BIO 141 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE
BIO 141 EXAM 3 STUDY GUIDE Bio 141
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devon Stobbe on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 141 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Jenelle Malcos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 100 views. For similar materials see Biology and Physiology in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
BIO 141 EXAM 3 RESPIRATORY SYSTEM Conducting division – responsible for transporting gas between the outside of the body and deep inside the lungs Nose/Nasal cavity o Warms and humidifies air with surrounding capillaries o Cleans air by trapping particles in mucus o Contains chemoreceptors (sense of smell) Pharynx o Back of mouth/upper portion of throat o Warms, humidifies, and cleans air Larynx o Thick cartilage at upper front portion of throat; also contains vocal cords o Keeps food/drink out of lungs Trachea o Hollow tube from bottom of larynx to lungs o Cleans the air with cilia that move debris in mucus up away from the lungs to be swallowed Bronchial Tree o Primary bronchus Secondary bronchus Tertiary bronchus Bronchioles Terminal bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles o Hollow tubes that transport air to and from specific regions of lungs Respiratory division – allows gases to diffuse between the air you inhale and the blood (gas exchange) Alveoli o Bundles of one-cell thick hollow sacs surrounded by capillaries where gas exchange occurs o Respiratory membrane: where cells of alveolus meet cells of capillary wall; where gas exchange occurs Surfactant – chemical secreted by cells of alveoli that decreases water molecule attraction (H bonds); prevents collapsing Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome: deficiency of surfactant in infants that makes it hard for them to breathe TREATMENT administering surfactant and hormones that stimulate production Pressure – amount of force something pushes against something else Atmospheric Intrapulmonary 1. When atmospheric pressure is equal to intrapulmonary pressure = NO AIRFLOW 2. When atmospheric pressure is higher = INHALE 3. When atmospheric pressure is lower = EXHALE Volume – amount of space inside of a container BOYLE’S LAW = as the volume of a gas increases, the pressure decreases Diaphragm - a bell shaped muscle forming the floor of your thoracic cavity that controls respiration Contraction (inhalation) = bulges downward and outward; volume increases and pressure in chest drops Relaxation (exhalation) = pushes upwards; volume in chest decreases and pressure increases * During forceful breathing, abdominal and pectoral muscles assist diaphragm In between the visceral and parietal pleura is the: Pleural cavity: contains pleural fluid that causes V & P to stick together; lungs stick to chest wall Respiratory control center – the circuit of neurons in the base of the brain that control the rate and depth of breathing Medulla oblongata/pons Motor neurons innervate diaphragm to contract OTHER NEURONS o Emotion neurons in brain (breathing heavy when excited) o Proprioceptors in joints (when exercising breathing increases) o Chemoreceptors in arteries (senses O2, CO2, and H blood levels) CARBONIC ACID CHAIN When we are at rest, concentrations of molecules are fairly stable If there is more of one chemical, the chain will run one direction and decrease the chemical that is plentiful Exercising CO2 increases reaction runs to the right increase H ions/bicarbonate Hypercapnia: too much CO2 in the blood Acidosis: too much H ions in blood (pH decreases) AFTER THIS: respiratory control center responds by increasing breathing and chain will run to the left Breathe too rapidly CO2 decreases reaction runs to left increase CO2 Hypocapnia: not enough CO2 in the blood Alkalosis: not enough H ions in blood (pH increases) AFTER THIS: respiratory control center will decrease breathing rates and chain will run to the right Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): fluid that bathes the brain; senses H/CO2 concentrations from blood and causes chemoreceptors to act CO2 LEVELS INCREASE Excess CO2 diffuses into CSF H ions also increase in CSF (because chain runs to the right) Central chemoreceptors generate more AP’s to respiratory control center Increases breathing rates through motor stimulation of diaphragm Lowers CO2 levels in blood CO2 LEVELS DECREASE CSF senses too little CO2 H ions also decrease (chain runs to the left) Central chemoreceptors generate fewer AP’s to RCC Decreases rates of diaphragm stimulation Increases CO2 levels in blood Partial pressure – just how much of total air pressure is due to any one gas (O2, CO2) - Oxygenated blood vs. deoxygenated blood - Gases diffuse down their concentration gradient o DIFFUSION = the driving force that causes O2 to enter alveoli and CO2 to leave the blood IMMUNE SYSTEM Lymphatic System – critical for both circulatory and immune system 1. Fluid recovery 2. Site of immune cells Vessels o Extend to all tissues Organs/tissues that produce and maintain immune cells o Tonsils, thymus, spleen, bone marrow, lymph nodes Humans = 4 to 6 liters of blood Capillaries are “leaky” 2 to 4 liters of water diffuse into tissues daily (interstitial fluid) 10-15% of fluid is taken up by lymphatic system at site of gas exchange o Now called lymph Lymphatic capillaries lymphatic vessels subclavian vena cava right atrium Lymph Nodes: filters lymph 1. Provides site for leukocytes to ambush pathogens 2. Triggers other parts of immune system (spleen, thymus, tonsils) Elephantiasis – parasite infects lymph vessels and prevents interstitial fluid reabsorption Edema in limbs and skins stretches and thickens Nonspecific Immunity WHITE BLOOD CELLS External barriers (leukocytes) - Produced in red bone marrow Phagocytic cells - Retain organelles Immunological surveillance - Cells of immunity based on stem cell source Complement system in marrow: o Neutrophils, basophils, eosinophils 1. EXTERNAL BARRIERS (non-specific) Physical – deny access and o Monocytes macrophages (non- approach of pathogens specific) o Lymphocytes B and T cells (specific), o Skin, mucus NKC (non-specific) membranes Chemical – tears/kills bacteria o Acid mantle o Enzymes 2. PHAGOCYTIC CELLS Neutrophils Monocytes/macrophages 3. IMMUNOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE Recognizes any abnormal antigens and produces perforin protein that perforates pathogenic cells till they burst 4. COMPLEMENT SYSTEM Complement proteins insert themselves into membrane of pathogen and create pore, cell cannot regulate what goes in and comes out so it swells and lyses - “Compliments” specific resistance activates when antibodies are bound to antigens 5. INFLAMMATION Caused by chemicals released from damaged cells WBC are attracted to affected area and release their own chemicals Hypermia: increased blood flow (vasodilation) to cause heat in tissue and redness Bradykinin: receptors that send pain signals Increase in metabolic to brain ability to Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF): multiply/heal cells stimulates cells to go though mitosis Some chemicals cause capillaries to become leaky, so WBC/RBC are able to pass through to damaged tissue (swelling) o More fluid drains to lymphatic system TOO MUCH INFLAMMATION = cuts off arteries too no blood flow “Pus” = mixture of tissue fluid, cell debris, dead/dying WBCs, and pathogens 6. FEVER Caused by pyrogens released by macrophages in response to infection Hypothalamus is “resetting” body’s thermostat TOO MUCH FEVER = causes proteins to unwind - Promotes interferon activity - Elevates metabolic rate and tissue repair - Inhibits production of bacteria/viruses Specific Immunity Cell-mediated immunity Antibody-mediated immunity Antigen Presenting Cells (APC) Major Histocompatibility complex o Class II: engulfs antigen, combines with lysosome and is engulfed by enzymes o Keeps a little bit (antigen) to hold on surface of MHCII for Helper T Cells to recognize it Two-Signal Model 1. Naïve Helper T Cells bind to APC antigen on class II MHC o Activates HT Cells 2. Co-stimulation through cytokines Cytokines help stimulate Cyotoxic T cells and B cells Cytotoxic T Cells: directly attack infected cells that display the same MHCI protein (perforin/lymphotoxin) B Cells: produce antibodies that stick to the pathogens Antibodies – help neutralize or destroy a pathogen e
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