BIO 141 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
BIO 141 FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE Bio 141
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devon Stobbe on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 141 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Jenelle Malcos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 137 views. For similar materials see Biology and Physiology in Biology at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM (6) FUNCTIONS 1.) Ingestion: bringing food into the body 2.) Digestion: breaking food into smaller parts Mechanical tears/grinds food into smaller pieces Chemical breaks chemical bonds of molecules that form food 3.) Absorption: transporting food molecules across a cell membrane into the body 4.) Defecation: eliminating unabsorbed food molecules out of the digestive system Mouth lips, teeth, tongue, salivary glands, and associated muscles and nerves Mechanical digestion (teeth tear bits of food) Chemical digestion (salivary glands secrete salivary amylase in response to sight, sound, smell, or taste of food) Saliva: composed of water, mucus, and digestive enzymes Helps form bolus and lubricate the passage of food Lingual lipase digests lipids; but is activated once HCl is present SWALLOW REFLEX PUSHES FOOD INTO THE Esophagus strong tube that is encircled by layers of muscle/nerves that contract to move food from mouth to stomach PERISTALTIC CONTRACTIONS MOVE FOOD THROUGH THE CARDIAC SPHINCTER INTO THE Stomach sac that stores food and further digests Mechanical digestion (peristalsis of the stomach) Gastrin: hormone that is released into bloodstream when you smell, see, hear, or think of food; stimulates cells in stomach lining to release secretions Chemical digestion (gastric secretions break down bonds to form chyme) o Mucus – protects cells of stomach lining o HCl – denatures proteins; converts pepsinogen to pepsin which further breaks down proteins o Pepsinogen (inactive form) pepsin by changing its shape THE PYLORIC SPHINCTER REGULATES THE AMOUNT OF CHYME PASSED THROUGH TO THE Small Intestines approx. 21foot long, twisting tube that absorbs food and has muscles capable of peristaltic contractions Duodenum (1), Jejunum (9), Ileum (12) As acidic chime fills the duodenum, it secretes hormones… o Gastrin inhibitory peptide (GIP), which signals the stomach to stop releasing gastrin – therefore, other secretions too o Cholecystokinin (CKK), which stimulates the liver to release bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct, into the duodenum to digest fats Also stimulates pancreas to secrete pancreatic juice that breaks down fats, carbohydrates, proteins, and DNA/RNA to be absorbed o Secretin, which stimulates cells in pancreas to release bicarbonate into duodenum, which neutralizes acids 1. Food is mixed with bile, digestive enzymes, and bicarbonate 2. Water and the smallest molecules are absorbed through the lining of intestines into bloodstream 3. Almost all nutrients and most of the water is absorbed by the end of the ileum Villi: tiny fingerlike projections that increase surface area MOVES REMAINING MATERIAL INTO THE Large Intestines last portion of tube where some water is absorbed and bacteria produces gas and vitamins B & K Leads to the anal sphincter, which regulates the movement of feces out of body CELLULAR RESPIRATION (8) CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM: C H O + 6 O 6 C6 1266H O + e2ergy 2 2 Energy released (ADP + P ATi Used for: muscle contraction, ciliary beating, active transport, synthesis reactions Respiration – the cumulative function of glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and electron transport chain (about 38 total ATP molecules generated per 1 glucose molecule) 1.) GLYCOLYSIS = 1 glucose 2 molecules of pyruvic acid Cytoplasm Generates (net) 2 ATP Receives metabolic byproducts from carbs, proteins, fats 1. Two ATP are hydrolyzed and some oxygen/hydrogen rearrange 2. Phosphates from ATP’s attach to ends of carbon chain and makes bonds weaker 3. 6carbon chain splits into two 3carbon chains (with phosphate) 4. Second phosphate is added to each chain 5. A high energy electron is carried off each chain by NAD+ and shuttled off (NADH) to other parts of cell and used for energy 6. One phosphate molecule is taken off each chain and used to synthesize 1 ATP 7. END: 2 pyruvic acid, 2 (NET) ATP, 2 NADH If oxygen is NOT present… ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION 1. NADH hands off electrons to convert pyruvic acid to lactic acid 2. NAD+ is recycled this way, and can still generate ATP If oxygen is plentiful… 2.) CITRIC ACID CYCLE Matrix of mitochondria Generates 2 more ATP Receives metabolic byproducts from proteins *** For EACH acetyl CoA that enters cycle 1. 1 C is lost as C2 , and 1 NADH is produced 2. Converted to acetyl CoA and enters chain Receives metabolic byproducts from glycolysis, proteins, fats 3. Combines with 4carbon oxaloacetic acid to form 6carbon citric acid 4. END: 3 CO , 2 ATP, 4 NADH, 1 FADH (oxal2acetic acid is recycled) 10 NADH and 2 FADH are sent to the… 2 3.) ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Occurs on inner membrane of mitochondria by chains of enzymes Generates ~ 34 ATP 1. NADH hands off a high energy e to enzyme complex 1 2. Energy from e is used to drive proton gradient that moves H+ out of mitochondria 3. Enzyme complex 1 passes high energy e to coenzyme complex Q (FADH hands off here) 4. Coenzyme complex Q shuttles e to enzyme complex 2 5. Enzyme complex 2 shuttles e to cytochrome C 6. Cytochrome C shuttles e to enzyme complex 3 7. Now low energy e combine back with hydrogen water 8. H+ gradient provides energy for enzyme ATP synthase to convert ADP + P ATP (oxidative phosphorylation) Each NADH yields enough H+ to make 3 ATP (10 Glycolysis +2 ATP NADH x 3 = 30 ATP) Citric Acid Cycle +2 ATP Each FADH yields enough H+ to make 2 ATP (2 FADH Electron Transport +30 ATP x 2 = 4 ATP) FADH +4 ATP o 34 ATP Not always 100% efficient; Takes energy to move from cytoplasm to mitochondria (36 to 38) Glycolysis is stimulated by high concentrations of ADP Glycolysis is inhibited by high concentrations of ATP and citrate Many enzymes are subject to feedback inhibition RENAL PHYSIOLOGY (8) FUNCTIONS 1.) Excrete and remove nitrogen wastes 2.) Elimination and discharge of wastes 3.) Regulation of blood volume and solute concentration o Water balance o Salt balance o pH balance ANATOMY 2 kidneys: perform excretory functions and produce urine Urinary tract: performs elimination o Ureters, bladder, urethra BLOOD FILTRATE TUBULAR FLUID URINE Kidney Filters blood 25 % of total cardiac output blood goes to cortex, then is filtered in glomerulus Separates wastes and nutrients renal tubule reabsorbs nutrients and adjusts water content/pH delivers wastes through medulla as urine urine is collected centrally to the pelvis and sent to ureters Renal Corpuscle 1. Glomerulus (surrounded by glomerular capsule) specialized knot of FENESTRATED capillaries Fluid and solute forced out of capillaries Blood enters via afferent arteriole Filtrate exits via PCT Remaining blood exits efferent arteriole Nephron (what leaves here is now urine) Functional unit of the kidney; a tubelike structure Both have Adjusts filtrate composition peritubular capillaries that have Reabsorbs useful things normal capillary o Water, nutrients, ions Secretes not useful things not already in filtrate function and accept reabsorbed 1. Cortical components 2. Juxtamedullary Has vasa recta capillaries that are specialized to concentrate filtrate and transport back to circulation Amount of filtrate produced: 125 ml/min 180 L/day Parts = Glomerular capsule, Proximal convoluted tubule, Loop of Henle, Distal convoluted tubule (to collecting duct) PCT: 60% of filtrate is reabsorbed by ion gradients and protein transporters NA+, K+, bicarbonate Water (~108L) Glucose, amino acids LOOP OF HENLE: countercurrent multiplication of water, Na+, and Cl Thin descending loop loses water only Thick ascending loop loses solutes only DCT: only 1520% filtrate volume left, now mainly urea and wastes Secretion segment o Drugs o K+, H+, ammonium ions o Na+ reabsorption (aldosterone) o Water reabsorption (antidiuretic hormone) ADH (antidiuretic hormone) Released by hypothalamus in response to blood pressure to conserve water and restore volume/pressure Acts on collecting duct to create water channels (aquaporins) that allow water to diffuse back into body EXCRETED = FILTERED – REABSORBED + SECRETED Urine is only 1% Nitrogen waste (urea, ammonium ions) Acids (uric acid, H+) Water Ions and nutrients How do we know 99% was absorbed? Filtrate volume is 180L/day Urine volume is only 12L/day Ureter muscular tube connected kidney to bladder Bladder – hollow muscular sac for temporary urine storage (1L; we feel the urge 40%) Urethra – extends from neck of urinary bladder to exterior of body; controlled by both voluntary/involuntary sphincters (males = 1820 cm & females = 35 cm) MALE REPRO SYSTEM (6) ANATOMY Scrotum – sac that holds the testis Testis – male gonads that produce sperm Epididymis – stores and matures sperm Ductus deferens – smooth muscle tube that moves sperm to urethra (during sex/arousal) Tubes/Glands – seminal vesicle, prostate, bulbourethral gland all contribute secretions that form semen Average penis is 5 – 7 inches Contains vessels, nerves, and 3 spongy tissue columns o Corpus cavernosa: 2 spongy tissue columns that contain deep arteries Lacunae: tiny sinuses that fill with blood Trabeculae: surround lacunae and are made of connective tissue and smooth muscle o Corpus spongiosum: spongy tissue column that surrounds the urethra EXCITEMENT triggered by sensory stimuli; inhibited by stress or other nonerotic thoughts Plateau – breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure increase Erection – autonomic reflex when parasympathetic fibers release nitric oxide 1. Arteries vasodilate 2. Trabeculae relax 3. Lacunae fills with blood (deep first, then press outward) 4. Corpus spongiosum and testis swell 5. Bulbourethral glands release clear, slippery fluid (lubrication/neutralization) ORGASM 3 to 15 second period of increased heart rate, BP, and respiration accompanied by ejaculation of semen 1. Emission: sympathetic nerves stimulate smooth muscle of ductus deferns and peristalsis moves sperm to ampulla; ampulla contracts and pushes sperm into urethra * Urgent need to ejaculate, contraction of internal urinary sphincter Prostate (30%): alkaline buffers, clotting enzyme, serine protease Seminal vesicle (60%): fructose, proseminogelin protein 2. Expulsion: sympathetic and somatic neurons trigger rhythmic contractions of pelvis, compression of urethra, and semen is pushed out of urethra RESOLUTION blood flow returns to normal, penis becomes flaccid (refractory period) 1. GnRH is released from the hypothalamus 2. Stimulates release of FSH and LH 3. LH stimulates interstitial cells in testis to secrete testosterone 4. FSH stimulates Sertoli cells to secrete ABP 5. ABP + testosterone stimulates sperm production (Sertoli cells also secrete inhibin inhibits FSH production) Testosterone Maintains primary/secondary sex characteristic Stimulates spermatogenesis (meiosis) Spermatogenesis Immature sperm cells (spermatogonia) outside of the seminiferous tubules and pass through the Sertoli cells toward the lumen as they mature by meiosis (spermatozoa) Eventually stored in epididymis Whole process takes ~74 days Acrosome contains enzymes to penetrate egg cell (lysosome) Midpiece produces ATP to drive axoneme/principal piece/end piece FEMALE REPRO SYSTEM (6) ANATOMY Cervix narrow muscular opening between uterus and vagina Vagina – 3 – 4 inch long canal; opening to outside (vaginal orifice) Clitoris – corpora cavernosa tissue; prepuce EXCITEMENT triggered by sensory stimuli; inhibited by stress or other nonerotic thoughts Plateau – breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure increase 1. Autonomic response that causes vasocongestion of vessels that cause external genitalia to enlarge 2. Greater vestibular glands, paraurethral glands, and some lesser vestibular glands release vaginal transudate 3. Inner part of vaginal canal dilates and outer part constricts orgasmic platform 4. Vestibular bulbs and vaginal rugae vasocongest to help stimulate penis 5. Uterus “tents” and cervix is withdrawn from vaginal canal ORGASM strong contractions of vagina/uterus, constriction of anal/urinary sphincters, and increased HR/BP/respiration some secretion possible by paraurethral glands RESOLUTION uterus returns to normal position and cervix presses against area where semen was ejaculated, and blood flow returns to normal (no refractory period) Ovaries – female gonads where developing oocyte matures through meiosis; surrounded by follicle cells that secrete hormones a woman is born with all of the oocytes she will have Ovulation – release of egg cells which travel through the uterine tube 1. Fertilization of zygote which implants and embryo/placenta develop 2. Unfertilized oocyte will be flushed out of uterus next menstrual cycle 1. Follicular phase (day 1 to 14) o Rising levels of GnRH cause AP to release FSH and LH o FSH and LH cause follicle to grow and mature o Follicle secretes a little bit of estrogen o Estrogen inhibits the release of FSH/LH, but stimulates their production o As more estrogen enters blood, AP is stimulated to release stored LH and FSH 2. Ovulation (day 14) o Surge of LH triggers the follicle to split open and egg is released 3. Luteal phase (day 15 to 28) o Ruptured follicle (corpus luteum) produces estrogen/progesterone Also inhibin, which inhibits production of anymore FSH so that another egg is not released No fertilization? corpus luteum will degenerate and menstruation occurs Menstrual cycle 1. Proliferative phase: mitosis of wall cells, increased vascularization, addition of progesterone receptors 2. Secretory phase: progesterone mostly controls, endometrium thickens further 3. Menstrual phase: menses occurs Estrogen Maintains primary/secondary sex characteristics Controls libido and axillary hair (adrenal gland) Puberty: development of primary and secondary sex characteristics Onset is triggered by GnRH, FSH, LH, and testosterone/estrogen FERTILIZATION Occurs in uterine tubes 12 to 24 hours after ovulation Most sperm can live 12 to 24 hours (fertilization must occur in this window) Musin secreted by female forms strands that help guide sperm 300 – 400 million sperm ejaculated (most die or drain out, many are destroyed by WBC, ½ travel up wrong tube) Only about 2,000 – 3,000 make it to oocyte Trip takes about 10 minutes Capacitation: sac of enzymes on acrosome of sperm become more fragile (10 hours) Acrosomal Reaction: enzymes break down cells/glycoproteins surrounding eggs, requires 100’s of sperm but only 1 makes it through and cells “dock” together To prevent polyspermy: o Na+ channels open and rapid depolarization inactivates docking proteins o Solute protein concentration increases and fills with water, pushes wall out and therefore sperm away from oocyte Zygote begins to divide 24 hours after fertilization 3 to 4 days after ovulation, zygote reaches uterus where blastocyst implants 2 to 3 days later HCG – stimulates corpus luteum to not break down and keeps making hormones to make placenta What is detected in pregnancy test
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