INTRO TO OCEANOGRAPHY [C3T1G3]
INTRO TO OCEANOGRAPHY [C3T1G3] GEOL 211
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mr. Chaz Walter on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 211 at James Madison University taught by John Haynes in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see /class/214118/geol-211-james-madison-university in Geology at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Geology21 1 Exam Two Study Guide Chapters 5 7 7 Chapter 5 Class Notes Terrigenous 7 45 of the ocean oor Biogenous 7 55 Hydrogenous 7 l Cosmogenous 7 0 Terrigenous sediment is from land like rocks from mountains and also big river emptying into a bay or sea comes from weathering of the Earth s landmasses A system of classifying sediments is based on the diameter of the grain see slide Boulder and Glacial Deposits Input 1 Rivers deliver the majority of terrigenous sediment into the ocean a The Amazon River has the most volume of water but the 7Lh most volume of sediment see slide of rivers that transport sediment b The higher the mountains the more sediment they create c The Mississippi is very important for oil and gas d The Brazos River enters the Gulf of Mexico along the Texas Coast 2 Glaciers also deliver a signi cant amount of sediment to the oceans a Sediments give us information about past climates b Ice also pushes a lot of sediment onto continental shelves c Georges Bank is on the East of Cape Cod i It is a glacial deposit that is very identifiable 3 Windblown dust a Dust is constantly being blown into the oceans b Sand dune in Northwestern Africa 4 Coastal Erosion a Waves crash in and out and pick up sediment especially during large storms It can go inland andor get washed back out to sea b Waves can pry rock away into cobbles and boulders c Beach deposits i When cobbles are cemented together they turn into conglomerates sandstones and mudstones They all give us information about past historywhere they came from 5 Volcanic Debris a Generates plumes of ash that can end up on the ocean oor during an eruption b Ash from Mt Pinatubo weighed down a jet in the Philippines in 1991 Biogenous Sediment 7 55 of the Ocean Floor Particle size 7 skeletal remains of sea animals Oozes are primarily a Calcareous 7 foraminifera and coccoliths b Siliceous 7 Look at slide for chemical building of blocks and skeletal materials Note the difference between River and Seawater and why seawater is salty Freshwater has no phosphate Radiolarians 9 Diatoms 9 many shapes Forams 9 abundant in calcareous oozes of the sea oor Coccoliths 9 make up much of the calcareous oozes but they are so abundant that they can be seen from orbiting satellites Shell fragments 9 grained calcareous sediments they are all calcium carbonate in their compositions When lithi ed these form fossiliferous lime stones Warm clear shallow and welloxygenated All four of these qualities are essential to have calcareous sediments lithify and form fossiliferous lime stones Carbonate Rocks used for cement Limestone 7 made of calcite Dolomite 0 Both are from Saudi Arabia know the difference between the two rocks from slides Water molecules are forming all the time The bond angle changes when the water changes from water to ice or other phase changes and energy is always involved in causing a phase change or bond angle change to occur Hydrogen bonds in Liquid WaterHydrogen Bonding Water is polar and good at dissolving substances like salt seawater The freezing point of water is 0 degrees celcius and the boiling point of water is 100 degrees celcius Because of hydrogen bonding we can have ice and liquid water Salt in the Solid State and Aqueous Solution Seawater Properties Salinity 7the amount of solids dissolved in 1000 grams of seawater Solvent 7 See the average values of salinity slide What are the major dissolved solids in seawater Chloride 19 g and Sodium10g 35 of seawater is dissolved solids the rest is H20 There are higher salinity values where there is more evaporation like in the tropics What is salinity Ocean Salinity Values increase in warmer areas like the Red Sea Big Rivers affect salinity as well as areas with ice 7 salinities are lower in those areas If there is a lot of rain fall not much of an effect on salinity Salinity varies The ratio of dissolved substances never varies In oceans it is always the same The saltiness is based on salinity Dissolved gases 7 uctuate with temperature Warm water has less dissolved gases than cold water The surface of water is warmer generally When water gets warm it loses its dissolved gases Cold water at the bottom ofthe ocean oor has the capacity to hold dissolved gases pH 7 lower than 7 7 acidl or 2 Above 14 7 base or alkaline substance Seawater has a pH of 8 The pH of oceans has dropped slightly because of C02 from fossil fuels being absorbed This is a concern because ocean animals have adapted to a pH level of 82 so the more acidic it gets it may kill the ocean animals CO2 may be a greenhouse gas pH is the measure of alkalinity or acidity and there s evidence it may be dropping a bit What is the importance of pH Buffering 9 the process by which the oceans are able to maintain the pH and minimize sudden changes in the pH Crystal structure of ice is hexagonal Snow akes are fresh water When sea water freezes the ice looks significantly different because of the hydrogen bonding The dissolved solids like Na and Cl disrupt the bonding Latent and Sensible Heat Latent is hidden and goes into breaking bonds Sensible changes in temperature that we can check with a thermometer This stops at 100 degrees When a lake freezes or temperature drops we stay at 0 degrees until there are no more liquid areas Heat energy is used to change the phase of liquid water into steam or vapor Condensation occurs until we get complete liquid water which we never do Evaporation Latent heat of melting boiling freezing and condensation There is no water on Venus or Mercury because they are so hot Heat Capacity of Pure Water If the ice melts water temperatures shift about 35 degrees Celsius so it is important that the ice doesn t all melt at the surface This is why global warming does affect us and includes the oceans Know the concept of latent heat and oceanic ice Life around the oceans are most affected by C02 levels and chemistryphysics like polar bears Chapter 6 Class Notes Physical and Chemical Aspects of Water Hydrologic Cycle Water is chemically a part of certain minerals they cycle through the 4 components of earth s surface 0 Biosphere o Lithosphere o Dlfa o Dlskf Oceans are a tremendous reservoir due to gravity 7 H20 ends up in the ocean Phase changes all involve heat Know photons re read Water freezes at zero degrees Celsius We live in conditions near the triple point of water Water can be in all three of its phases in any given moment around the world The Triple Point Diagram 0 Temperature and pressure conditions in which water is present in all 3 of its forms 0 Surface and Near surface conditions Earth is right near the triple point of water Liquid water is physically stable at the normal range of temperatures We have oceans because we receive enough solar energy to keep the water at a normal temperature Nine tenths of an iceberg is underwater 0 Very common 0 High latitudes Phase changes regulate our climate because of the energy involved in a phase change Energy The ability to make things happen this is a characteristic more so than a de nition Energy makes things happen It cannot be created nor destroyed we can only transform it Without energy nothing would ever happen nothing would ever change At absolute zero all movement stops Global Warming First Law of Thermodynamics 9 The change in internal energy of a system equals the heat added to the system Second Law of Thermodynamics 9 In all systems and all transformations of energy some of the energy is lost as heat and cannot be used to do work Terms from Slides 0 Evaporation 7 liquid to gas phase change Sublimination 7 Skipping the liquid phase solid to gas directly Condensation 7 Gas to liquid opposite of evaporation Boiling 7 rapid liquid to gas within a liquid and its surface Melting 7 the phase change from solid to liquid Temperature 7 the measurement of how hot an object is Absolute zero 7 the lowest possible temperature at which all particles have their minimum kinetic energy all movement stops at this point Thermal Energy 7 internal energy 0 It is heat or the total energy present in the substanceany substance 0 Know the difference between heat and temperature by candle vs Jacuzzi example 0 Heat 7 never ows from a lower to a higher temperature object Calorie 7 unit of heat or thermal energy 0 Water has the highest heat capacity of all common substances It can absorb a lot of heat and not change its temperature 0 Speci c heat capacity 7 The Chemistry of a Water Molecule Two hydrogen to one oxygen All chemical reactions involve electrons that s it ONLY the nucleus does not change Covalent bonds 9 Chapter 6 Outline Water and Seawater 4 Why does water have such unusual chemical properties a A water molecule has a bend in its geometry with the two hydrogen atoms on the same side of the oxygen atom which gives water its polarity and ability to form hydrogen bonds How have water s thermal properties been important for all life on earth a Water s unique thermal properties include water s latent heats and high heat capacity which redistribute heat on Earth and have moderated Earth s climate How salty is the ocean a The oceans contain enough salt to cover the entire planet with a layer more than 150 meters thick It makes up for about 35 on average but varies between low and high salinity What is the pH of seawater and how does ocean buffering work a Reactions that involve carbonate chemicals serve to buffer the ocean and keep its pH at an average value of 81 slightly alkaline b Ocean buffering What processes affect sea water salinity a Precipitation runoff icebergs melting and sea ice melting all decrease seawater salinity b Sea ice forming and evaporation increase seawater salinity What factors affect seawater density a Seawater density increases when the temperature decreases the salinity increases and pressure increases What are the halocline pycnocline and thermocline a Halocline 7 a layer of rapidly changing salinity b Pycnocline 7 a layer of rapidly changing density c Thermocline 7 a layer of rapidly changing temperature Chapter 7 Outline AirSea Interaction l N E 4 What causes Earth s seasons a Earth s axis is tilted at an angle of 235 degrees causing the Northern and Southern Hemispheres to take turns leaning toward the Sun every six months resulting in the change of seasons How does the Coriolis effect in uence moving objects a The Coriolois effect causes moving objects to curve to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere It is maximized at the poles and is zero at the Equator How and why does the atmosphere move a The atmosphere s changing temperature density water vapor content and pressure cause atmospheric movement initiating wind What are the characteristics of Earth s major wind belts and boundaries a The major wind belts in each hemisphere are the trade winds the prevailing westerlies and the polar easterlies The boundaries between these wind belts include the doldrums the horse latitudes the polar front and the polar high How does a hurricane work a Hurricanes are intense and sometimes destructive tropical storms that form where water temperatures are high where there is an abundance of warm moist air and where they can spin What is the difference between sea ice and icebergs a Sea ice is used to distinguish such masses of frozen seawater from icebergs which are also found at sea but originate by breaking off calving from glaciers that originate on land Icebergs are bodies of oating ice broken away from a glacier b Sea ice is created when sea water freezes icebergs form when chunks ofice break off from glaciers on land that reach the sea What causes the greenhouse effect a The greenhouse effect is caused by gases such as water vapor and carbon dioxide that allow sunlight to pass through but trap heat energy before it is reradiated back to space Chapter 7 ON EXAM o The Principle of Constant Composition 0 Waters of the ocean are thoroughly mixed and the proportions of solids in the water are almost the same throughout 0 Where there is more solar radiation there are higher temperatures 0 Controlling Temperature 9 The Solar Angle Varies with o Latitude 0 Seasons 0 High latitudes have a lower solar angle and less heat enters the water 0 Temperature 0 Solar angle and duration controls the temperature Temperature varies with depth It levels off at 0 From about zero to 100 meters the temperature does not change much with the depth and this is known as a mixed layer The temperature does not change with the depth 0 It is called a mixed layer because winds waves and currents are mixing with the water 0 The ocean surface is heated by the sun The amount of sun depends on the solar angle of the sun The solar angle depends on a Seasons and b Latitude I Solar radiation enters the water I The ocean takes the heat and stirs it into a mixed layer and then there is a transition layer or thermal cline at which the temperature can change Then it goes back to a mixed layer at which the temperature does not change 0 As you reach a higher latitude the amount of radiation decreases 0 Input and Output I The Earth receives energy from the sun which is an input of Solar Energy I The Earth has an output which is the energy the earth gives back to space o Tropic Regions vs Polar Regions The Polar Regions receive very little solar radiation In the tropics the input is greater than the output In the Polar Regions the output is greater than the input Thus the tropics receive more solar energy from the sun and the Polar Regions give back more energy than they receive Tropics gain more energy than they lose and the Polar Regions lose more energy than they gain 0 The temperature does not change because the Earth takes the surplus energy and it moves that energy from lower latitudes to higher latitudes by means of ocean current Example The Gulf Stream is a warm ocean current We move heat by a combination of the circulation in the ocean in the form of currents plus air movement This moves heat from lower latitudes to higher latitudes Essay Questions Chapter 5 7 Explain the difference between the major types of oozes on the sea oor What is salinityexplain How does the earth move heat from lower to higher latitudes
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