U S GOVERNMENT [C4AE]
U S GOVERNMENT [C4AE] GPOSC 225
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Miller Rosenbaum on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GPOSC 225 at James Madison University taught by Jennifer Byrne in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see /class/214140/gposc-225-james-madison-university in Political Science at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Material Covered Ebook Chapters 8 pp 163171 10 12 13 Rourke Chapters 10 17 Election Workbook Issue 9 10 Blackboard Readings Weeks 11 12 13 Week 11 Voting and Elections 11031107 Week 12 Public Opinion and the Media 11101114 Week 13 Social amp Economic Policy The Bureaucracy 11171121 Notes from Slides The Electoral College How It Works Faithless Electors Advantages Disadvantages Observations of Electoral Maps 2004 vs 2008 Florida Nevada Colorado New Mexico Iowa Virginia North Carolina Indiana and Ohio all went blue in 2008 no blue states conceded to red 2008 Key Counties in Virginia Fairfax Obama 58 Prince William County Obama 56 Albemarle Obama 60 Rockingham McCain 66 Virginia Exit Polls Race Whites McCain 60 to 40 AfricanAmericans Obama 92 8 Latinos Obama 65 to 35 Age Youth Obama 63 to 34 65 and older McCain 55 to 45 Does Your Vote Matter A single vote is most likely to matter in New Mexico New Hampshire Virginia and Colorado Least likely to matter Alaska Hawaii and DC 2008 Election Virginia Primary The Candidates Democrat Hillary Clinton Barack Obama Republican John McCain Mike Huckabee Ron Paul Edwards Richardson Romney have dropped out The Process Voters decide which candidate within a part will represent the party s ticket in a general election General Election is held in November First Tuesday in November The VA Primary States do it differently Primaries vs Caucuses VA Primary Open Primary Do NOT have to register party af liation Can vote in Democratic or Republican Primary but not both Will be asked at the polls which ballot you like Primary vs Caucus Caucus a gathering of neighbors Meeting in churches libraries etc Must be registered with the Part to attend the Caucus Nominee for each Party is selected by Primary an election votes cast with a ballot Open vs closed primaries Most states use this method The Role of Independents 22 of Democratic Voters Favored Obama by a 2 to 1 margin 66 to 33 24 of Republican Voters McCain lost among Independents Trends in Voting Obama Carries men young voters AfricanAmericans Gender Gap 16 points In VA carried every demographic McCain Carried veterans Carried older voters but not young Did not carry conservatives and evangelicals At the end of the day carried moderate Republicans Victories by County Democrats Rockingham County Obama 57 Clinton42 Prince William County Obama 64 Clinton 36 Albermarle County Obama 68 Clinton 31 Victories by County Republicans Rockingham County McCain 36 Huckabee 56 Prince William County McCain 56 Huckabee 33 Albermarle County McCain 52 Huckabee 34 Winning Virginia What does it mean to win the VA primary McCain Winner Take All delegates Obama must split delegates with Clinton 101 total Obama delegates 58 Clinton delegates 35 For both political parties a candidate needs a certain number of delegates to clinch the nomination Republicans 1191 Democrats 2025 The primaries are used to allocate these delegates to the candidates How are Delegates Selected At the county district and city levels Pledged Delegates pledge to support a particular candidate based on voting What are Superdelegates Delegates automatically seated at the Party Conventions based on their status as current or former of ceholders or party leaders Not elected in State primaries and caucuses Have voting power More in uential in Democratic Nomination 1 5 of total delegates over 800 total in Democratic Party Examples Bill Clinton Ted Kennedy Jimmy Carter Virginia The 2008 Ohio Ideologically and Demographically mixed In ux of nonnative professionals In ux of Hispanic immigrants 13 of VA voters are Independents Electorate a mix of Conservative Christians Rural Populists and import of Bluestate liberals Congress Features of Congress Bicameral Legislature two houses Senate Two members from each state Originally selected by state legislatures l7Lh Amendment changed this to popular election House of Representatives Members are directly elected by the people Up for election every two years Therefore the branch most RESPONSIVE to the people The Reapportionment Process Senate is xed at two members House in contrast is lled according to population Census is mandated by the Constitution Article 1 Section 2 States can gain or lose districts based on population changes over the past decade Numbers of representatives is set at 435 seats total Case of John Murtha Changes to his district Challenges he faced Advantages of Incumbency The Role of Earmarks The Redistricting Game What concepts were illustrated through this game How does the Voting Rights Act play a role in redistricting What is compactness Contiguity What is political equality Voting And Elections Political Participation Unconventional More extreme unusual Protests boycotts picketing Civil Rights Movement Women s Rights Movement Rebellion Boston Tea Party Native American Movement Wounded Knee Conventional Wellaccepted moderate Writing letters Campaign contributions Voting Voting Behavior On what basis do voters decide how they will cast their ballot Tumout the proportion of the votingage public that actually votes in an election US has low tumout rates 55 in 2000 60 in 2004 Who Votes Socioeconomic Status Age Gender Race The Youth Vote Turnout among 1829 yearolds is increasing This group is racially and ethnically diverse More likely to express anger at the Bush Administration House Democrat 58 vs 38 Republican Senate Democrat 60 vs 33 Republican Governor Democrat 55 vs 35 Elections Provide legitimacy to the political system Democracy participation is important Who participates The electorate Political Socialization and Public Opinion How Political Socialization and other Factors In uence Opinion Formation Political Socialization The process through which an individual acquires particular political orientations The learning process by which people acquire their political beliefs and values Agents of Socialization Family Schools and Peers Mass Media Religious Beliefs Race and Ethnicity Gender Age Region The Ideological SelfIdentification of FirstYear College Students A majority of the firstyear college students describe themselves as middle of the road this number has held fairly steady since the early 1990s The number of students identifying themselves as liberal and far left declined dramatically during the 1970s and early 1980s while the number of students identifying themselves as conservative and far right increased Notes on Ideological SelfIdentification of Protestants Catholics and Jews Protestants Catholics Jews Public Opinion and Polling What the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at any point in time Public opinion polls Interviews or surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population George Gallup How Public Opinion is Measured Traditional public opinion polls Determine the content phrasing the questions Selecting the sample Random sampling a method of poll selection that gives each person the same chance ofbeing selected Stratified sampling A variation of random sampling census data are used to divide the country into four sampling regions Contacting respondents Political Polls Push Polls Polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate Tracking Polls Continuous surveys that enable a campaign to chart its daily rise or fall in support EXit Polls Polls conducted at selected polling places on Election Day Shortcomings of Polling Inaccurate results can be dangerous Voter News Service made errors during the presidential election of 200 estimating Florida Major networks and Associated Press joined together to form a new polling consortium the National Election Pool All polls contain errors Not always predictive The Call on Election Night How do we project a winner No projections are made until the last polls close Winners are projected because the vote count is not complete until much later and it takes days to be officially certi ed Networks use exit polls to make the call if they are too close to call then they will use sample precinct information What Exit Polls Don t exit polls suffer from convenience sampling Not anymore Election Pool Exit Poll Questionnaire Is a collaboration of Fox News CNN CBS ABC and the Associated Press Uses a random sample of precincts within the state Usually 1000 precincts are included supposed to be a representative sample of the state population Absentee voters are surveyed as well Shortcomings of Polls Sampling Error Sampling error or margin of error a measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll Limited Respondent Options Lack of Information Difficulty Measuring Intensity Question Wording Some people say it is important for minorities and immigrants to adapt and blend into society while others say that these groups must maintain their distinct cultures What do you think Adapt and Blend Maintain Distinct Cultures Don t know Book Notes Chapter 10 Key Terms Af liates local stations that carry news shows and are associated with the national networks and may choose to carry their programming Agenda setting News organizations can help tell us what to think about even if they cannot determine what we think The press often sets the agenda for a campaign or for government by emphasizaing negative or positive aspects of issues important to voters Blog Web logs or journals that provide editorial and news outlets for citizens Content regulation the government subjects the electronic media to substantial content regulation that does not apply to the print media and is charged with ensuring that the airwaves serve the public interest convenience and necessity Equal time rule requires that broadcast stations sell airtime equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any which they are under no obligation to do Political debates are exceptions to this rule Stations may exclude less wellknown and minor party candidates from these events Exit polls Polls conducted at selected polling places on Election Day Framing the process by which a news organization de nes a political issue and consequently affects opinion about the issue Mass media taking on a greater role as a socialization agent Media effects The changes that are argued to happen when the content of network television news accounts for a large portion of the volatility and change in policy preferences of Americans when measured over relatively short periods of time media in uences Muckraking journalism devoted to exposing misconduct by government business and individual politicians Muckraking was used by Roosevelt as a derogatory term to describe reporters who focused on the carnal underbelly of politics rather than its more lofty pursuits Narrowcasting targeting media programming at specific populations within society Networks media giants that in uence regional and local media outlets that broadcast current news New York Times Co V Sullivan 1964 Supreme Court ruled that simply publishing a defamatory falsehood is not enough to justify a libel judgment A public official would have to prove actual malice a requirement extended to three years later to all public figures New York Times Co V US 1971 The Supreme Court ruled that the government could not prevent publication by the NYT of the Pentagon Papers classified documents about the Vietnam War that had been stolen photocopied and sent to the Times and the Wash Post by Daniel Ellsberg a government employee Only a free and unrestrained press can effectively expose deception of news by resort to the courts would wipe out the First Amendmen News media One component of the larger mass media that provides the public with new information about subjects of public interest and play a vital role in the political process Political ideology an individual s coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government Political socialization many of our attitudes about issues are grounded in our political values The way we learn values by family school peers and the mass media are often important in uences or agents of political socialization Press brie ng a relatively restricted live engagement with the press with the range of questions limited to one or two specific topics Press conference when an elected official appears in person to talk with the press at great length about an unrestricted range of topics Press release a written document offering an official comment or position on an issue or news event it is usually printed on paper and handed directly to reporters or increasingly by email or fax Public opinion It is what the public thinks about a particular issue or set of issues at a particular time Public opinion polls Interviews with samples of citizens that are used to estimate what the public is thinking Push polls Made up of push questions that produce information that helps campaigns judge their own strengths and weaknesses as well as those of their opponents When questions go over the line they are considered push polls which are telephone polls with an ulterior motive Random sampling Method of selection that gives each potential voter or adult the same chance of being selected In theory it sounds good but it is actually impossible to achieve because no one has lists of every person in any group The method of poll taking is very important in determining the validity and reliability of the results Sampling error margin of error The difference between the actual universe and the sample all polls contain errors Strati ed sampling When example national surveys and commercial polls use samples of 1000 to 1500 individuals and use a variation of the random sampling method With simple random nonstratified sampling the prediction of voting is not very useful because that method can under or oversample key populations that are not likely to vote Strati ed sampling is the most rigorous sampling technique based on census date that provides the number of residents in an area and their location Then a predetermined number of the respondents are picked to be interviewed The key to success here is not to let people volunteer to be interviewed because volunteers as a group often have different opinions from those who do not volunteer Straw polls Pioneered by the Literary Digest these polls were unscientific surveys used to gauge public opinion to predict the popular vote in those four presidential elections Tracking polls Polls taken on a daily basis by news organizations These polls allow candidates to monitor shortterm campaign developments and the effects of their campaign strategies Small samples over short periods of time Wire service eX Associated Press Reuters and United Press International UPI distribute news around the globe Yellow journalism sensationalized reporting that lowered journalistic standards to increase readership Chapter 12 527 political committees Bipartisan Campaign Reform ActCarnpaign consultant Campaign manager Closed primary Communications director Contrast ad Crossover voting Direct mailer Elector Electoral College Finance chair Free media Frontloading General election General election campaign Gerrymandering Get out the vote GOTV Incumbency Initiative Inoculation ad Internet team Matching funds Media consultant Midterm election Negative ad New media Nomination campaign Open primary Paid media Political action committee Pollster Positive ad Press secretary Primary election Prospective judgement Public funds Raiding Reapportionment Recall Redistricting Referendum Retrospective judgment Runoff primary Soft money Spot ad Turnout Voter canvass Chapter 13 Agenda a set of issues to be discussed or given attention Deregulation Discount rate Economic regulation focuses on such matters as control of entry into a business prices or rates businesses charge and service routes or areas Economic stability Entitlement program income security programs Federal Reserve Board Fiscal policy Governmental institutional agenda includes only problems to which legislators or other public officials feel obliged to devote active and serious attention In ation
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