HDFS 428 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE
HDFS 428 EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE HDFS 428
Popular in Infant Development
Popular in Human Dev And Family Sciences
This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devon Stobbe on Thursday March 17, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 428 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Dr. Molly Countermine in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Infant Development in Human Dev And Family Sciences at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 03/17/16
HDFS 428 EXAM ONE Why do we study infancy? 1. To answer philosophical questions 2. To prove importance of paternal investment 3. To apply the concerns to the public Social Ecology – all of the aspects of an infant’s environment that impacts their development Infant Nature vs. Infant Nurture Species Typical: Direct: Reflexes Parenting Eating Caregivers Sleeping Teachers Stimulation Siblings Crying when SES Heritable: Indirect: Temperament Culture Eye color Neighborhood Skin color Schools Height/weight Marital relationship Parent’s job SES The Decision to Have a Child Advantages Giving/receiving attention Experiencing stimulation/fun of a child Being accepted as a responsible member of community Experiencing new growth and learning opportunities Having someone to provide care in old age Gaining sense of accomplishment and creativity from helping child grow Learning to become less selfish Having someone to carry on after one’s death Having offspring who help with parent’s work Disadvantages Risks of bringing child into world of crime, war pollution Reduced time with spouse Loss of privacy Fear of child turning out badly Sacrificing career (women) Complications with pregnancy Financial constraints 1.8 = Average number of children in US families When is the best time to have a child? Socially late 20’s, early 30’s Biologically early 20’s Preparation for conception: Stop taking birth control Begin prenatal vitamins (folic acid) Eat well/stop bad habits Get to a healthy weight Genetic counseling Prenatal Care 1.) Take pregnancy test – test a specific hormone No false positives False negatives occur Diabetes Screening 2.) Contact OBGYN - Give you 11 oz. of 70 carbs to Then schedule an appointment 7-9 weeks later test body’s response to At monthly appointments: - Heartbeat/blood tests sugar an hour - Weight later - Ultrasound If you fail, they call back and test - Gestational diabetes screening First 7 months 7 months – 37 weeks (full 37 weeks - birth term) Once a month Twice a month Weekly 15% - 20% of all expectant mothers receive late or no prenatal care - 3x more likely to have low birth weight - 5x more likely to die 3.) Nutrition 1 trimester +100 calories nd 2 trimester +265-300 calories 3 trimester +420-450 calories TOTAL WEIGHT GAIN: UNDERWEIGHT: 35 lbs. HEALTHY: 25 – 30 lbs. OVERWEIGHT: 15 lbs. Common Prenatal Diagnostic Methods 1.)Amniocentesis - Tests amniotic fluid to test for genetic diseases or abnormalities RISK: 3-5% miscarriage 2.)Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS) - Tests the lining right behind the cervix, not as accurate as amniocentesis 3.)Ultrasound - Sound waves produce pictures of baby 4.)Maternal Blood Analysis 5.)Urine Sampling 6.)Glucose Tolerance Test Infertility – the inability to conceive after one year of unprotected sex (if under 35) - If over 35: 6 months - Can also be defined as inability to carry full-term also 1/3 = Due to female cervical cancers, thyroid issues 1/3 = Due to male low sperm count, abnormal sperm function, age, cancer 1/3 = Due to both Treating Infertility $ 1.)Establish healthy nutrition (vegan) 2.)Acupuncture 3.)Medication that stimulates eggs/hormones $$ 4.)Surgery $$ 5.)IVF $ Developmental Niche – the infant’s physical and social setting, cultural customs, and the psychology of the caretakers “We are products of where and how we are raised” RAT STUDY: proves that limbic system is influenced by early environment Ethnopediatrics – interested in children grow up differently in different cultures Vygotzgy opposed Piaget’s idea that we learn in concrete stages, and believed that culture and environment influences the child Prenatal Development Average pregnancy = 40 weeks starts on the day of last period ZYGOTE EMBRYO FETUS (0 – 2 weeks) (2 – 8 weeks) (8 weeks – birth) 60-70% don’t make it Rapid cell division Foundations of full Grows from 1 oz. to by 8 weeks 7.5 lbs. Fertilized in Fallopian tubes, Size of an apple Develops all organs then travels to seed to survive outside uterus (4 days) the womb TARATOGENS ARE INEFFECTIVE TRIMESTERS: First = 0 – 13 weeks Second = 14 – 27 weeks Third = 28 weeks – birth Amniotic sac – thin membrane that surrounds baby Amniotic fluid – protects the baby Umbilical cord – connects baby to the placenta (nutrients), and baby to mom (waste) some couples save blood from cord for stem cells, can also be donated for research Placenta – composed of tissues from both mom and baby; filters what mom takes in and transfers to baby via the cord Maternal blood supply – runs across top of sac underneath placenta 15 – 30 min after baby is born body goes through contractions and placenta is delivered Vernix Caseona – thick paste that covers baby and protects from amniotic fluid (pruning) also insulates to maintain body temp (comes off on its own) Survival Outside of the Womb Age of Viability = 23 weeks - Believed the baby is able to live outside the womb and doctors will try to save it Teratogens – an environmental agent or condition that can cause deviations in normal development of the fetus EX: caffeine, alcohol, drugs, tobacco, mercury, maternal stress, malnutrition, paint fumes DOSE – more is worse Threshold effect – normal amounts are okay for mom, but not safe for small fetuses Interaction effect – potential for harm increases in the presence of other teratogens TIMING – there is less susceptibility to teratogens during the first 2 weeks Most susceptible period = 3 – 12 weeks GENETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY – some fetuses are more resilient to teratogens than others Illegal Drugs low birth weight, physical defects, breathing problems, ADHD, cognitive/learning problems (restricts O2 to the fetus) Tobacco use OR 2 ndhand smoke prematurity, low birth weight, SIDS Maternal Stress Monk: moms with high cortisol levels (depression and anxiety) give their children higher risks for biobehavioral characteristics conceptualized as potential precursors to psychopathology When the brain is bathed in cortisol, the top part (rationale thought, immune system, cognition) is not maturing, but the bottom is (emotions, fight/flight) This creates fear of novelty in infants Maternal Prenatal Anxiety & Depression: Fearful behavior in 2 month old Greater motor and cry responses to novelty at 4 months Likelihood of increased negative temperament Behavioral/emotional problems in 4 year olds ADHD symptoms in 6 year olds Depression in adolescence independent of postnatal maternal stress Miscarriage Miscarriage – termination of fetus before it is viable (23 wks) (“spontaneous abortion”) - 60 – 70% of fertilized eggs don’t implant - 15 – 20% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriages - Majority of women have an isolated miscarriage and go on to have normal pregnancies - 90% happen in the first trimester CAUSES Chromosomal abnormalities (most times) Smoking Drinking Caffeine Malnutrition Maternal age Complete Abortion – a miscarriage occurs, and all fetal/placental tissue is passed by means of the body with no outside help Incomplete Abortion – some but not all tissue passes Missed Abortion – the fetus dies, but nothing is passed Products of conception = fetus + placenta (need to be passed) Pill is inserted trans-vaginally and dilates the cervix for things to be expelled o Induces actual labor Threatened Abortion – any time there is bleeding during pregnancy Fetus + Placenta = “products of conception” NEED TO BE EXPELLED 1. Cytotec – a transvaginal pill that dilates the cervix for products to expel First trimester – beginning of second Induces labor: there are contractions and pain 2. Dilation & Curettage – dilate the cervix and clean out w/ hook-like instrument or vacuum 13 – 24 weeks Hook risks scar tissue decreased egg attachment potential for subsequent pregnancies Child Birth 99% of births happen in hospitals Most by MD’s, but increasing use of midwives and doulas (birth coach) C-Section “sweet spot” = 4-5% - today 1 in 3 babies are cesarean WHY? MYTHS: FACTS: More women ask for it Low priority of enhancing women’s own More women need it ability to give birth Side effects of common labor induction Doctors fear liability of complications Refusal to offer the informed choice of vaginal birth Causal attitudes about surgery and variation in professional practice style VBAC – vaginal birth after C Limited awareness of harms that are Section more likely with C Section Incentives to practice in a manner that is efficient for provides In natural birth: - Baby initiates - Fluid in lungs come out - Makes baby active - Gives baby natural flora Breastfeeding causes contractions that allow uterus to shrink back to normal size STAGE 1: dilation/effacement of cervix Mucus plug comes out Can be days before labor Contractions start STAGE 2: pushing; birth of baby The shortest stage (10-45 min.) STAGE 3: delivery of placenta Between 10-30 min. after birth Approaches to Child Birth 1. Relaxation Techniques (breathing techniques, acupuncture, incense, massage) 2. Home Births 3. Water Births (takes pressure off muscles) “Birth Plan” – your intentions of delivery before childbirth rarely ever followed In US, 80%-95% of births use medication 1. Anesthetics 2. Analgesics/sedatives
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