Test 1 study guide
Test 1 study guide Psych 160
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ali Rivera on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 160 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Matthew Lee in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 123 views. For similar materials see Life Span Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Test 1 Study guide Periods of Development Prenatal period conception to birth Infancy birth to 1824 months Early childhood 2 5 years Middle to late childhood 611 years Adolescence 1012 years Early adulthood 20s 30s Middle adulthood 40s60s Late adulthood 60s70s to death Define age in lifespan Chronological age how old you are age Biological age biological capacity physically Psychological age psychological capacity maturity Social age relative role expectation expected at their age Characteristics Lifelong continuous process Multidirectional somethings will get better or worse Wrinkles bones personality Multidimensional the ABCs Affect emotional changes Behavioral how to change your behavior Cognitive how do the thoughts change Multidisciplinary look to other places for information Historicalcontextual impact you World War 1 2 911 Obama becoming president HistoricalContextual Changes 1 historygraded 911 can t bring more than 302 of fluids 2 agegraded period drivers license different for everyone 3 sociocultural cultural differences quinceanera 4 nonnormative life event unusual events that effect you as a person Key Debates in Lifespan Development 1 When to look Historical focus on children GStanley Hall all phases are worthy of study Paul Baltes 1987 2 Nature vs Nurture Genetics vs Your Environment Always goes both ways 3 Is change continuous or discontinuous Continuous gradual change New words height IQ Discontinuous changes by stages How you think and feel 4 Universal vs context specificity Universal all try or do the same thing Context how you do it is different beauty US gt lipstick Africa gt lip plate 5 Philosophical roots are we born good or bad Original Sin born with the urge to be bad Adam and Eve s sin is within us Tabula Rasa blank slate John Locke Innate Goodness born to share and be nice Rousseau Eastern Philosophy always good and bad times Confucianism Taoism Five theoretical approaches Psychodynamic behavior by inner forces generally unconscious Behavior observing behavior and outside stimuli in the environment Cognitive focuses on the processes that allow people to understand Humanistic natural capability to make decisions on their own Contextual relationship between individuals and their physical cognitive personality and social words STUFFDNT Psychodynamic theories of development Sigmund Freud s 1917 psychoanalytic psychosexual theory unconscious determines personality and behavior ID I want it now Superego Nice people don t do that Ego Compromise The ego uses defense mechanisms to reduce anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality projection rejection repression Five stages of psychosexual development 1 Oral Interest in oral gratification from sucking eating mouthing biting 2 Anal Gratification from spelling and withholding feces coming to terms with society s controls relating to toilet training 3 Phallic Interest in the genitals coming to terms with Oedipal conflict leading to identification with samesex parent 4 Latency sexual concerns largely unimportant 5 Genital Reemergence of sexual interests and establishment of mature sexual relationships Erik Erikson s psychosocial theory of development 1950 1968 Development continues into late adulthood Personality Behavioral theories The approach suggesting that they keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment Classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social Cognitive learning theory Classical Conditioning Atype of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring about the type of response controlling a persons environment can produce virtually any behavior Operant Conditioning A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences BF Skinner 1938 Punishment Reinforcement Behavior modification extinguishing behavior SocialCognitive theory or Learning Theory Learning by observing the behavior of another person Observational learning watching someone else Vicarious reinforcement wanting to feel pleasure for doing something well When we see the behavior of a model being rewarded we are likely to imitate that behavior Albert Bandura 1986 Learning in 4 steps 1 an observer must pay attention and perceive the most critical features of a model s behavior 2 the observer must successfully recall the behavior 3 the observer must reproduce the behavior accordingly 4 must be motivated to learn and carry out the behavior Cognitive Theories of Development Jean Piaget 1954 Constructivist active Fixed stage model Schema basic building block of information Assimilation taking new information and incorporate it into existing ideas Accommodation create a new or modify a new schema Lev Vygostsky Social Cognitive or Sociocultural theory 1962 Emphasized social development culture and language Development is continuous Cultural Scripts sequence of behaviors Information Neuroscience Information Processing Approaches models that seek to identify the ways individual take in use and store information Human brain is a hardware The environment provides software Cognitive Neuroscience Approaches that examine cognitive development through the lens of brain processes Consider internal mental processes but they focus specifically on the neuroscience activity that underline thinking problem solving and other cognitive behavior Provided clues to the signs of Autism the brains of children with the disorder shaw explosive dramatic growth in the first year of life making their heads significantly larger than those of children without the disorder Humanistic perspective The theory contending that people have a natural capacity to make decisions about their lives and control their behavior Each individual has the ability and motivation to reach more advanced levels of maturity and people natural seek to reach their full potential Emphasizes free will the ability to make choices and come to decisions about their lives instead of relying on societal standards Contextual perspective The theory that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical cognitive personality and social words Bioecological approach the perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence individuals 5 levels 1 Microsystem everyday immediate environment homes caregivers friends and teachers Level which most traditional work in child development had been directed 2 Mesosystem connects the various aspects of the microsystem Binds children to parents students to teachers employees to bosses friends to friends Direct and indirect influences that bind us to another 3 Exosystem broader influences Local government the community schools places of worship and the local media Each of these institutions can have an immediate and major impact on personal development and each affects how the microsystem and mesosystem operate 4 Macrosystem Larger cultural influences of an individual including society in general types of governments religion and political value systems and other broad encompassing factors 5 Chronosystem underlies each of the previous systems It involves the way the passage of time historical events and more gradual historical events changes affects children s development Research Methods Scientific Method the process of posing and answering questions using careful controlled technique that include systematic orderly observations and the collection of data Major Steps 1 identifying questions of interest 2 formulating an explanation 3 carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it Hypothesis a prediction stated in a way that permits it to be tested Operational definition quantification of a variable If you are texting the effects of texting during class on student test grades Independent Variable what is being tested or manipulated Dependent Variable the outcome Ethics in Research Treat participants with respect Protection from harm Informed consent Especially for vulnerable populations Any deception must be justifies Confidentiality and privacy Debriefing Avoiding ethnic gloss assuming everyone from an area behaves the same Sample the group of individuals studies random sampling Stratified sampling try to balance the sample Population welldefined group about which we will draw conclusions from the sample Experimental research designs Examine cause and effect Control group and experimental groups Correlational research research that seems to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists Experimental research research designed to discover relationships between various factors Research Methods Naturalistic observation go to the site and observe their behavior Case study indepth study of one person Phineas Gage 18th C Ethology become or live with the subject Analogue studies another organism and test affects Psychophysiological method using data to test their theory Survey research take surveys Triangulate take data from different sets Research design Longitudinal design research in which the behavior of one or more participation in a study is measured as they are measure change over time Seven Up Apted 1964 present The Termites Study Crosssectional design research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time measure differences at one time point between cohorts comparing freshman sophomore junior senior Sequential design research in which researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points in time measure age effects regardless of cohorts measure cohort effects over time Attrition when people drop out of your experiment Evolutionary psychology Darwin s natural selection 1859 evolution favors organisms of a species best adapted to survive and reproduce Extended childhood helps develop larger brains Result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors traits and behavior that are adaptive for promoting the survival of our species have been inherited through natural selection Behavioral genetics Genetics help explain how chromosomes get transmitted Genotype the genetic constitution of an individual organisms Phenotype observable characteristics as a result of genotypes Trillions of combinations Must involve some interaction with nutrients proteins and the environment Sex of the child chromosome pair 23 Contributed by the biological father XX girl XY boy Monozygotic twins identical genes and zygotes Dizygotic twins two ovum cells two sperm cells more common in couples using fertility drugs 10 Principle of dominance Punnet square Dominant trait the one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present Recessive trait a trait within an organism that is present but is not expressed Polygenic inheritance Genetic deviations and disorders Xlinked and Y linked diseases mutations Down syndrome chromosome 21 has extra 3 not 2 Prenatal testing Ultra sound sonography week 7 Chronic villus sampling week 1013 risk of miscarriage 1 Amniocentesis is weeks 1520 can pick up cells from prior pregnancy if had an abortionmiscarriage Behavioral genetics estimate the contributions of 3 main factors Genes Shared environment factors Nonshared environment factors Scarr s 19931998 naturenurture correlations Passive nothing changes Evocative parents are changing the environment Active nichepicking children seek out environments they find compatible Research Methods Experimental breeding isolating chromosomes parts of brain Identical and fraternal studies Adoption studies family studies Heritability of differences among a population on some attribute due to genetic factors The most heritable Physical eg height weight 6086 in identical twins Personality traits 50in identical twins IQ 4050 and up in identical twins in older age shared environments explained 0 psychological disorders concordance rate in identical twins 48 fraternal 17 Prenatal development Germinal 2 weeks Embryonic 6 weeks Fetal 30 weeks Germinal period After fertilization zygote gt blastocyst attaches to uterine wall cell differentiation begins organ that connects fetus to mother s nutrients is formed placenta Embryonic period Organogenesis Endoderm inner most layer Mesoderm middle layer circulatory system muscle bone reproductive organs Ectoderm outer layer brain and spinal cord Fetal stage Bodily growth Second trimester Myelination speeds up connection between nerves and muscle etc rapid brain development and Lateralization cel differentiation hormones differentiate sex Third trimester most active movement and coordinated responses Maternal drug use Thalidomide used for anxiety Birth control Fertility pills Nicotine speeds up fetal heart linked to ADHD MR and miscarriage Teratogens factor that can impact fetal heart maternal drug use alcohol maternal diet and nutrition maternalpaternal age and health Indirect teratogens stress lack of education bad environment Birth Stage 1 oxytocin is released induces contractions cervix stretches and opens contraction 810 minutes apart first pregnancy 12 24 hours Stage 2 head moves through cervix and birth canal pushing phase first time lasts 6090 minutes Episiotomy surgery that increase the room in the vagina Stage 3 Afterbirth Placenta umbilical cord membranes detached and expelled 3 minutes Medicated methods of birth Analgesics relieves pain Anesthetics produce numbness epidural Oxytocics help produce contractions Alternative methods of child birth lamaze breathingimagery The Bradley Method husbandcoached nonmedical birth Doula nonmedical or midwife medical caesarean delivery c section Hypnobirth Water birth Massage acupuncture music therapy especially in East Asian mothers Neonatal environment Appearance should look pinkish not blue Pulse active heart beat Grimace should flinch or wince Activity crying legs kicking Respiration breathing Transition from fetus to newborn baby is covered in vernix cases umbilical cord is cut stress APGAR test Other complications Us infancy mortality 0007 Preterm 12 and LBW 7 1 cause of infant mortality linked to stress tobacco other drugs Age of viability youngest age the infant survive out of the womb 22 weeks Chapter 3 outline Physical Growth and Change Physical growth Infancy Infancy is birth to the second birthday 20 Cm long weighs 7 75lb age 1 22lb and 30in Girls are generally shorter and weight less Asian babies tend to be slightly smaller while African American babies are slightly bigger then North American Caucasian babies Circadian rhythm when you wake up and go to sleep State degree of awareness an infant displays to both internal and external stimulation each change in state brings about an alternation i the amount of stimulation required to get the infant s attention Early childhood Girls and boys have similar weight height Growth hormone deficiency pituitary gland defect Middle late childhood slow consistent growth 2 3 in taller 8 7lb per year Adolescence Girls begin 1012 years old height spurt age 12 35in or 9cm per year0 Boys begin age 1214 years old height spurt age 13 41 in or 104cm per year Primary and secondary sex chromosomes Heredity ethnicity hormones weight Body image 67 grade and girls are the same two phases Adrenarche hormonal changes in adrenal glands Gonadarch development of reproductive organs Menarche menstrual cycle at 12 Spermarche or Semenarche ejaculation at 13 Early adulthood Peak muscle tone and strength joint functioning Peak disguises bodily harms New aches and sagging Senescence primary aging Middle adulthood Muscle height and weight loss Increase in chronic disease Osteoporosis affect 9 loss of calcium and bone mass Osteoarthritis joint aches due stop loss of cartilage Hypertension high blood pressure 2 out of 3 people have this Stroke 3rd or 4th leading cause of death loss of blood flow to the brain Prevention exercise Body Growth The Brain and the Neuron Endocrine System regulate metabolism tissue function Musculature System of muscles in a body Respiratory System allows a person to breathe Nervous System nerve cells and fibers transmit nerve impulses The CNS brain and spinal cord Dendrites detect Axon away Myelin Synapse Billions of Neurons Great plasticity responsiveness to experience Blooming and pruning if not in use or needed it s cutoff languages Increased myelination Increased laterization localization of function or activity on one side of the body in preference to the other Corpus callosum helps communicate between right and left brain Expenence Left brained analytic thought math organized and systematic Right brained holistic thought intuition creativity move randomly from one task to the other Most rapid growth in frontal cortex age 36 Verbal and spatial ability up age 612 Sex differences and links to autism nature and nurture Adolescent prefrontal cortex planning ahead and understanding the consequences Amygdala processing significant emotions like fear and guilt These parts of the brain aren t developed fully in 18 years olds Motor development Infant and childhood motor development Reflexes Stepping reflex holding a baby over the ground and will start kicking Sucking reflex when hungry they will start to suck on the air Grasping reflex when born their reaction to something in their palm is to grab it Gross Motor Skills larger coordinated motor skills kicking jumping punching Fine Motor Skills smaller coordinated motor skills holding a pen typing Dynamic Systems Theory Esther Thelen Skills emerge through interacting with the environment motivation and reinforcement individual physical development Saddlebags study tied different weights of saddlebags to infants and put them in different environment They knew how to adjust for the different weight Potty training just 25 trained at 18 months 60 at 3 years no one rule Handedness preference emerges by age 5 prediction from sleep side in infancy to what hand you write with Art scribbling gt shape gt design gt pictorial Biological and Physical Development Sensation and Perception Sensation stimulation of sensory receptions Perception interpretation of what is sensed giving meaning to sensations Constructivist approach actively engaging trying to interpret environment Nativist approach born with sensory precipitous to help take in info Vision Infancy Newborn vision is 20600 by 6 was 2020 Color discrimination by month 12 Size and shape Size constancy size a constant Shape constancy same shape regardless of how nearfar 4 months Depth perception visual cliff Face preference new colors Childhood Signs of vision problems Blindness visual activity being 20200 after connection Symptoms of colorblindness emerge sexlinked condition 8 of men less than 1 of women vision screening in grade school Adolescence Figureground processing person examine stimulus field examine most impresses important stimulus Adulthood sensory thresholds increase vision activity weakens dark adaptation takes longer Puebyopia loss of near vision Glaucoma fluids build up in back of eye narrow vision field Cataracts cloudiness near outer layer of eye Agerelated macular degeneration most common cause of blindness 60lt retina weakness over time Hearing Infancy Newborns require closer louder sounds Sound Localization where source of the sound is Otitis media disorder caused by infection of middle ear up to 13 of US infants Childhood Hearing loss 12 of US schoolage population Adolescence Tinnitus long lasting ringing sensation after exposure to loud sound Adulthood Puesbyeusis inability to detect higher pitched stimuli Difficulty in sound localization Men vs Women 50 age 75 having hearing loss many don t know Smell and Taste prenatally can babies taste yes Fetal face study lnfant Discriminating mother s breast pad Pleasant vs Unpleasant tastes innate sweet tooth Late adulthood Significantly reduced sensitivity lntermodel perception or multimodel perception developmental advantages Affordances stimulus provides to learn
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