TEACHING AGRISCIENCE AG ED 203
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This 67 page Study Guide was uploaded by Vern Johns on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to AG ED 203 at Clemson University taught by Thomas Dobbins in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see /class/214279/ag-ed-203-clemson-university in Agriculture Education at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
File 18 Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Focus on Hydrogen Production Dr Caye Drapcho Associate Professor Biosystems Engineering Clemson University Ya PEMSQN Introduction What is a biofuel Fuels produced from biomass sources Biomass sources agricultural feedstocks forestry wastes Fuels produced by the action of microorganisms Broader definition that includes Ethanol Methane Hydrogen Biological oils for biodiesel production Common biomass SOUFCES Dedicated biomass grown for biofuel production Corn wheat starch sources Sugarcane sugar beet sugar sources Grasses switchgrass cellulosic sources Agre dues byproduct5offood berproduc on Crop processing wastes sugarcane bagasse sugarcane stalks corn stover corn stalk residue Fruitvegetable processing wastes Culls from fresh market Canned processing facilities waste Forestry residues byproducts of timber production Wastes Animal manures municipal wastes Agricultural Residues State Residues Thousand dry tons Arkansas 4351 Illinois 17775 Indiana 8143 Iowa 21401 Kansas 6907 Minnesota 12910 Missouri 5450 Nebraska 99 1 7 North Dakota 5989 Ohio 4537 South Carolina 300 South Dakota 4663 Texas 5524 How much biofuel produced Primary biofuels produced currently in US Ethanol from dedicated corn and corn stover Biodiesel from terrestrial crops soybean Future predicted biofuels production Ethanol from switchgrass other cellulosics Biodiesel from algal cultures Hydrogen from variety of sources CLEMSELN u N x v z n s x T l Composition and Hydrolysis of Agricultural Feedstocks Biochemical Molecules 0 Four Classes Proteins Carbohydrates Nucleic acids DNA and RNA and Lipids fats Monomers The basic four monomers are Amino acids Monosaccharides sugars Nucleotides Fatty acids Like a chain is made of up individual links macromolecules are made up of monomers The following links and chains are Amino acids are linked together to form proteins Monosaccharides are linked together to form carbohydrates Nucleotides are linked together to form nucleic acids Fatty acids are linked together to form lipids Carbohydrates Monosaccharides The structures for two common 6 carbon monosaccharides glucose and fructose are shown below The sugars can be represented in the chain or ring form A common 5carbon monosaccharide is CHEDH HX1XD xylose r 23O 2 H EEIZI DH HD 39lH Hag 50 HO C H H C DH 4 I H E DH HCDH H cOH I H 5C OH I HD C H l EPH DH CHEDH H C DH Dglucose Dfructose CHEOH Dglucose Carbohydrates Disaccharides Disaccharides are compounds made up of two monosaccharides Sucrose table sugar is a disaccharide that is made up of glucose and fructose Lactose the sugar in milk is a disaccharide that is made up of gaactose and glucose Polysaccha ride The polysaccharide cellulose is made of glucose molecules xylan is made up of xylose molecules The polysaccharide hemicellulose is made up of both glucose and xylose molecules Just as with disaccharides the type of linkage between the molecules is the key to how easily they are broken apart Ethanol yield from variety of starch sources Source Sta rch Yield Lkg Corn 72 52 Wheat 77 55 Barley 57 41 Sorghum 72 52 Oats 58 42 Rice 79 57 Switchgrass has a similar theoretical ethanol yield 041 Lkg dry matter Hydrolysis Hydrolysis is the chemical process whereby a macromolecule is broken apart to its individual monomers Bacteria yeast and fungi can only utilize monomers such as glucose or fructose as food for growth but not cellulose or starch If you supply a bacterial culture with cellulose the bacteria must first excrete enzymes to break down the macromolecule to the individual sugars then they will grow on the sugars Hydrolysis Some organisms such as yeast do not produce the right enzymes to break down cellulose Humans can t digest cellulose or hemicellulose as food either because the bacteria in our digestive systems lack the enzymes needed to break these compounds apart Do you know why ruminant animals can utilize cellulose and hemicellulose sources such as grass and hay as food Biochemical Pathways Anaembic Reapiratian and Fermentatian Catabolic Reactions The reactions involved with oxidizing an organic compound under anoxic conditions can be broken down into four phases 1 hydrolysis 2 glucose metabolism 3 pyruvate metabolism and 4 electron transport chain Catabolic Reactions The reactions involved with oxidizing a carbohydrate under anaerobic conditions can be broken down into three phases 1 hydrolysis 2 glucose metabolism 3 pyruvate metabolism The hydrolysis reactions and glucose metabolism glycolysis reactions are the same as those that occur under aerobic conditions The difference is in the pyruvate metabolism Catabolic Reactions C Catabolism of organic compounds under anaerobic conditions fermentation Fermentation is the oxidationreduction of organic compounds that takes place in the absence of external electron acceptors In fermentation internallybalanced oxidationreduction reactions occur in which the oxidation of the original compound is coupled to the reduction of an organic compound produced in catabolism Therefore only a partial amount of the potential energy in the compound is captured by the microorganism l Fermentation of glucose by yeast Glycolysis Glucose 2 ADP 2 NAD gt 2 Pyruvate 2 ATP 2NADH Fermentation I 2 Pyruvate gt 2 Acetaldehyde 2 C02 2 2 Acetaldehyde 2 NADH gt 2 Ethanol 2 NAD Overall reaction of fermentation of sugar by yeast Glucose 2 ADP e 2 Ethanol 2 C02 2 ATP Introduction Plants 102009 VSZH humIF Vacuole The is a large sac bound by a membrane It may occupy up to 90 of the cell The vacuole contains water stored foods salts pigments and wastes Found only in plants Chloroplasts Contain green pigments called chlorophyll that trap light energy for photosynthesis Chlorophyll is produced in cells exposed to light and are abundant in leaves Cell wall 0 Made of multiple layers of cellulose Cellulose is a complex sugar molecule 0 The cell wall thickens and becomes rigid once cell stops growing PHOTOSYNTHESIS Solar energy is converted into chemical energy CARON DGXHE r WATER in the presence of co2 H20 ght energy and eh lerephy l is converted into SUGAR QXYGEN WATER c5H1205 602 6HZO 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Respiration Take in oxygen give off carbon dioxide SUGAR QXYGEN c6H1206 602 CARBQN 2 WATER E EATltenergw is converted into gt 6C02 6HZO 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Transpiration Plants give up water vapor to the atmosphere Transpiration takes place at the stoma About 90 percent of water entering through the roots transpires through the stoma These factors influence transpiration humidity wind temperature 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Plant Nutrition There are 16 ESSENTIAL nutrients These are needed in very large amounts obtained from the atmosphere and water carbon C hydrogen H oxygen 0 Macronutrients are obtained from the soil nitrogen N calcium Ca magnesium Mg phosphorus P sulfur S potassium K 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights rrrrr ved Functions of the Big Three Macronutrients NITROGEN Vegetative growth and dark green color 0 PHOSPHORUS development of good root systems POTASSIUM development of flowers and fruit 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Food Storage Roots usually the taproot stores food Stems modified stems tubers store most of the food Seeds a mature ovule stores food for the embryo of the young plant 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Plant Reproduction or Propagation Sexual reproduction union of ovule and pollen two parents male and female Asexual reproduction uses parts of a plant involves one parent 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Sexual Reproduction The SEED is the result of DNA from pollen male and ovule female To GERMINATE the seed needs water air light temperature 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Asexual Propagation A part of the plant is used The part of the plant is genetically identical to the parent plant Methods include cuttings layenng division grafting tissue culture 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Stem Cuttings Only the vegetative part of the stem is used Stem tip cuttings Stem section cuttings Cane cuttings Heel cuttings Singleeye cuttings Doubleeye cuttings 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved LeafType Cuttings Leaf cuttings usually the base of the leaf with a petiole of less than an inch Leaf petiole cuttings the petiole is still attached to the leaf Leaf section cuttings leaves are cut into wedges any part of the leaf is used 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Layenng Simple layering the middle of the stem of the plant is bent to the ground and buried leaving the tip above ground Tip layering the tip of the shoot or stem is buried in the ground Air layering the stem is left growing above ground but is girdled and wrapped with damp sphagnum moss 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Division This process requires plants with a fibrous root system and rooted crowns Divide the plant by cutting or tearing it apan Each new plant needs roots and stems after the division is completed 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Grafting joining two plants together to grow as one Bud grafting the union of a small piece of bark with a bud joined to a rootstock Tbudding A T cut is made in the bark of one plant A shieldshaped piece of the other plant scion is inserted into the T A rubber band is wrapped around the union 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Tissue Culture Micropropagation Very small actively growing parts of the plant are used This results in many plantlets growing from one cutting Requires special media very sanitary conditions a very controlled environment 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Identifying Plants Parts used to identify plants Leaf shape Leaf margins Leaf placement Buds Bark Treecrown form Leaves lLeaf Margins 9 edges of the leaves lLeaf Blade 9 the wide portion of the leaf lPetiOIe 9 the stem of the leaf lMidrib 9 main vein running down center of leaf 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning All rights reserved Leaves Types of leaves SimpIe single leaf Compound two or more leaves arising from a common point VARIATIONS LEAF SHAPE Leaves lLeaf shape and A LIneaI Lung and museums Much among Lunger Inan EHIptICaI Bmadest In narmw mm paraIIeI Ionger man was and moan mm paIaIIeI me mI dIe equaHy sIdes Iapenng upwards Irom smes ruunoed al the ends form IdentIfy plants accordlng OmIcuIaI Round ovaIe Eggrsnaped obovaIe Eggrshaped Comets Heanrsnaped broadest near the wih broadestend at base metop to their species rand The In Deumd TnanguIar SagIltate cuneme F gnIy specxanzeu Ieaf ur a Iem VARIATIONS IN LEAF MARGIN 2006 Thomson I Luh a c Emne The margIn not crenaIe Wavy senaIe Tunmed Ieave prchnent m armwan IndamaN mnrmn lt o e J om U S UI e d 3 Leaves PLATE 4 LEAF MARGINS Leaves 0 Leaf placement Opposite Alternate Whorled Palmately compound Pinnately compound Types of Lcuvcs L H 5 Rnel s Palmnmly Q rumpuunu Leaf PinnalAly Compound 7 ul 39 1 Auem a e Opposite Shape of the Plant lTraiIing l Mat l Mound or spreading lTuft or clump l Rounded lOvaI lV shaped lCqumnar lWeeping lSpreading l Pyramidal Weepmg Spreadmg Pyram dal 2005 Thomson Delmar Learning Allnghts reserved Hydroponics Hydroponics The growing of plants in a solution of nutrients necessary for plant growth rather than directly in soil Types of Systems Aggregate culture in which a material such as sand gravel or marbles supports the plant roots Types of Systems Water culture solution or nutriculture the plant roots are immersed in water containing dissolved nutrients Types of Systems Aeroponics in which the plant roots hang in the air and are misted regularly with a nutrient solution Types of Systems Continuous flow systems in which the nutrient solution flows constantly over plant roots most commonly used Media almost any inert material may be used as a substrate substrate must not decompose or be too fine Various Media Types rock volcanic ash vermiculite heated mica perlite exploded volcanic rock 1800 degrees F Various Media Types peat moss granite or sand idealite concrete aggregate water Conventional Irrigation flooding flood tray until water appears at surface perforated tube is used to fill and drain media as needed Flooding nutrient solution is pumped back and tray is flooded again Disadv Of Flooding nutrient solution can become unbalanced bacteria and disease can be spread Peripheral Gates nutrient solution applied and allowed to drain away non recirculating system no storage tank Peripheral Gates bacteria and diseases are drained away solution is sprayed on Disadv Of Peripheral more expensive solution is not reused spraying can cause spread of disease by splashing Ooze Tube System drip holes in double tube no splashes Disadvantages most expensive Plant Growth Requirements Oxygen Normally provide by soil However in water D0 is quickly depleted The common method of supplying water is to bubble air through the water Not needed in aeroponic or continuous flow systems Plant Growth Requirements Light Plant require large amounts of sunlight Electrical lighting is a poor substitute for sunshine Incandescent lamps supplemented with sunshine or special plant growth lamps not adequate to bring to maturity High intensity lights expensive for commercial operations Plant Growth Requirements Spacing Adequate spacing between plants will permit each plant to receive sufficient light Single stem tomatos 4sq ft apart Cucumbers 7 9 sq ft Lettuce 7 9 inches Plant Growth Requirements 0 Temperature Plants grow well in a limited range Abnormal temp will result in abnormal growth and reduced production Warm season 6O 80 F and Cool season 5070 F
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