other addictions like drug addictions They are not addicted to the thing but the reinforcement it provides Powerful industries involved in consequence of evils and designs of conspiring men Key role of dopamine and other neurotransmitters Behaviors can activate the same reward pathways structures All types of addiction seem to respond to similar treatments How are drug addictiveness measured Withdrawal symptoms severity Reinforcement preference to other things like sex and food Tolerance how fast it builds up Dependence what percent gets hooked and how many people can get off it successfully Intoxication not used anymore increase of personal and social damages 0 Henning eld and Benowitz Ratings Alcohol Withdrawal mostgt Marijuana least Cocaine Reinforcement Heroin Tolerance Nicotine dependence Alcohol Intoxication Heroin is biggest one with all ls and 25 Drug ABUSE is preventable Drug ADDICTION is treatable Why do you need descriptive epidemiologic data for ATOD interventions 0 Need to justify to politicians that this is a big deal 0 Identify and target highrisk groups 0 Allocate resources 0 Set priorities 0 Establish causal relationships 0 Justify it s a big deal 0 Measure by timeframeuse amount issue of selfreport use misuse abuse addiction 0 Major data sources 0 Selfreported Monitoring the Future National Survey on Drug Use and Health BRFS YRBS o DAWN DEA Ad Hoc Studies State and local surverys 3 clues in Epidemiology 0 Person 0 i ace o 39THne War on Tabacco has dropped in half almost to 5 now than college grad vs less than HS 72315 Person High smokers cosmetologists truck drivers construction workers Low smokers doctors lawyers teachers Rural kids are more likely to use and try drugs and alcohol China smokes one third of all the cigarettes in the world and grows the most tobacco then Brazil India USA US and Brazil are biggest shippers Culture has to do NordicSlavic vodka to get drunk Southern European wine Central Europe beer Time Highest alcohol consumption 11pm2am on FriSat June school is out nothing to do 0 Desert Storm war had signi cantly lower deaths because they couldn t drink there and suicide homicide accidental deaths The family really has an impact on kids If it s bad environment kids or more likely to use drugs get pregnant drop out of school and be violent We need to focus on family more Parents need to be very very strict because just quotwrong a little wrong and not wrong at allquot are pretty similar Bonding will also affect drug trials Church makes everything else lower too Drug prevention advertising makes kids more curious instead Drug abuse can be both an infectious and de ciency disease Gateway Drug Pattern Predictable Dose response Cumulative Correlate highly with tobacco use 0 Tobacco and alcohol are quotexit gatequot drugs
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