MUSIC IN AMERICA [C2VPA]
MUSIC IN AMERICA [C2VPA] GMUS 203
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Popular in Music
This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dewayne Kunde on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GMUS 203 at James Madison University taught by Andrew Connell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 189 views. For similar materials see /class/214157/gmus-203-james-madison-university in Music at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
GMUS 203 Music in America Dr Andrew Connell Fall Semester 2007 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE INTRODUCTION ulture LearnedShared set of beliefs that de nes a group of people Enculturation learned culture by participation Acculturation two separate cultures affect each other Appropriation to make use of to make ones own a trait taken from another cu ture Intracultural exchange exchange within culture Intercultural exchange exchange with outside cultures Eurocentric judging a culture against European culture Organology study of musical instruments Aerophones wind saxophone Chordophones string guitar Membranophones vibrating membrane drum Idiophones object vibrates itself by hitting it rattle Electronophones electrical instruments Sound amp perception Frequency pitch Amplitude volume loud or so Spectrum timbrequality organized patterns of movements though time Meter musical time organized into groups of steady pulses Rubato no meter chant Melody a distinctive series of pitches forming a recognizablememorable musica unit Scale sequence ofnotes Ornamentation adding in little notes Syllabic one syllable per note mellismatic singing a lot of notes per syllable Harmony pitches sounded simultaneously Interval distance between 2 notes Chord 3 or more notes strummed simultaneously Texture how instruments are arrangedrelated Monophony 1 or more playing the same Heterophony 2 playing slightly moded versions of e same Polyphony 2 or more playing completely diff Form how is music put together Versechorus Blues AABA AMERICAN INDIAN NIUSIC Arrival of Indians in America European Contact Difficulties of studying Indian Music early euros tried to destroy Indian culture nothing was written down oral culture Role of music in native culture Link to ritual Ownership of songsno ownership people just came up with the songs and passed them around Vision quest individual joumey where songs came to you Spiritual poWervery important to Indians Efficacy had to be effective and carry out a task Musical characteristics Song Form descending melody Vocablesshort phrases Scalespentatonic Musical instruments rums rattles utes chordophones Regional differences Plains style male singers around central drum Southwest style doubleheaded drum PanIndian movements Trail of tears moved Indians from East to west mixed their cultures of diff tribes Ghost dance songs praying for white men to leave and ancestors to resurrec Peyote Cult Native American Church links to ghost dance and Christian theology POW wow plain style central drums intercultural Contemporary styles Ulali BALLADS amp FOLK NIUSIC Ballads narrative songs Ballad form Stanza 46 lines Strophic text music repeats text if diff Emotional core message main idea stays consistent Oral tradition not written down Ballad types Imported from Europe Naturalized imported but given native touch Native made in new society Broadside ballads common in revolution printed and distributed on paper no music set to common known tunes Colonial dance music Folk Song collecting amp research Francis James Child collects ballads and puts them into ballad book such as The English and Scottish Popular Ballads Child Ballads Influence of English Ballads in America Cecil Sharp collected ballad John Hardy andfolk music Olive Campbell compiled folk songs published Folk Songs ofthe Southern Appalachians Archive of American Folk Song Founded by gov t run by John and Alan Lomax who expand it Urban Folk song movement sought social advocacy Woody GuthriePete Seeger two major folk song musicians who both did renditions ofBarbra Allen 1960s Folk Revival Protest Song civil rights movement antiVietnam Bob Dylan created Folk Rock AN GLO SACRED NIUSIC starts from Protestant Reformation GMUS 203 Music in America Dr Andrew Connell Fall Semester 2007 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Plainsong monophonic simple tunes Psalm books collection ofplainsongs Bay Psalm Book important collection Psalm meter Common Long and short meters Lining out leader sings melody everyone follows Singing schools movement to reestablish the traits of Regular singing schools formed to teach people proper technique advanced music aesthetically William Billings famous composer and sing school leader composed New England PsalmSinger sold his psa ms Divergent themes of early religious music Praise plain song lining out Edification trained choirs aesthetics stressed Shape Notes easy to learn music notation Sacred Harp famous shape note book Ancient amp scientific music Traditional Europeans hated shape notes and wanted the scientific notation back Lowell Mason established music in public schools had a system where by students sung first and learned theory later Economics of music making Urban Gospel music simple accessible music Dwight Moody amp Ira Sankey leaders of urban gospel hymms AFRICAN AMERICAN ROOTS Slave trade African musical traits Percussion drums rattles bells Polyrhythms Interlocking parts many sounds Call and response lead singer chorus back and forth heterogeneous sound i ea vocal style emotional nasal sounds Dance important part always associated with the music music in daily life ubiquitous in African culture African retentions in Americas Cubarumba Brazilsamba Haiti Regional differences in slavery North fewer slaves isolated South lot s of slaves harsher African holiday festivals slaves allowed to sing on some holidays ex Christmas election pinkster Work Songs Field hollers Cries protoblues based on hymms Evangelism among African Americanswhites tried to convert them Controversy over conversion The Great Awakenings movement to evangelize slaves Spirituals once converted Christian spirituals came about among slaves Richard Allen clergy man founded African Methodist Episcopal Church wrote callresponse texts Wandering refrains Ring Shout call response singing in circles popular in the AMEC Georgia SeaIslands started ring shout isolated Continuity of sacred and secular worlds music links Cloaked meanings in spiritual texts LATIN AMERICAN INFLUENCES Cuba YorubaLucumiAfrican ethnicities Cabildos selfhelp organizations SanteriaAfrican religion w christianity Syncretic religion merging traditions Bata drums shekere Rumba Spanish songs using polyrhythm and column response an son popular 1500 s Cuban music adds Euro instruments Clave 32 23 typical form Ensemble instrumentation Tres bongo conga clave maracas Verser montuno form Cubop Latin jazz Mario Bauza Trumpetplayer Machito famous Latin jazz musician Dizzy GillespieChano Pozo wrote Manteca anthem of latin azz USCuba trade embargo 7 impact on music Salsa divided the two forms Celia Cruz Afrocuban American salsa singer Mexico Mestizo culture blend of Spanish Indian African Mexican son distinct from Cuban son Poetic forms Latino Copla De cima Sesquialtera organ stop style Son IarochoVera Cruz instruments involved Arpa harp Jarana Requinto famous song La Bamba MariachiSon jalisciense instruments violin Vihuela Guitarronconvex baseguitar Trajes de charro cowboy style Ranchera Mexican country music Corrido Mexican Ballad Tejano TexasMexican music Lydia Mendozavery famous Mexican American artist Won medal of arts Flaco JiIneneZ famous tejano musician won a grammy Latin Rock Rock en Espa ol New production centers IIiam iLA Latin Grammys MINSTRELSY amp POPULAR SONG Folk Culture low class music High Culture elite music Popular culture mix of low and elite class music 19 century audiences crude threw stuff Minstrelsy popular form of entertainment road show type of music and performance which made fun of blacks Thomas Daddy Rice Minstrelsy Inventor Blackface blacking up painted face to look black Ethiopian delineator GMUS 203 Music in America Dr Andrew Connell Fall Semester 2007 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Ethiopian melodies plantation songs Jim Crow suburban black character Zip Coon urban black character Dan Emmett started Virginia Minstrels very in uential Minstrel ensemble fiddle banjo tambourine bones Sources of minstrel material Minstrel show Olio play about idealized plantation life Walk around Finale group singing Cakewalk parody of African dance Black minstrel performers Master Juba William Henry Lane Georgia Minstrels all black minstrel show James Bland famous minstrel performer Carry me Back to Old Virginny Legacy of Minstrelsy spread derogatory racist beliefs Stephen Foster first American to make a living as a song Writer Wrote Parlor songs and Christy Minstrels Hutchinson Family Musical advocates for social causes MILITARY BANDS TIN PAN ALLEY VAUDEVILLE Revolutionary war bands Fife and Drum Wooden ute drums Function of military bands functioncommands morale raiser ceremonial mctions Civil War Regimental and company bands 193911 century bands Repertoire pop classical everything basically Patrick Gilmore great band leader spreads music National Peace Jubilee large concert sought to unite count John Philip Sousa famous bandsman US Marine Band The Gladiator Sousa Band World touring band The Washington Pan The Stars and Striper Forever March form Strain Trio Early recording industry Edison phonograph Gramophone mechanical Nickelodeons 1 juke box Shellac discs allows for mass production 203911 cen an s college marching bands very famous wind ensem African American Band traditions Francis J ohnson antebellum black band leader Sacred instrumental music Tin Pan Alley NY music publisher street Origins of name banging on tins Publishing houses Focus on popular music Roster of songwriters Wrote Whatever Was hot Song pluggers Charles K Harris 7 After the Ball new Way of marketing music Music marketing became a profession once A er the ball made so much money Vaudeville number of unrelated performing and musical acts put together in a Theater booking syndicates T OBA Vaudeville format POPULAR lVHJSIC Ragtim ecoon song offensive to blacks Ragged time to rag Scott Joplin Maple Leaf Rag famous rag composer Ragtime form solo piano Ragtime as popular music started being played by ensembles Reactions to ragtime racist Irving Berlin few Who Wrote music and lyrics for his songs very famous composer Stride piano Harlem Piano steady pulses With Wide strides Harlem renaissance negro art revival Rent parties hire musician then pass hat to pay rent In uential in jazz development James P J ohnsoncultivated stride piano Social dancing animal names for dances ernon amp Irene Castle invented fox trot dance James Reese Europe39 started clef club a dance orchestra Hellfighters Band WWI black regiment Who played Jazz Golden Age of Tin Pan Alley song standards song subjects verserefrain form rh changes New technology Radio recording microphones Crooning vocal style Bing Crosby did films music and everything else very succes Frank Sinatra famous jazz singer Ella Fitzgerald influentialjazz vocalist GMUS 203 Music in America Dr Andrew Connell Fall Semester 2007 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE LISTENING EXAMPLES ext CDs 1 7 91415 21 2 1 17 18 3 3 711121517 Sioux Love Song Indian ute short phrases plains Indians Ghost Dance Song similar to peyote religion music ghost dance Was a panIndian cultural phenom Sheep Sheep Don t You Know the Road offbeat clap steady pulse in foot tapping call and response singing Christian spiritual Quittin Time Song intense expression narrow vocal range corn eld holler Ma1 Hombre twelve string guitar cancion controlled emotion De Boatman s Dance use of dialect minstrelsy Dan Emmet clicking bones Get Off the Track clear message train metaphors tune from minstrel song protested slavery Amazing Grace lining out very slow pace song Maple Leaf Rag 7 contrasting strains accented notes ragtime rhythm Masters Of War protest song strained vocal quality folk rock Hard Times Come Again No More 7 verse chorus form minstrel hit poverty themes Chester strophic form lyrical melody revolution patriot song Lady Hopes Reel fife martial drumming low and high strains Brother can you spare a dime unusual depression lyrics Online files 7 Alexander s Ragtime Band Irving Berlin ragtime song that plays old songs in more exciting Ways first major it 7 Barbara Allen Pete Seegerstrophic form ballad meter Rosebriar motif good example of naturalized ballad 7 Cuba Quimbara Celia Cruz Afrocuban music 7 Cuba Siboney Sexteto Nacional 7 Hard Traveling Woody Guthrie famous folk poet Wrote about real things 7 Manteca Dizzy Gillespie amp Chano Pozo anthem of Latin Jazz 7 Mexico La Bamba Son Jarocho very famous son Jarocho 7 The Stars and Stripes Forever patriotic march march anthem ofUS 7 War Dance Song Close relationship between natives d War
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