BUSINESS WRITING ENGL 304
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Mr. Cicero Stanton
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mr. Cicero Stanton on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENGL 304 at Clemson University taught by Ashley Cowden in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 65 views. For similar materials see /class/214208/engl-304-clemson-university in Foreign Language at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
English 304 Exam 1 Review 5 Components of Communication Communication is the Sending amp Receiving of messages These messages can come in the form of writing the spoken word or body language Stimulus gt Event that creates a need to communicate 0 Internal 7 Inside your head 0 External 7 Get through a sensory organ Filter gt The way you view the world 7 In uences 0 Individual Experiences I Personality I Education I Values 7 raising culture etc I Your parents etc Message gt The information you want to communicate Medium gt 3 Types 0 Written Message 0 Oral Message I Talking amp Writing 0 NonVerbal Message Destination gt Audience Barriers to Communication Verbal Barriers happen when your message is not Received as you Intended gt Inadeguate knowledge or vocabula 0 Know what you re talking about 7 proper terminology 0 Analyzing your audience I ex meaning of sh0tgun I Being able to communicate clearly and as simply as possible gt Differences in Integpretation o Connotation Emotional meaning of a word 7 what is perceived o Denotation Literal meaning of the word gt Inappropriate use of Expression 0 Slang an expression that identifies a specific group ofpeople Jargon terminology used within specialized groups of people Euphemism words or expressions that try to make something sound better than it really is ino ensive expressions used to in place of words or ideas that may offend or suggest something unpleasant gt Overabstraction and Ambiguity 0 Abstract Word a word that identifies an idea or a feeling I Used to communicate about things that you cannot see or touch 00 I Sometimes have broad or vague meanings 0 Concrete Word a word that identi es something that can be seen or touched gt Polarization 0 When a situation is divided into two opposite and distinct poles with no allowance for a middle ground complete opposites Verbal Communication gt Verbal messages are composed of words 7 either written or spoken Oral Communication gt Oral communication is achieved through spoken words gt In order to be effective listening is also required Written Communication gt More difficult than speaking because you have to get your message correct the first time gt Permanent 7 better constructed and planned 0 There is no feedback and no support facial expressions tone gestures etc Oral communication differs from written communication because it allows more ways to get a message across to others You can clear up any questions immediately use nonverbal clues provide additional information and use pauses emphasis and voice tone to stress certain points Listening Listening involves more than just hearing Hearing is perceiving sound Hearing passive while Listening active understanding and comprehending gt The Problem of Poor Listening Skills 0 We use listening the most out of all comm skills 7 40 of the day 0 Avg person only retains about 50 of information from a 10min presentation 7 25 after 48 hours Stay openminded amp involved in the communication better ways of listening Give the speaker your undivided attention Get rid of physical and mental distractions Pay more attention to what is said rather than how it is said Do not interrupt 7 creates barriers Stay involved 7 esp mentally VVVVVV Nonverbal Communication Any message that is not written or verbal Body movement gt Most expressive part ofthe body is your face 7 esp your eyes I Eye contact amp movement I some cultures dz quoter in the importance they attach to eye contact gt Gestures I Hand movements I Upperbody movements I Used to help illustrate and reinforce you verbal message gt Body Stance I Posture placement of arms and legs distribution of weight Physical Appearance gt Attractive taken for more intelligent more likeable and more persuasive than unattractive gt Useful for first impressions I knowing the importance that society places on physical appearance enables each of us to emphasize our strong points Voice Qualities gt Volume speed pitch tone and accent carry both intentional and unintentional messages I Ex Fast and higher pitch nervous impression your tone of voice can emphasize or subordinate the verbal message 7 or even contradict it V Time V Time is related not only to cultural background but also to one s status within the organization I Early vs late 7 superior vs subordinate Situationspecific I Role that one carries V Touch gt First sense we develop gt Physical 7 with purpose vs intimate w emotion Space and Territov gt Intimate Zones I From physical contact to about 18 inches where all your body movements occur you move in this area throughout the day I Very intimate and close interactions I Very infrequent and quick forduring business gt Personal Zones I Extending from 18inches to approx 4 feet I Normal talking is frequent I Some but not all of the business interaction often occur here 0 Conversation with close friends and colleagues gt Social Zone I 4 feet 7 12 feet I Where most business exchange occurs 0 Informal business conferences and staff meetings gt Public Zone I 12 feet 39 as far as they eye can seeas far as one can hear I The most formal zone I Least significant interactions occur here I Information tends to ow oneway 0 Speaker to large audiences Business Meetings Keep members informed provide a forum for soliciting input solving problems making decisions and promote unity and cohesiveness among the members through social interaction Planning the Meeting I Identify your purpose I Determine whether the meeting is necessary I Prepare an agenda I Decide who should attend Determining the logistics I Rectangular 7 formal meetings chairperson at the head I Satellite 7 training sessions allows chairperson to move around share ideas I Circular 7 informal encourages sharing of ideas I UShaped 7 large meetings helps everyone see each other I Classroom 7 information is oneway teach Conducting the Meeting I Begin with a statement of your purpose and an overview of the agenda I Keep track of timing I Use problemsolving strategies I Summarize Following Up the Meeting I Minutes are an official record of the proceedings ofa meeting 0 Identify the type of meeting the date time and place the presiding officer the names of those present 0 Use a separate paragraph for each topic State the time of adjournment and if applicable the time set for the next meeting 0 Action items Using Voicemail gt Plan what you are going to say gt Indicate the purpose of your call the action desired and always leave your name and number gt Never use voicemail as a substitute for answering your phone gt Record your own outgoing message keep it short gt Check for messages daily and return calls promptly Telephone Etig uette gt Hello is not an appropriate greeting for work gt No eating or drinking while on the phone gt Inform the person that they are on speakerphone 7 tell them ask permission inform who is in the room Telephone Voice gt Control your voice to project a friendly image gt Smile as you speak Telephone Technigue gt Answer by the second or third ring gt Give the identifying greeting clearly and slowly gt Be a good listener 7 do not multitask 7 give them your attention gt Ask permission to put the caller on hold Audience Analysis An audience identifies the interests needs and personality of your receiver so you can maximize the effectiveness of your message 4 questions you need to answer before every communication 1 Who is the primary audience a The persons group whose cooperation is critical if your message is going to achieve its objective Who is the secondary audience b Those who are also affected by the message 7 those who will also readhear the message gt Identify the audience s important characteristics 0 O O O 0 Consider Demographics age gender race education level etc Group Affiliations 7 looking at values beliefs and emotions Professional Specialties 7 what areas they focus on Organizational Roles 7 what they do Cultural Background Grammar 7 poor grammar stands out gt What you say about people and their departments 7 remain professional gt The tone in which you deliver your message gt Learn who the readers will be 0 Phantom readers 7 secondary audiences and those behind the scenes 0 0 Future readers 7 people who will later readhear your message 7 lawyers auditors etc Complex audiences 7 have special needs 2 What does the Audience alreadv know Determine how much information to provide Do you need to provide de nitions to terms Do you need to provide background information How familiar they are with the topic How knowledgeable youthey are of the subject gt Establish credibility rap96x 3 What is your relationship with the audience a Establish credibility through tone and supporting evidence gt Communication to superiors don t overwrite document gt Communication to subordinates don t underwrite or talk down 4 How will the audience react a Positive use a direct approach 7 beginning with the most important information amp then supplying needed details and support b Negative use indirect approach 7 sell yourself and your message before delivering it build up to the messagenews c Neutral indirect approach 7 use the first few lines of the message to get the attention of the audience use attention grabbers General Audience Guidelines You want to know what they will gain by taking the action a What are the benefits and affects 2 Are they going to be defensive and sensitive to your tone a Be cautious with tone The audience is not perfect and neither are you a Identify your mistakes Be honest Does the audience need specific information Most audiences are reasonable They do not like to be talked down to Ask yourself how would I react to this message a How to constructspin your message E 908994 Purposes of writing a message gt Start with a general purpose and then refine it into a specific objective 0 EX General Purpose to describe the benefits of a frequentstay plan at a resort 0 EX Specific Purpose to persuade Cynthia to approve the development and implementation of a frequentstay plan for a 12month test period in the resort s three different locations gt Ask yourself 0 Do you want the reader to agree with you 0 Is it your purpose to just inform the reader Memo vs Letter Formatting differences gt Letters The purpose of letters are to explain something enclosed inquire about a product service or organization request technical info complain about or praise and issue 0 Lines begin at the left margin n0 indentions o Salutation using colon o Complementary closing gt Match the tone of the letter 0 Subject Line rarely used used when the reader does not know the message is on its way 7 below salutation o Typists Identi cation 0 Enclosure attachments 0 Copy Notation CC 7 carbon copy 7 who else received the message 0 Styles gt Modi ed block 7 date and typist ID is centered gt Block 7 lined up on left side Memos The purpose of memos are to transmit information to a group make a short evaluationrecommendation distribute minutes from a meeting provide followup discussions 0 Use side and bottom margins of l to l 12 inches and atop margin of 2 inches 7 for company header 0 Using plain paper or letterhead stationary set a tab 10 spaces from the left margin to align the variable heading information 7 for quick read of the header Standard parts of heading include To From Date Subject Omit the salutation and closing lines but use special notations reference initials enclosure notation and copy notation o Singlespace the lines ofthe body ofthe memo o Doublespace between paragraphs 0 Long memos contain reporttype headings as an aid to the reader V 00 Revising the Writing gt Style 0 words that the writer uses and the way those words are used gt Write Clearly 0 Use familiar words and avoid using jargon 0 Keep it simple and concise KISS 7 keep it simple stupid 0 Do not leave it openendedopen for unintended interpretation gt Be Accurate do not be misleading o Helps maintain credibility o Depends on what you say but also what you do not say gt Be Complete 0 5 W s 7 who what where when why gt Use familiar words or plain English 0 Use words that both you and the audience can understand 0 Don t use overly elaborate language gt Avoid dangling expressions 0 Part of a sentence that does not logically t in with the rest of the sentencecontext of the material 0 To correct dangling expressions I Make the subject of the sentence the doer of the action expressed in the introductory clause I Move the expression closer to the word it modi es I Make sure the speci c word to which a pronoun refers to is clear I Rewrite the sentence for coherence Avoid Cliches Slang and Buzz words gt Cliches 7 an expression that has become monotonous through overuse 7 not original gt Slang 7 is an expression that is identi ed with a speci c group of people 7 too informal Writing Concisely use the fewest words possible gt Redundancy 7 words or phrases that unnecessarily repeat an idea they serve no purpose gt Repetition 7 using the same word or phrase more than once in order to emphasize or strengthen a point gt Avoid wordy expressions Active and Passive Voices gt Active Voice 7 the subject performs the action expressed by the verb gt Passive Voice 7 the subject receives the action 7 uses to be verbs Exceptions for passive voice l to emphasize the receiver of an action 7 change the subjecttarget 2 the personthing doing the action is unknown or not important 3 the writer wants to be tactful Use a courteous and sincere tone gt builds goodwill for you and the organization Platitudes 7 Trite and obvious statements overthetop Avoid exaggeration obvious attery and expressions of surprise or disbelief Parallel amp Unparallel Structure gt Maintaining the same tenses easier vs easiest Nondiscriminatorx Language gt No language based on factors such as race ethnicity religion age sexual orientation and disability 7 avoid biased language Stressing gt Stress the you attitude gt Bene ts to the reader 0 Emphasize how the reader or listener will bene t from doing as you ask 0 Show how someone other than you bene ts for your request or decision whenever possible gt Exceptions o Conveying negative information 0 Avoid secondperson pronouns don t use you 0 Use passive sentences or other subordinating techniques that stress the receiver of the action rather than the doer Proposals gt Purpose 0 Persuade amp Protect 0 Don t exaggerate what you can do 0 Legal protection gt Audience 0 What is the problem 0 What is the solution 0 How much is it going to cost 0 Are you capable gt Proposal Structure 0 Introduction gt Explain what you want to do gt Discuss what you will be writing about gt Announce what you are proposing gt Be brief gt May need to provide background information 0 Problem Persuade that the problem need or goal is important Least research Sometimes you have to clarify vague problem You de ne the problem Thing about how you can make your proposed project important to your readers 7 why should they care 0 Ef ciency and pro t 0 Speak to your audience group VVVVV 0 Objectives gt Link your proposed action to the problem by telling how the action will solve the problem gt Separate from the solution to evaluate the aims from the strategy of achieving those aims 0 Solution gt Persuade that proposed action will solvehelp or aid the problem gt Describe your plan of action gt Persuade reader 0 Solution will address each objectives 0 Solution is the desirable way to achieve the objectives gt Dont promise more than you can deliver gt Be very speci c and precise 0 Methods Schedule Quali cations gt Persuade you can plan and manage the solution gt Resources 0 Facilities equipment and anything else you may need to complete your project gt Schedule 0 Use a schedule chart 0 Include dates gt Quali cations 0 Present the quali cations of all parties working on your project gt Management 0 What is the management structure of your group 7 group roles and responsibility 0 Costs gt Persuade the cost is reasonable gt Include a budget statement how much will your proposed project 0 Appendix gt Code of Conduct gt Works Citied gt Surveys
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