SYSTEMS AND THEORIES
SYSTEMS AND THEORIES PSYCH 415
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jena Schumm on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 415 at Clemson University taught by Edwin Brainerd Jr in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see /class/214231/psych-415-clemson-university in Psychlogy at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Type text Type text Unit One Knowledge Checklist for Unit One Dr Edwin G Brainerd Jr Psychology 415 History amp Systems Chapter One The Study of the History of Psychology Be aware that the study of a science s development and history is rare in the scientific community Psychology has one of the most active areas of historical investigation Know the rationale for the study of psychology s history a Recognize the diversity within psychology Provides a framework for solidarity and unity within psychology Emphasizes the relationships that make the whole of psychology cohesive Integrates topics and issues ls interesting in its own right Dr B will give me an F ifl don t eww QLI Understand the paradox that psychology is one of the oldest sciences in the world and at the same time one of the newest sciences As old as ancient man wondering about the bizarre behavior of a tribe member but only formalized in the late 1800 s Understand psychology s parents and what each contributed to modern psychology 1 Philosophy rational tradition questions about the mind consciousness epistemology mindbody interaction etc 2 gm Centug Science experimental method human physiology psychophysics Understand the definition of Historiography and how psychological history differs from other sciences Type text Type text Unit One 1 No laboratories or controlled replication to verify conclusions 2 Materials must be used to construct lives events and careers 3 Much material is found in bits and pieces like shard of pottery Be able to give or recognize and example of each of the following problems that can occur with psychology s historical data i Data is permanently lost or destroyed often intentionally Data is temporarily lost and not discovered until years later Data is intentionally suppressed for a specified period of time to protect patients and others Data is altered or omitted to protect a famous person s reputation Translation is not exact or sometimes not complete Autobiographical data may be self serving to person look more intelligent harder working etc WM 4 QLI Be able to identify define and recognize examples of the contextual forces that shaped psychology Be able to give example of these forces effect on psychology 1 Economic forces such as low salaries and limited teaching opportunities 2 World War I and World War II 3 Prejudice and Discrimination Be able to recognize examples of and define the Personalistic Great Person theory of history and the Naturalistic Zeitgeist Theory of history What is the surest way to make certain that a new idea is accepted and spreads rapidly Be sure that you understand the term Schools of Psychology Be aware of what makes a school the features that schools define for their members and the benefits of school membership Type text Type text Unit One Understand the relationship between schools of psychology and the scientific paradigms discussed by Thomas Kuhn in his book The Structure of the Scientific Revolution Remember that paradigms are fiercely defended and not easily change How does John Garcia relate to this issue Understand and be able to list the three life stages of a school or paradigm Know the characteristics of each stage Preparadigmatic Stage Paradigmatic Stage Old Age or Post Paradigmatic Early Thinking about Psychology amp the Development of Science Human brain has been in its present condition for the previous 250000 years and virtually unchanged for 50000 years We would understand the preGreeks and the early Greeks very well They were curious about the world around them and drew what conclusion they could about disease famine storms and nature in general They were also interested in psychological questions why some people were brave dishonest good mothers or mentally unbalanced First attempt at eXplanation was animism Later changed to magic which gave a sense of control Type text Type text Unit One Finally explanation and control were attributed to human like gods primitive religion who controlled the world Early Greek Philosophers were the first scientists in Western Culture Events were not supernatural but occurred because of understandable natural causes Called cosmologists because they wanted to know about the world around them Saw an elegant ordered system around them Probably astronomy first Pleasant to contemplate Observation and inductive method Searching for the Physis the basic building block of all material things Thales 625545 BC Water is the physis Heraclitus 540480 BC Fire is physis Democritus 460470 BC All things made of tiny atoms in constant motion Shape size and speed of atoms determines physical qualities Hippocrates 4603 77 BC Illness is not caused by supernatural but by physical causes Health and human behavior are controlled by four humors l Phlegm 2 Blood 3 Yellow Bile 4 Black Bile Type text Type text Unit One Aristole 3 84322 BC First real psychologists Studied under Plato Teacher to Alexander the Great Major book De Anima could be an introductory psych text Laws of Association to be important for years 1 Similarity 2 Contiguity 3 Opposites 4 Frequency Greece now begins a gradual decline Rome gains in power but interest is in the physical sciences Much of Greece s knowledge goes East and to the other Mediterranean Countries Arab countries become major seat of learning and scholarship Christianity persecuted in Rome until the year 303 and becomes state religion in 395 Typical of early thinker was St Augustine 354430 Major work was Confessions Cure my lust but not now Close personal relationship with God God will reveal all that you need to know To try and learn more was to show a distrust of God Hate and distrust of Pagan Science which was the scholarship of the East and the Arabs Dark Ages begin 500800 Schools close Learning is lost CiVil war Disease Famine Type text Type text Unit One Western thought at a standstill Other areas vibrant and expanding Muslims capture large parts of Europe 600 on Middle Ages 8001450 Church is all powerful and a strong political contender in European countries Knights and nobles are also major political in uences in their own countries The Church begins founding many of the great universities of Europe which are really monasteries in their early days Scholasticism handicaps any real learning or advancement St Thomas Aquinas 12251274 AKA Dumb OX is an important figure Maj or work is Summa Theologica Makes Aristotle s work acceptable to the Church Translates psyche as the Christian soul Discovery glorifies God Bible Aristotle and Aquinas himself become pilars of Church doctrine Renaissance 14501600 becomes a time of extensive learning in all areas Church power has weakened and more investigation was allowed Painting music architecture literature science all ourish Giordano Bruno DeVinci and Galileo still in trouble with church Type text Type text Unit One Chapter Two Philosophical In uences on Psychology Understand how the world view of scientists and great thinkers is changing at the end of the Renaissance Period The spirit of Mechanism has become their doctrine The clock has become the scientists model for an orderly predictable and knowable universe The automata have become their model for human function Machines of all types have eXpanded into the everyday life of the typical person Charles Babbage with his calculating engine has show that machines can even think much like the modern computer Is the human brain another machine devised by God Scientists now believe in l Determinism 2 Reductionism Rene Descartes 15961650 was a major figure of this period Know about his early life and unfortunate death in Sweden Know how mathematics and the spirit of truth saved him from the deep depression after years of study Know about his Mind Body Dualism the view that both the mind and body eXist and are capable if in uencing each other Site of this interaction is the pineal body Descartes believes that many behaviors are re eXive and automatic Undulatio Re exes Humans have both re exes and free will Animals have only re exes and no soul Know Descartes view of ideas and derived innate ideas Type text Type text Unit One Know his four Rules of Certainty i Belief only what I recognize as evident Divide difficult areas into small problem and deal with the parts Think in an orderly fashion Deal with the simplest part first 4 Always review completely so that nothing is left out N U Know Descartes Fly In Three Points and how it was discovered Know Auguste Comte 1798185 7 for his views on Positivism and materialism Recognize Sir Issac Newton as a model of how one can be a successful scientist and be an extremely religious person Newton believed that i The world was created by and set in motion by God according to his divine laws Once set in motions God doesn t interfere or tinker Natural laws are supreme and there are no exceptions Our knowledge is incomplete if the laws fail in some situation To discover God s law is to gain true amazement at the glory and genius of the creator a God was a mathematician wv 4 John Locke 16321704 was the founder of the British Empiricist Movement 1 At birth infants are a tabula rasa or blank paper 2 All knowledge is acquired through the senses Know Locke s views on Type text Type text Unit One 1 Sensation and re ection 2 Primary and secondary qualities 3 Simple and complex ideas 4 The theory of association You may omit the remaining philosophers from page 52 on But know the small paragraph on the Contribution of Empiricism to Psychology P 60 Chapter Three Physiological In uences on Psychology Realize the huge amount of physiological investigation that was going on in the 17001800 s Much of it was modern and sophisticated Know the three important methods that were used 1 Extirpation 2 Clinical Method 3 Electrical stimulation 4 Also know the pseudoscientific methods of phrenology Be able to name and to explain the five reasons that Physiology and Psychology ourished first in the Germany universities H Experimental method was well accepted in Germany German temperament and tolerance for tedious repetitive lab work Germany s broad definition of science to include these topic Many more universities in Germany Competitive nature of Germany universities where merit is rewarded N Herman von Helmholtz 18211894 Type text Type text Unit One Know the numerous areas of Helmholtz s investigation and interests Know about Helmholtz s investigation of the speed of neural transmission about 90ftsec Major book on the eye and optics Handbook of Physiological Optic Treats entire visual system from receptors retina to the brain Know about Helmholtz s work with color vision Red blueviolet and green make white light when the are mixed hence they eye must contain receptors to these color Know as the YoungHelmholtz Theory of Color Vision Today we know he was half right but he failed to detect the opponent process in the neurons after the retina Also did extensive research on hearing including work on tones harmony and resonance Ernst Weber 17951878 was another researcher of this time period Worked with Temperature your ability to detect the temperature of substances particularly water depends the skins temperature before the test Skin sensitivity using the two point threshold he discovered that some area of the human body are high sensitive to touch while others are not Detection of weight differences Weber s Fraction 140 When weights are small we can detect small differences between two weights When weights are large when can only detect larger differences The ratio is approximately 140 Type text Type text Unit One JND or Just Noticeable Difference Gustav Fechner 18011887 was considered by many to be the rst real experimental psychologist Academic gad y who got a medical degree at Leipzig and spent the rest of his life at the university Injured eyes in sunspot study Nervous breakdown Dreamed raw ham and wine would cure him It did Know why he wrote the satire Proof that the Moon is Made of Iodine under the name Dr Mises His focus in psychology was the area of psychophysics which is the study of the relation between the raw stimulus and a person s perception of that stimulus Understand and recognize examples of 1 Absolute threshold 2 Relative threshold 3 Weber s Law and what it demonstrates 4 Fechner s Methods Psychophysics a Method of average error b Method of constant stimuli c Method of the just noticeable difference Fechner s major work was Elements of Psychophysics Chapter 4 The New Psychology Wilhelm Wundt 18321920 is an unlikely founder of the science of psychology Type text Type text Unit One Childhood is lonely and troubled W W finds himself in graduate school and becomes a prolific writer averaging 22 scientific pages a day or 53 735 pages in is life time Many say that he out wrote both his critics and translator Important books and journals included Principles of Physiological Psychology Journal of Psychological Studies Cultural Psychology Subject matter of psychology should be consciousness and conscious experience Two types Immediate and Mediate experience Immediate experience was major area of interest and could best be detected by introspection Wundt proposed three elements of consciousness l Sensations which occur when sense organs are stimulated 2 Feeling which result from sensations a W developed that Tridimensional Theory of Feelings by introspecting to a metronome i Pleasuredispleasure ii Tensionrelief iii Excitementdepression 3 Emotions which were more complex feelings W W has a strong desire to categorize these elements into a Periodic Table of the Mind W W also believed that we had an innate tendency to organize and build these elements of consciousness into complex experience He called this tendency several names Type text Type text Unit One Voluntarism apperception creative synthesis Hermann Ebbinghaus 18501909 applied experimental method to complex human behaviors such as learning and forgetting Know how Ebbinghaus conducted his pairedassociate learning tests with nonsense syllables Be able to reproduce and interpret Ebbinghaus famous forgetting curve Carl Stumpf 18481936 was a rival of Wundt who favored another method of introspection know as Phenomenology He had bitter arguments with Wundt about the introspection of tones Oswald Kulpe 18621915 was another individual who differed with Wundt Kulpe used systematic experimental introspection which allowed retrospective analysis of cognitive tasks Kulpe also believed in Imageless Though meaning that thought could occur without images or any sensory stimulation Study hard folks Hope this helps Don t forget to bring a Purple Scantron Dr B Type text Type text Unit One
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