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by: Maurice Zieme


Maurice Zieme
GPA 3.74

Daniel Moseley

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Daniel Moseley
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This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Maurice Zieme on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GPHIL 120 at James Madison University taught by Daniel Moseley in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/214090/gphil-120-james-madison-university in General Education at James Madison University.




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Date Created: 09/26/15
GPHIL Study Guide Claim When you state a belief or opinion Argument When you present a reason for thinking a claim is true ARGUMENTS HAVE 2 PARTS the supported part conclusion the supporting part premise EX quotMy grandmother just diedquot premise quotI should be excusedquot conclusion Whenever a claim is called into question or its truth or falsity becomes the subject of consideration ofjudgment anissue ofquestion has been raised subjectivism the idea that one opinion is as good as the next or that what is true is what you think is true You are entitled to say you know that a claim is true 1 if you believe there is a book on the table 2 you have an argument beyond a reasonable doubt for thinking there is and 3 you have no reason to think you are mistaken EX quotThere is a book on the tablequot One ofus tried one of the shampoos on his dogs and it did work well quotIt worked wellquot is what we call a value judgment a claim that expresses an evaluation of something A deductive argument is said to be quotvalidquot A deductive argument is an argument whose premises being true would mean that the conclusion is true An inductive argument is said to be quotstrongquot That s an argument whose premises being true would mean that probably the conclusions are true Valid arguments prove or demonstrate their conclusion strong inductive arguments merely support their conclusion Argument identificationyou need at least two claims and the word quotthereforequot or its equivalent must stand before one of them WORDS THAT TAKE THE PLACE OF THEREFORE conclusion indicators quotIt follows thatquot quotThis shows thatquot quotThusquot quotHencequot quotConsequentlyquot quotAccordinglyquot quotS 0 quotMy conclusion isquot PREMISE INDICATORS quotSincequot quotForquot quotB ecausequot quotIn view ofquot quotThis is implied byquot quotGivenquot Subjective expression an expression which by common agreement is left up to the individual to apply as he or she thinks is appropriate within certain broad constraints Rhetoric language that is psychologically persuasive but doesn t have extra logical force 2 CONFUSIONS ABOUT ARGUMENTS 1 arguments are the same as explanations 2 arguments are attempts to persuade someone of something CHAPTER 2 A vague statement is one whose meaning is indistinct imprecise or lacks details Precising definitions spell out in more detail what is meant by a vague concept Questions to keep in mind when considering comparisons 1 Is important information missing 2Is the same standard of com parison being used 3 Are the items comparable 4 Is the comparison expressed as an average mean median and mode Ambiguous A sentence that is subject to more than one interpretation Semantic ambiguity ifa claim is ambiguous because it contains an ambiguous word or phrase ex Calhoun always lines up on the right side Syntactic Ambiguity a statement that is ambiguous because ofits grammar or the way it has been structured or put together EX Susan saw the farmer with binoculars Grouping Ambiguity a kind of ambiguity in which it is unclear whether a claim refers to a group of things individually or collectively Fallacy in division fallacymistake in reasoning EX Congress is incompetent Therefore Congressman Cox is incompetent Stipulating de nitions the meaning of the term needs to be spelled out Precising definitions definitions to reduce vagueness or eliminate ambiguity Types of definitions 1 Definition by example 2 Definition by synonym EX Fastidious means the same thing as fussy 3 Analytical definition EX A mongoose is a ferretsized mammal native to India that eats snakes and is related to civets A the type of thing the term applies to B the diffbetvveen the things the term applies to and other things of the same type Rhetorical definitions purpose is to express or in uence attitudes rather than to clarify Emotive Meaning Rhetorical force many terms convey a meaning other than their literal one Writing Argumentative essays 1 A statement of the issue 2 A statement of one s position on the issue 3 Arguments that support one s position 4 Rebuttals of arguments that support contrary positions Principles of Organization and Focus 1Focus 2 Stick to the Issue 3 Arrange the components of the essay in a logical sequence 4 Be complete Good writing practices 1 Outline afterwards 2 Revise 3 Have someone read your essay 4 Read it out loud 5 Put it aside and rerevise Persuasive Writing 1 Confine your discussion of an opponent s point of view to issues rather than personal considerations 2 When rebutting an opposing viewpoint avoid being strident or insulting 3 If an opponent s argument is good concede that it is good 4 If space or time is limited be sure to concentrate on the most important considerations Don t become obsessive about refuting every last criticism of your position 5 Present your strongest arguments first Critical thinking done on paper is known as an argumentative essay Ch 7 Unstated premises and conclusions PYou can t check out books from the library without an ID card C Bill wont be able to check out any books Unstated premise Bill has no ID card A good deductive argument is one whose premises being true would mean the conclusion absolutely must be true A good deductive argument is one whose premises being true would mean the conclusion absolutely must be true Valid argument good deductive argument that demonstrates or proves the conclusion Valid argument good deductive argument that demonstrates or proves the conclusion Even with a false premise the argument can be valid because if the premise were true that would mean the conclusion must also be true Even with a false premise the argument can be valid because if the premise were true that would mean the conclusion must also be true A sound argument is valid and its premises are all true A sound argument is a good deductive argument and its premises are all true A good inductive argumentsupports its conclusion More precisely If the premise ofa good inductive argument is true the conclusion is probably true Agood inductive argument supports its conclusion More precisely If the premise of a good inductive argument is true the conclusion is probably true Strong argument a good inductive argument EX ofinductive reasoning career choices family planning health decisions retirement options voting decisions CH8 Categorical logic logic based on the relations ofinclusion and exclusion among classes as stated in categorical claims Categorical claim says something about classes or categories of things Standardform categorical claim claim that results from putting names or descriptions of classes into the blanks of following structures A All are A All are E No are E No are I Some are I Some are 0 Some are not 0 Some are not The phrases that go in the blanks are terms The one that goes into the first blank is the subject term of the claim in the second blank is the predicate term Venn Diagram Represent the 4 standardform categorical claims Affirmative claims Aclaims and Iclaims include one class or part of one class within another Negative claims two claims that exclude one class or part from another Equivalent claims two claims would be true in all and exactly the same circumstances The word only used by itself introduces the predicate term of an Aclaim The word only used by itself introduces the predicate term of an Aclaim The phrase the only introduces the subject term of an Aclaim The phrase the only introduces the subject term of an Aclaim Claims about single individuals should be treated as Aclaims or Eclaims TWO CATEGORICAL CLAIMS CORRESPOND TO EACH OTHER IF THEY HAVE THE SAME SUBIECT AND PREDICATE TERM EX quotAll methodists are Christiansquot and quotSome methodists are Christians The square of opposition exhibits logical relationships between corresponding A E I and Oclaims The A and E claims across the top of the square from each other are contraryclaims they can both be false but can t both be true The I and Oclaims across the across the bottom of the square are subcontrary claims they can both be true but can t both be false The A and Oclaims and the Eand Iclaims which are at opposite diagonal corners from each other are contradictory claims they never have the same truth values BOTH AN ACLAIM AND ITS CORRESPONDING ECLAIM CAN BE TRUE AS LONG AS THERE ARE NO MEMBERS OF THE SUBJECT CLASS You find the converse ofa standardform claim by switching the positions of the subject and predicate terms EX No Norwegians are Slavs No Slavs are Norwegians All E and 1 claims but not A and Oclaims are equivalent to their converses Obversion universe of discourse ex quoteveryonequot Complementary terms quotstudentsquot and quotnonstudentsquot The complement of people who took the exam is people who did not take the exam To find the obverse of a claim a change it from affirmative to negative or vice versa b replace predicate with its complementary term EX All Presbyterians are Christians No Presbyterians are nonChristians Contrapositive a switch the places of subj and pred b replace both terms with complementary terms EX All Mongolians are Muslims All nonMuslims are nonMongolians o All A and 0 claims but not E and 1 claims are equivalent to their contrapositives Syllogisms 2premise deductive argument Categorical Syllogism syllogism whose every claim is a standardform categorical claim in which 3 terms ea Occur exactly twice in exactly 2 of the claims EX All Americans are consumers Some consumers are not Democrats Therefore some Americans are not Democrats Major term that occurs as the pred term of the syllogism s conclusion Minor term term that occurs as the subject term of the syllogism s conclusion Use symbols P M and S Middle term term that occurs in both of the premises but not at all in the conclusion ALWAYS SHADE BEFORE PUTTING Xs Shade in what is NOT the case If any circle has only one area remaining unshaded an X should be put in that area An X on the line indicates that the X belongs in one or the other ofthe two areas maybe both but we don39t know whichquot When the time comes to see whether the diagram yields the conclusion we look to see whether there is an X entirely within the appropriate area ASSESSING THE VALIDITY EX You shouldn t give chicken bones to dogs because they could choke on them C chicken bones D things dogs could choke on S things you should give dogs All chicken bones are things dogs could choke on No things dogs could choke on are things you should give dogs Therefore no chicken bones are things you should give dogs THE RULES METHOD OF TESTING FOR VALIDITY 1 The number of negative claims in the premise must be the same as the number of neg claims in the conclusion 2 At least one premise must distribute the middle term 3 Any term that is distributed in the conclusion of the syllogism must be distributed in its premises EX No mercantilists are large landowners All mercantilists are creditors No creditors are large landowners rule 2


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