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by: Merle Hoeger


Merle Hoeger
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Katherine Clark

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Katherine Clark
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This 53 page Study Guide was uploaded by Merle Hoeger on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to MGT 201 at Clemson University taught by Katherine Clark in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 959 views. For similar materials see /class/214295/mgt-201-clemson-university in Business, management at Clemson University.




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Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 7 Manager s Hot Seat Office Romance Bill Schule and Randal Keene 6 steps in decision making process 0 Recognize need for decision 0 Generate alternatives 0 Assess alternatives 0 Choose among alternatives 0 Implement chosen alternative 0 Learn from feedback Concepts in Decision Making 0 Programmed decision making routine virtually automatic decision making that follows established rules or guidelines 0 Nonprogrammed decision making nonroutine decision making that occurs in response to usual unpredictable opportunities and threats 0 Intuition ability to make sound decisions based on one s past experience and immediate feelings about the information at hand 0 Judgment ability to develop a sound opinion based on one s evaluation of the importance of the information at hand 0 Satis cing searching for and choosing an acceptable or satisfactory response to problems and opportunities rather than trying to make the best decision Components of active listening 0 Sensing o Postpone evaluation 0 Avoid interruptions 0 Maintain interest 0 Responding 0 Show interest 0 Clarify the message 0 Evaluating o Empathize o Organize information Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Randall and Abbe have had an affair over the past 6 months which has recently ended Abbe is threatening sexual harassment charges because Randall continues to address the affair and his want of Abbe during work hours Emails were sent between the two discussing personal issues which is against company policy Bill is brought in when the sexual harassment threat is brought up and Randall tries to get bill on his side before Abbe can come interfere Bill decides to talk to Abbe separately and go to HR first thing He says that termination or at the least transfer is a very likely outcome Destination CEO Video Adobe Champions of innovation changing high end technology into technology that people use multiple times per day CEO 7 Bruce Chizen Good at sales and technology Went from Mattel to Microsoft to Adobe First job at adobe 7 taking adobe s high end professional tech and look for ways for everyday people to use it accomplished this with adobe photo deluxe Test Your Knowledge Mentoring Mentoring is defined as the process of forming and maintaining an intensive and lasting developmental relationship between a senior person mentor and a junior person Mentors are usually older successful and respected by others They must be willing to commit time and energy to help another person move up the corporate ladder be able to communicate effectively and enjoy one on one development of others Career Functions of a Mentor o Sponsorship 7 actively nominating a junior manager for promotions and desirable positions 0 Exposure and Visibility 7 Pairing a junior manager with key executives who can provide opportunities 0 Coaching Providing practical tips on how to accomplish objectives and achieve recognition 0 Protection 7 shielding a junior manager from potentially harmful situations or senior managers Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Challenging Assignments helping a junior manager develop necessary competencies through favorable job assignments and feedback Psychosocial Functions of Mentors 7 clarify identities and enhance feelings of competence Role Modeling 7 giving a junior manager a pattern of values and behavior to emulate Acceptance and con rmation 7 providing mutual support and encouragement Counseling 7 helping a junior manager work out personal problems thus enhancing his or her selfimage Friendship 7 engaging in mutually satisfying social interaction Mentoring Process Initiation Cultivation Separation and Redefinition Self Assessment Exercises Your Preferred Decisionmaking Style ANALYTICAL DECISION MAKING STYLE Characteristics of the Others May Perceive Your Best Organizational Fit Analytical Style Style As Focuses on tasks and I Dogmatic Impersonal where planning or technical problems taking I Overcontrolling solving 001111316X promems is a logical approaCh 39 Impersonal important such as in science Considers every aspect of I Too careful abstract or eng1neenng etc a given problem mathematical Acquires information by I Sometimes too slow careful analysis using a large amount of data Evaluates information through abstract thinking avoiding incomplete data Has a high tolerance for ambiguity and is innovative in solving problems Typical Leadership Style Characteristics ofThose with an Analytical Decision Making Style Intellectual ingenious Wants contro Impersonal social orientation Skilled in organizing facts and establishing controls Prefers limited control by others Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide I Completes tasks by applying rigorous analysis and preparing elaborate detailed plans I Motivated by complex situations with variety and challenge I Wants to be able to predict outcomes DIRECTIVE DECISION MAKING STYLE Characteristics of the Others May Perceive Best Organizational Flt Directive Style Your Style As I Focuses on tasks and I Rigid Structured goaloriented such technical problems 39 Impersonal as in bureaucracies or where I Considers facts rules and I Simplistic power and authority are procedures I Autocrat1c im ortant I Acquires information through p hunches and by using short reports with limited data I Evaluates information by using intuition experience and rules I Has a low tolerance for ambiguity and needs structure Typical Leadership Style Characteristics ofThose with a Directive Decision Making Style I Practical and authoritarian I Impersonal social orientation I Needs power and status I Is forceful I Dislikes committees and group discussions I Completes tasks quickly I Action and results oriented I Motivated by situations with measurable achievement potential tangible rewards CONCEPTUAL DECISION MAKING STYLE Characteristics ofthe Others May Perceive B t 0 t 1 Ft es r aniza iona 1 Conceptual Style Your Style As g I Focuses on people and the broad I Too idealistic Loose decentralized aspects of a problem I Slow indecisive settings informal and simple I Considers many options and I Difficult to organization possibilities control I Acquires information by using Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide intuition and discussion with others Evaluates information by integrating diverse data and applying judgment Has a high tolerance for ambiguity takes risks and is very creative Typical Leadership Style Characteristics ofThose with a Conceptual Decision Making Style Insightful and enthusiastic Very personal social orientation Shows concern for others views Smoothes over difficulties is well liked Completes tasks by using intuition Seeks new ideas is adaptive and eXible Motivated by recognition from others Wants independence enjoys achieving personal goals BEHAVIORAL DECISIONMAKING STYLE Characteristics of the Others May Perceive Your Style AS Best Organizational Fit Behavioral Style Focuses on people and social I Too concerned Welldesigned people aspects of the work situation about others oriented collegial settings Considers the wellbeing of others I Wishywashy Acquires information by listening I Can t make hard and interacting with others decisions Evaluates information by using I Can t say no feelings and instincts Has a low tolerance for ambiguity Typical Leadership Style Characteristics ofThose with a Behavioral Decision Making Style Sociable Friendly Supportive Interpersonal social orientation Has a talent for building teams and encouraging participation Action oriented Holds meetings Motivated to seek acceptance by peers and avoid con ict Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Self Assessment Exercises Assessing Your Creativity Quotient Common blocks that inhibit creative thinking 0 Overly critical or negative attitudes 0 Over reliance on habits and routines 7 doing things because you ve always done them that way 0 Conformist attitudes 7 unwillingness to strike out in new directions 0 Lack of effort 7 it takes hard work to be creative 0 Over reliance on authority 7 can t always wait for boss s permission to try something new 0 Self discouragement 7 giving up too easily 0 Lack of confidence in your new ideas Seven Traits to Enhance Creative Thinking 1 Put aside critical analytical judicial thinking when you re working creatively 2 Go beyond your routine habits and attitudes stay out of ruts 3 Have an inquiring mind and the desire to find new ideas 4 Never be satisfied with the way things are assume that everything can be improved 5 Be open minded to new ideas and ideas of others 6 Appreciate the importance of creative effort 7 Go the extra mile creativity is hard work Rational model of decision making explains how managers should make decisions assumes managers will make logical decisions that will be optimum in furthering the organization s interest also called the classical model Non rational models of decision making assume that decision making is nearly always uncertain and risky making it difficult for managers to make optimal decisions Bounded Rationality suggests that the ability of decision makers to be rational is limited by numerous constraints Satisficing Model managers seek alternatives until they find one that is satisfactory not optimal Incremental Model managers take small shortterm steps to alleviate a problem Intuition making a choice without the use of conscious thought or logical inference Sources of intuition are expertise and feelings Analytics Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide sophisticated forms of business data analysis Portfolio analysis timeseries forecast also called business analytics Advantages of Group Decision Making Greater pool of knowledge Different perspectives Intellectual stimulation Better understanding of decision rationale Deeper commitment to the decision Disadvantages of Group Decision Making A few people dominate or intimidate Groupthink Satisficing Goal displacement Groupthink occurs when group members strive to agree for the sake of unanimity and thus avoid accurately assessing the decision situation Participative Management process of involving employees in setting goals making decisions solving problems and making changes in the organization Group Problem Solving Techniques Consensus 39gt occurs when members are able to express their opinions and reach agreement to support the final decision Brainstorming 39gt technique used to help groups generate multiple ideas and alternatives for solving problems There are several common decision making biases called heuristics that simplify the process of making decisions 1 When managers use only information that is readily available from memory to make judgments an availability bias exists 2 When people seek information to support their point of View and discount data that do not a confirmation bias exists 3 A representativeness bias refers to the tendency to generalize from a small sample or a single event 4 When managers add up all the money already spent on a project and conclude it is too costly to simply abandon it sunk cost bias exists 5 The tendency to make decisions based on an initial figure is adjustment bias 6 Escalation of commitment bias occurs when decision makers increase their commitment to a project despite negative information about it Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide CHAPTER 7 QUIZ The main disadvantage of the rational model is that it is prescriptive describing how managers ought to make decisions but not showing how they actually make decisions Value orientation re ects the eXtent to which a person focuses on either task and technical concerns or people and social concerns when making decisions People with a conceptual style have a high tolerance for ambiguity and tend to focus on the people or social aspects of a work situation According to the satis cing model managers seek alternatives until they nd one that is satisfactory not optimal Satis cing is a disadvantage of group decision making A decision tree is a graph of decisions and their possible consequences Groupthink does not occur when group members combine perspectives to nd an optimal solution to a problem Relaxed avoidance is an ineffective reaction to a situation in which a manager decides to take no action in the belief that there will be no great negative consequences Heuristics are strategies that simplify the process of making decisions Availability bias is not the tendency to generalize from a small sample or a single event CHAPTER 8 Test Your Knowledge Mechanistic vs Organic Structures Mechanistic 7 organizations that tend to be characterized by a rigid delineation of functional duties precise job descriptions narrowly de ned tasks xed authority and responsibility and a welldeveloped organizational hierarchy through which information lters up and instructions ow down Narrow span of control organized like a well designed machine and incorporates many of the characteristics of a bureaucracy Organic 7 organizational structure that is characterized by less formal job descriptions greater emphasis on adaptability greater participation multidirectional communication and less exed authority Wide span of control tasks are uid allowing for adaption to new situations and Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide organizational needs Organic structures are more consistent with knowledge management because they emphasize information sharing rather than hierarchy and status Flexible networks of multitalented individuals who perform a variety of tasks Decision making is centralized in mechanistic organizations and decentralized in organic organizations Centralized decision making 7 when key decisions are made by top management Decentralized decision making 7important decisions are made by middle and lowerlevel managers Centralized organizations are more tightly controlled while decentralized organizations are more adaptive to changing situations Goal is to achieve optimum balance between centralized and decentralized decision making Test Your Knowledge Allocating authority Key Concepts of Authority 0 parity principle authority and responsibility must coincide managers must delegate authority 0 unity of command an employee should have one and only one immediate manager 0 scalar principle chain of command authority in the organization ow through the chain of managers one link at a time ranging from the highest to the lowest ranks o span of control number of subordinates a manager can effectively manage typically 56 SelfAssessment Exercises Corporate Culture Preferences Scale Control Culture 7 values the role of senior executives to lead the organization Its goal is to keep everyone aligned and under control Performance Culture 7 values individual and organizational performance and strives for effectiveness and efficiency Relationship Culture values nurturing and wellbeing It considers open communication fairness teamwork and sharing a vital part of organizational life Responsive Culture values its ability to keep in tune with the external environment including being competitive and realizing new opportunities Destination CEO Southwest Airlines Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Gary Kelly 7 how does he keep SA at top of airline industry Very personable knows everyone sits in coach of plane Keep cost down y all the same planes the 747 Treat customers like kings and queens and employees even better Fuel hedging 7 allows southwest to pay far less for fuel Chapter 8 Video Whole Foods Market Loyal to the customers has a lot of organic products Employees are team members avg pay of 15 hr 2quotd largest non union retailer 51h among top companies to work for CEO is paid l a year Executives pay is capped at 19 times the avg worker pay High prices not enough organic farmers in US to support demand have to go to outside countries Organizational culture system of shared beliefs and values that develops within an organization and guides the behavior of its members Also called corporate culture Four Functions of Organizational Culture Organizational Identity Collective commitment Social system stability Sensemaking device Ways Cultures Become Embedded in Organizations 1 Formal statements 2 Slogans amp sayings 3 Stories legends amp myths 4 Leader reaction to crises 5 Role modeling training amp coaching 6 Physical design 7 Rewards titles promotions amp bonuses Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide 8 Organizational goals amp performance criteria 9 Measurable amp controllable activities 10 Organizational structure 11 Organizational systems amp procedures Organization a system of consciously coordinated activities or forces of two or more people Forprofit nonpro t mutualbenefit Basic Types of Organizational Structures Simple structure 39gt authority is centralized in a single person with few rules and low work specialization Functional structure 39gt people with similar occupational specialties are put together in formal groups Divisional structure 39gt people with diverse occupational specialties are put together in formal groups by similar products customers or geographic regions Matrix structure 39gt an organization combines functional and divisional chains of command in a grid so that there are two command structuresvertical and horizontal Teambased structure 39gt workgroups are used to improve horizontal relations and solve problems throughout the organization Network structure 39gt the organization has a central core that is linked to outside independent firms by computer connections Stages in the Life of an Organization Stage 1 Birth stage 7 the organization is created Stage 2 Youth stage 7 growth and expansion Stage 3 Midlife stage 7 period of growth evolving into stability Stage 4 Maturity stage organization becomes very bureaucratic large and mechanistic CHAPTER 8 QUIZ Culture is the quotsocial gluequot that binds members of the organization together On an organization chart the vertical hierarchy or authority does not reveal who specializes in what work The span of control refers to the number of people reporting directly to a given manager In a functional structure people with similar occupational specialties are put together in formal groups Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide A savings and loan is structured with divisions for making consumer loans mortgage loans business loans and agricultural loans This is an example of the product division In a network structure the organization has a central core that is linked to outside independent rms by computer connections which are used to operate as if all were a single organization An organization with a tall structure and a narrow span of control is most likely mechanistic in nature Integration is the tendency of the parts of an organization to draw together to achieve a common purpose In smallbatch technology goods are custommade to customer speci cations in small quantities The maturity stage in the life of an organization tends to be the most bureaucratic CHAPTER 9 Test Your Knowledge Exercises Stages of the Strategic HRM Flaming Process Strategic human resource management is the process by which managers design the components of an HRM system to be consistent with each other with other elements of organizational architecture and with the organization s strategy and goals Used to enhance an organization s efficiency quality innovation and responsiveness to customers Involves four distinct stages 0 Situational analysis environmental scanning helps HR planners identify and anticipate sources of threats and opportunities and should drive the organization s strategic planning 0 Forecasting demand for human resources estimating how many and what kinds of employees will be needed by the organization 0 Techniques include I expert estimates group of experts provide the organization with demand estimates based on prior experience intuition and subjective assessments of available economic and labor force indicators I trend projections forecasting based on a past relationship between a factor related to employment and employment itsel u J I 4394439 I r 1 r I statistical d ling I unit demand forecasting requires the unit managers to analyze the present and future personbyperson jobbyjob needs 0 Analyzing the supply of human resources analyzing the number and types of current employees in terms of the skills and training necessary for the future and also the supply of qualified works in the external labor market 0 Developing action plans to close any gap between human resource demand and supply Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide 0 When demand for workers is greater than the supply of workers I Overtime I Increase training and promotions of current employees I Recruit new employees 0 Availability of labor is limited demand exceeds supply I Quali ed employees are abundant I Attrition I Early retirements I Demotions I Layoffs I Terminations Test Your Knowledge Exercises Potential Errors in the Rating Process 0 Halo error 0 Assign their ratings on the basis of globalgood or bad impressions of rates Employees are rated either high or low on many aspects of job performance because the rater believes that the employee is high or low on some speci c aspect o Represent an error only if ratings are not justi ed Contrast Error 0 Rater compares several employees with one another rather than using an objective standard of performance Recency Error 7 use only recent information in the evaluation Leniency rater assigns high ratings to all employees Strictness rater gives low rating to all employees Central Tendency 7 manager rates all employees in the middle of the scale Previous three make it dif cult to distinguish between employees who have been rated by the same manager Self Assessment Exercises Sexual Harassment Training Anyone who has the power to hire transfer suspend lay off recall promote discharge assign reward or discipline other employees or merely have input into personnel decisions must receive sexual harassment training Here are some basic facts about sexual harassment Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide It39s a form of sex discrimination It39s against the law and CSU policy Anyone 7 faculty staff or student 7 can be a victim of sexual harassment and anybody can be a perpetrator Sexual harassment victims can be male or female and so can their harassers A man can sexually harass another man and a woman can sexually harass another woman In the workplace conduct would be considered sexual harassment if it s unwelcome based on a person s sex and interferes with that person s ability to do his or her job In an educational setting it s pretty much the same except that the sexual harassment would interfere with the student39s ability to get an education quid pro quo sexual harassment essentially means asking for sexual favors of some kind in exchange for special treatment on the job or the threat of illtreatment if the victim will not consent to sexual favors hostile environment sexual harassment takes place when speech or conduct of a sexual nature is so severe persistent or pervasive that it interferes with the victim s work performance or creates an intimidating hostile or offensive working environment To be considered sexual harassment the actions have to be proven unwelcome Employers can be liable for the behavior of customers clients or contractors California AB 1825 must be a 2 hour training segment Self Assessment Exercises Attitudes toward Unions Productivity would not be much higher without unions only 124 of Americans belong to umons Unions do not protect even the most incompetent workers as long as they belong to the union Unions constrain management attempts to increase productivity Union corruption is no more than and probably less than business corruption AA 139 1 Unions cannot be blamed for the wages that place US at a r Union workers tend to receive higher direct and indirect compensation Union workers are generally not violent during strikes The general decline in unionism suggests that both union and nonunion wages are becoming increasingly sensitive to import competition Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Unions have been very successful in getting favorable legislation passed into law and is even more likely under the Obama administration Federal law mandates democratic practices within unions Union members state that they are more satis ed with their wages and fringe bene ts but less satisfied with working conditions and supervision than nonunion workers Union membership has no relationship to overall job satisfaction Unions strongly favor pay systems based strictly on seniority with little or no distinction made among individual workers based on their performance A substantial unionnonunion earnings gap still exists but it has decreased slightly over the past 25 years Many employers now routinely hire permanent replacement workers Of course employers argue that many companies will not survive if they cannot keep business going Manager s Hot Seat Diversity in Hiring Candidate Conundrum Robert Gedaliah and Paul Munez Definitions Title VII of the civil rights act of 1964 protects individuals against employment discrimination on the basis of race and color as well as national origin sex or religion Administrative Closure charge closed for administrative reasons Merit Resolutions 7 charges with outcomes favorable to charging parties andor charges with meritorious allegations o No Reasonable Cause 7 EEOC s determination of no reasonable cause to believe that discrimination occurred based upon evidence obtained in investigation 0 Reasonable Cause 7 EEOC s determination of reasonable cause to believe that discrimination occurred based upon evidence obtained in investigation 0 Settlements charges settled with benefits to the charging party as warranted by evidence of record 0 Withdrawal with benefits 7 charge is withdrawn by charging party upon receipt of desired benefits Summary Interviewing two potential employees both women one is black Robert is leaning to Jacqueline and Paul is leaning towards Sonya Both have good qualities Robert wants to hire Jacqueline because she is African American to strengthen the minority of the company Seems to be discriminating Sonya by trying to avoid discriminating against Jacqueline Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Hiring decision was based not on physical appearance but on the total mix of the situation Destination CEO Darden Restaurants Clarence Otis Red Lobster Olive Garden began his career as a waiter in LA airport Father was a janitor and became chief janitor at LA airport Mother was very politically active Went to Williams College then to Stanford for law school Worked in corporate law then an investment banker Moved to Darden as a treasurer in 1995 CFO for 34 years then CEO Restaurants have been around because they adjust to guest expectations Employees who interact with guests must understand what company is trying to accomplish and be motivated to make them happen Chapter 9 Video Job Coaches Job coaching is used to keep employees and remain effective 1 What role do job coaches play in human resource management Allows new employees to blend into company and determine where they are needed Train Hr departments how to coach new hires 2 What are some of the benefits job coaches provide Help workers keep their jobs during good and bad economic times Survival of the fittest The fittest are in the best position to survive in corporations 3 How canjob coaching be used as a recruiting tool Interact with HR leaders to understand how to transition into the organization identify their critical stakeholders and blend into the company culture Human Resource Management consists of the activities managers perform to plan for attract develop and retain an effective workforce Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Strategic human resource planning consists of developing a systematic comprehensive strategy for understanding current employee needs and predicting future employee needs Job analysis determining the basic elements of a job by observation and analysis Job description summarizes what the holder of a job does and why they do it Job speci cation describes the minimum quali cations a person must have to perform a job successfully Human resource inventory report listing your organization s employees by name education training languages and other important information National Labor Relations Board enforces procedures whereby employees may vote for a union and collective bargaining Collective bargaining negotiations between management and employees about disputes over compensation benefits working conditions and job security Discrimination occurs when people are hired or promotedor denied hiring or promotionfor reason not relevant to the job Af rmative action focuses on achieving equality of opportunity within an organization including establishment of minority hiring goals Recruitment process of locating and attracting quali ed applicants for jobs open in the organization Realistic job preview gives a candidate a picture of both the positive and negative features of the job and the organization before he is hired Selection process screening of j ob applicants to hire the best candidate 39gt Background information application forms resumes reference checks Unstructured interview no fixed set of questions and no systematic scoring procedure Structured interview involves asking each applicant the same questions and comparing their responses to a standardized set of answers 39gt Situational 7 focuses on hypothetical situations 39gt Behavioral 7 explores what applicants have actually done in the past Employment tests legally considered to consist of any procedure used in the employment selection decision process 39gt ability performance personality 39gt reliability ability Orientation helping the newcomer f1t smoothly into the job and the organization 39gt designed to give employees the information they need to be successful Following orientation the employee should emerge with information about The job routine The organization s mission and operations The organization s work rules and employee benefits Training educating technical and operational employees in how to better do their current jobs Development educating professionals and managers in the skills they need to do their jobs in the future Performance management the continuous cycle of improving job performance through goal setting feedback and coaching and rewards and positive reinforcement Performance appraisal consists of assessing an employee s performance and providing him with feedback Objective appraisal Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide based on fact and often numerical harder to challenge legally also called results appraisal Subjective appraisal based on a manager s perceptions of an employees traits and behaviors Forced ranking all employees within a business unit are ranked against one another and grades are distributed along some sort of bell curve Formal appraisal conducted at speci c times throughout the year and based on performance measures that have been established in advance Informal appraisal conducted on an unscheduled basis and consists of less rigorous indications of employee performance Compensation wages or salaries incentives and bene ts Base pay basic wage or salary paid employees in exchange for doing their jobs Promotion 7 moving upward Transfer 7 moving sideways Disciplining amp Demotion 7 the threat of moving downward Dismissal 7 moving out of the organization CHAPTER 9 QUIZ Discrimination occurs when people are hired or promoted for reasons not relevant to the job Quid pro quo occurs when the person who claims sexual harassment is put in the position of jeopardizing a sigm cantjob opportunity unless he or she acquiesces A job speci cation describes the minimum quali cations a person must have to perform the job successfully In a behavioraldescription interview the interviewer explores what applicants have actually done in the past Orientation helps the newcomer t smoothly into the job and the organization Performance appraisal is de ned as assessing an employee s performance and providing him or her with feedback Under 360degree feedback employees are appraised by superiors peers and subordinates Stock options plan is an example of an employee incentive When a secretarial applicant takes a typing test at an interview he or she is taking an ability test Under downsizing employees are dismissed temporarily and may be recalled later when economic conditions improve FALSE Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 10 Test Your Knowledge Exercises Macro environmental Forces 6 forces in the general environment that affect longterm decision making and planning Economic affect the general health of a nation or the regional economy of an organization 0 Interest rates in ation unemployment and economic growth Technological combination of skills and equipment that managers use in the design production and distribution of goods and services 0 Can make established products obsolete and create a host of new opportunities for designing making or distribution of new and better goods and services Sociocultural forces originating from the social structure of a society or from the national culture 0 Can either constrain or facilitate the way organizations and managers operate Demographic 7 outcomes of changes in or changing attitudes toward the characteristics of a population 0 Age gender ethnic origin race sexual orientation and social class Politicallegal 7 outcomes of changes in laws and regulation 0 Political processes shape a society s laws and laws constrain the operations of organizations and managers Global 7 outcomes of changes in international relationships increasing economic integration of countries around the world Test Your Knowledge Exercises Types Causes and Management of Stress Stress is an adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person s wellbeing Stress is the individual s reaction to a situation not the situation itself Positive side of stress the healthy positive constructive outcome of stressful events Eustress stress experienced in moderation enough to activate and motivate people to achieve goals change their environments and succeed in life s challenges Distress negative level ofI 39 39 39 39 t 39 39 39 39 and 39 function I 39 deviation from healthy Three components of stress Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Physiological elevated blood pressure headaches gastrointestinal problems hypertension and coronary heart disease etc Psychological anxiety depression apathy or burnout Behavioral sleep disorders smoking and alcohol or drug consumption Four major types of stressors Individual directly associated with a person s job duties 0 Group caused by dysfunctional group dynamics Organizational affect large numbers of employees Extraorganizational caused by factors outside the organization Ways to cope with stress and stressors Control strategy 7 using behaviors and thoughts to directly anticipate or solve problems takecharge attitude Escape strategy 7 avoiding the problem using behavior and thoughts Symptom management strategy 7 using relaxation meditation medication or exercise to manage symptoms of stress Destination CEO Video Maj or League Baseball Bud Selig 7 taking heat from some for not doing more to getting to the bottom of the steroid issue Milwaukee Selig is a huge fan of baseball taken to games by his mother starting at age 6 Wanted to be a history professor dad wanted him to take over auto dealership Owned Milwaukee brewers brought them out of bankruptcy in the 70 s Criticized after almost every decision always controversy Steroid Controversy 7 blamed for not acting earlier All the controversy doesn t seem to matter when the magic of baseball is realized at the end of the day Initiated an investigation into steroids and HGH Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Notes Reactive change making changes in response to problems or opportunities as they arise Proactive change involves making carefully thoughtout changes in anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities 39gt Also called planned change Forces for Change Outside the Organization 1 Demographic characteristics 7 age education skill level gender immigration 2 Market changes 7 mergers amp acquisitions domestic amp international competition 3 T 39 39 39 39 J 7 f iug quot office automation 4 Social amp political pressures 7 leadership values Forces for Change Inside the Organization 1 Employee problems unmet needs job dissatisfaction absenteeism ampturnover productivity participation suggestions 2 Managers behavior 7 con ict leadership reward systems structural reorganization Areas where change is often needed 1 Changing people a Perceptions attitudes performance skills 2 Changing technology 3 Changing structure 4 Changing strategy Organization development OD set of techniques for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective Change agent a consultant with a background in behavioral sciences who can be a catalyst in helping organizations deal with old problems in new ways The OD Process 1 Diagnosis 7 what is the problem 2 Intervention 7 what shall we do about it 3 Evaluation 7 How well has the intervention worked 4 Feedback 7 how can the diagnosis be further refined Product innovation change in the appearance or performance of a product or the creation of a new one Process innovation change in the way a product is conceived manufactured or disseminated Incremental innovation creation of products services or technologies that modify existing ones Radical innovation creation of products services or technologies that replace existing ones Four Characteristics of Innovation 1 Innovation is an uncertain business 2 People closest to the innovation know the most about it at least initially 3 Innovation may be controversial 4 Innovation can be complex because it may cross organizational boundaries Reasons Employees Resist change Peer pressure Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Disruption of cultural traditions or group relationships Personality con icts Lack of tact or poor timing Nonreinforcing reward system Lewin s Change Model Unfreezing 7 creating the motivation to change Changing 7 learning new ways of doing things Refreezing 7 making the new ways normal Steps to Leading Organizational Change Establish a sense of urgency 7 unfreeze the organization by creating a compelling reason for why change is needed Create the guiding coalition 7 create a crossfunctional crosslevel group of people with enough power to lead the change Develop a vision and a strategy 7 create a vision and a strategic plan to guide the change process Communicate the change vision 7 create and implement a communication strategy that consistently communicates the new vision and strategic plan Empower broadbased action 7 eliminate barrier to change and use target elements of change to transform the organization Encourage risk taking and creative problem solving Generate shortterm wins 7 plan for and create shortterm wins or improvements Recognize and reward people who contribute to the wins Consolidate gains and produce more change 7 the guiding coalition uses credibility from shortterm wins to create more change Additional people are brought into the change process as change cascades throughout the organization Attempts are made to reinvigorate the change process Anchor new approaches in the culture 7 reinforce the changes by highlighting connections between new behaviors and processes and organizational success Develop methods to ensure leadership development and succession Chapter 10 Quiz gt19 Proactive change involves making carefully thoughtout changes in anticipation of possible or expected problems or opportunities The two most common inside forces for change are employee problems and managers behavior Making changes in response to problems or opportunities as they arise refers to reactive change In the organizational development process which step answers the question quotWhat shall we do about itquot Radical innovation is the creation of products that replace existing ones Adaptive change is a reintroduction of a familiar practice Radically Innovative change involves introducing a practice that is new to the industry Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide 8 9 Organizational development is a set of techniques for implementing planned change to make people and organizations more effective A process innovation is the creation of a new product or service or a change in its appearance or performance FALSE 10 In the unfreezing stage employees need to be helped to integrate the changed attitudes and behavior into their normal ways of doing things FALSE Chapter 11 Self Assessment Exercises Assessing How Your Personality Type Impacts Your Goal Setting Skills SMART components of a goal statement Speci c state exactly what you want to accomplish Measureable state what you want to accomplish in measureable terms so you will know when you ve reached the goal Actionoriented describe the actions you need to take in order to achieve your goal Realistic yet challenging choose motivating and stimulating goals that when achieved will give you a sense of pride and build your confidence Timely if you say you would like to do something someday it will more than likely never happen Self Assessment Exercises Assessing Your Empathy Skills Nine principles that relate to how to criticize another person from the criticized one s perspective 9959 gt1 50 Begin with praise and honest appreciation Call attention to people s mistakes indirectly Talk about your own mistakes before criticizing the other person Ask questions instead of giving direct orders Let the other person save face Praise the slightest improvement and praise every improvement Be quothearty in your approbation and lavish in your praisequot Give the other person a fine reputation to live up to Use encouragement Make the fault seem easy to correct Make the other person happy about doing the thing you suggest I Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Skills of an Active Listener l N V39 0 Work at listening which involves such things as choosing to concentrate asking questions and looking at the person Assume at least half of the responsibility for the success of the communication Sometimes listeners have the attitude that it s the speaker39s responsibility to communicate effectively so listeners who do not understand the speaker39s perspective often blame that lack of understanding on the speaker39s inability to communicate rather than on the listener s inability to actively pursue an understanding Focus on what the speaker is saying content not on how the speaker is saying it style For example listeners may be annoyed by a nervous mannerism of the speaker style and miss entirely what the speaker is trying to communicate content Take control of J39 quot in the 39 Many times external distractions such as temperature of the room noise or people moving around as well as u mu internal distractionssuch as having a headache or being emotionally upset about an incident that took place earlier in the daycan keep you from staying focused You can choose to ignore the quotdripping faucetquot or you can let the dripping faucet drive you insane Most distractions you can control if you choose to do so Seek to J J J before Jumping to conclusions before the speaker has completed his or her thought interrupting the speaker and changing the i 1 subject are all signs that you re not seeking to understand completely Assume there will be value Sometimes listeners assume there will be no value by having a knowitall attitude instead of a learning attitude or by assuming that the speaker39s content will be boring instead of looking for a point of interest Manager s Hot Seat Diversity Mediating Morality Syl Tang Daniel Simmons and Robert Franklin Primary Dimensions of Workplace diversity Ethnicity Race Mental physical qualities Age Gender Sexual orientation Secondary Dimensions of Workplace diversity First Language Life experiences Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Geographic location Behavioral style Education Income Work experience Work style Parental status Marital status Occupation Religion Interpersonal managerial role of diversity Figurehead 7 convey that effective management of diversity is a valued goal and objective Leader 7 Serve as a role model and institute policies and procedures to ensure that diverse members are treated fairly Liaison 7 enable diverse individuals to coordinate their efforts and cooperate with each other Informational managerial role of diversity Monitor 7 evaluate the extent to which diverse employees are being treated fairly Disseminator 7 inform employees about diversity policies and initiaties and the intolerance of discrimination Spokesperson 7 support diversity initiatives in the wider community and speak to diverse groups to interest them in career opportunities Decisional managerial role of diversity Entrepreneur commit resources to develop new ways to effectively manage diversity and eliminate biases Disturbance Handler 7 take quick action to correct inequalities and curtail discriminatory behavior Negotiator 7 work with organizations and groups to support and encourage the effective management of diversity Promoting Effective Management of Diversity Secure top management commitment Increase the accuracy of perceptions Increase diversity awareness Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide 1963 7 1993 7 Increase diversity skills Encourage exibility Pay close attention to how employees are evaluated Consider the numbers Empower employees to challenge discriminatory behaviors Reward employees for effectively managing diversity Provide training utilizing a multipronged ongoing approach Encourage mentoring of diverse employees Equal pay act Family amp medical leave act Bob is uncomfortable with Daniel s homosexuality Daniel feels he is being discriminated against Meeting consists of arguments Syl acknowledges that Bob will not keep his mouth shut and Daniel has a good point Manager s Hot Seat Personal Disclosure Confession Coincidence Kathleen Doerder and Janeen Winthrop Components of Self Disclosure Basic Steps 0 Share feelings thoughts and reactions 0 Increase breadth and depth gradually over time 0 Focus on the present rather than the past 0 Maintain a reciprocal level with colleague Basic Tips 0 Discuss situations as they happen Choose appropriate time and place for discussions Choose appropriate level of disclosure Move from selfdescription to selfdisclosure OOO Benefits of Self Disclosure Psychological relief in sharing problems or con icts Gain an added or alternate perspective Receive validation of concerns or perceptions Reduce stress and tension by getting things off your chest Improve understanding of diverse perspectives Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Strengthen and enhance business relationships Increase productivity by bonding with coworkers Tips for Developing Trust Practice what your preach 7 narrow the gap between your intentions and your behavior Open lines of communication 7 declare your intentions and invite feedback Accept disagreements and differences of opinion 7 manage con ict and seek solutions Keep confidential info con dential Let others know what you stand for and what you value Create an open environment 7 make it sfe for others to be with you and to share with you Maintain a high level of integrity and honesty Know yourself and how others perceive you 7 build on your competencies and accept your limitations Build credibility with others 7 be consistent and reliable Avoid micromanaging 7 this sends the message I don t trust you Janeen has been slacking off at work coming in late and poor performance Kathleen wants her to trust her and tell her what is bothering her Janeen admits to be a recovering alcoholic with a recent relapse Two months later Janeen seems like a new person Business is declining and Janeen is laid off Janeen accuses Kathleen of using alcoholism against her Says she is going to go to a lawyer about a discriminatory case Loselose situation NOTES Personality the stable psychological traits and behavioral attributes that give a person his or her identity The big 5 personality Dimensions Extroversion how outgoing talkative sociable and assertive a person is Agreeableness how trusting goodnatured cooperative and softhearted one is Conscientiousness how J J 39 39 quot 39 a Li v t riented and persistent one is Emotional stability how relaxed secure and unworried one is Openness to experience how intellectual imaginative curious and broadminded one 1s r Proactive personality someone who is more apt to take initiative and persevere to in uence the environment Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Five Traits Important in Organizations Locus of control indicates how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts 39gt internal external Self efficacy belief in one s ability to do a task Lt Learned helplessness Self esteem the extent to which people like or dislike themselves their overall self evaluation Self monitoring the extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt it to external situations Emotional intelligence ability to cope empathize with others and be selfmotivated Organizational Behavior tries to help managers not only explain workplace behavior but also to predict it so that they can better lead and motivate their employees to perform productively 39gt individual group behavior Three components of Attitudes Affective consists of feelings or emotions one has about a situation Cognitive beliefs and knowledge one has about a situation Behavioral refers to how one intends or expects to behave toward a situation Cognitive dissonance the psychological discomfort a person experiences between his or her cognitive attitude and incompatible behavior Importance control rewards Job satisfaction extent to which you feel positively or negatively about various aspects of your work Job involvement extent to which you identify or are personally involved with your job Organizational commitment re ects the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization and is committed to its goals Strong positive relationship between organizational commitment and job satisfaction Perception process of interpreting and understanding one s environment Four steps in the perceptual process 1 Selective attention 2 Interpretation amp evaluation 3 Storing in memory 4 Retrieving from memory to make judgments amp decisions Management 201 Test 2 Study Guide Stereotyping tendency to attribute to an individual the characteristics one believes are typical of the group to which that individual belongs Sexrole age raceethnicity Chapter 11 Quiz Extroversion refers to how relaxed secure and unworried an individual is FALSE Selfmonitoring is the extent to which people are able to observe their own behavior and adapt it to external situations A learned predisposition toward a given object refers to attitude The behavioral component of attitude refers to how one intends or expects to act toward a situation Organizational commitment reflects the extent to which an employee identifies with an organization Locus of control governs how much people believe they control their fate through their own efforts The tendency to filter out information that is discomforting that seems irrelevant or that contradicts one39s belief refers to selective perception Emotional intelligence includes the ability to cope empathizing with others and selfmotivation In the fundamental attribution bias people tend to take more personal responsibility for success than for failure FALSE Role conflict occurs when one feels torn by the different expectations of important people in one39s life EXAM 3 Study Guide and Notes Management 201 CHAPTER 12 Test Your Knowledge Reinforcement Theory 0 EL Thomdike s Law of Effect 7 reinforcement theory states that behavior followed by desired consequences will likely be repeated 0 Consequences 7 events following a target behavior that in uence its future occurrence 0 Positive reinforcement 7 occurs when the introduction of a desired consequence increases the frequency of a behavior ex Giving an employee a favorable performance evaluation 0 Negative reinforcement 7 occurs when the removal or termination of an undesirable consequence increases the frequency of a behavior ex Removing an employee from probation is an example 0 Punishment 7 shouting involves administering an aversive or undesirable consequence and serves to decrease the frequency of a behavior 0 Extinction 7 target behavior decreases because it is followed by no consequence forgetting to say thanks for a favor 0 Both positive and negative reinforcement serve to increase the frequency of the target behavior while both punishment and extinction serve to decrease the frequency of the target behavior Positive and negative reinforcement increase the target behavior because the individual gains a desired outcome or avoids an undesired outcome Destination CEO Nordstrom John Nordstrom 7 100 years ago founded a shoe store Blake Nordstrom great grandson wants to maintain company but wants to bring in younger customers Worked in a boat yard in Seattle in high school John Nordstrom 7 founded with gold rush money Inverted pyramid 7 customers first employees second shareholders last Unique culture lets employees make own decisions Emphasizes listening to customers Went public in 1971 Mid 90s lost its way when non family member was appointed CEO Made too many abrupt changes Alienated core customers Managing by committees computerized inventory control system Chapter 12 Video Best Buy s Clockless Office No traditional hours Goes to office for rare meetings and optional Not how many hours in the office its are employees getting work done Big problem 7 top performers were jumping shifts supervisors were constantly looking over people s shoulders Work becomes something you do not a place you go John Thompson 7 big on face time didn t think it would work Proven wrong 7 things got done better than with inspections Results only work enVironment Chapter 12 Notes Motivation the psychological processes that arouse and direct goaldirected behaVior You want to motivate people to Join your organization Stay with your organization Show up for work at your organization Perform better for your organization Do extra for your organization Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs 1 Self 7 actualization 2 Esteem 3 Love 4 Safety 5 Physiological Existence needs desire for physiological and material wellbeing Relatedness needs desire to have meaningful relationships with people who are significant to us Growth needs desire to grow as human beings and to use our abilities to their fullest potential Need for achievement desire to achieve excellence in challenging tasks Need for af liation desire for friendly and warm relations with other people Need for power desire to be responsible for or control other people Motivating factors 7 what will make people satisfied 0 Achievement 0 Recognition o The work itself 0 Responsibility 0 Advancement amp growth Hygiene factors 7 what will make people dissatisfied 0 Pay amp security Working conditions Interpersonal relationships Company policy Supervisors Expectancy Theory suggests that people are motivated by two things 1 how much they want something and 2 how likely they think they are to get it 0 Job design division of an organization s work among its employees and the application of motivational theories to jobs to increase satisfaction and performance 0 Job simplification job enlargement job enrichment Job Characteristics Model Reinforcement theory attempts to explain behavior change by suggesting that behavior with positive consequences tends to be repeated whereas behavior with negative consequences tends not to be repeated Positive reinforcement Reward only desirable behavior Give rewards as soon as possible Be clear about what behavior is desired Have different rewards and recognize individual differences Popular Compensation Plans Piece rate employees paid according to how much output they produce Sales commission sales reps are paid a percentage of the earnings the company made from their sales Bonuses cash awards given to employees who achieve speci c performance objectives pro t sharing the distribution to employees of a percentage of the company s profits Gainsharing the distribution of savings or gains to groups of employees who reduced costs and increased measurable productivity stock options certain employees are given the right to buy stock at a future date for a discounted price pay for knowledge employee pay is tied to the number of j ob relevant skills or academic degrees they earn Nonmonetary Ways of Motivating Employees Flexible workplace Thoughtfulness Worklife benefits Surroundings Skillbuilding amp educational opportunities Sabbaticals The most common nonmonetary incentive is the exible workplace Companies need to offer employees a means of balancing their work and their personal lives Companies need to create a work environment that is conducive to productivity Companies can help employees build their skills by developing shadowing programs and offering tuition reimbursement O ering sabbaticals to longterm employees gives people a change to recharge themselves Chapter 12 Quiz An intrinsic reward is the payoff such as money that a person receives from others for performing a particular task False Hygiene factors such as working conditions interpersonal relationships and salary are associated with job dissatisfaction The desire for friendly and warm relations with other people refers to which of McClelland s acquired needs Af liation Equity theory focuses on employee perceptions as to how fairly they think they are being treated compared to others Job simpli cation is the process of reducing the number of tasks a worker performs The eXtent to which a job affects the lives of other people refers to task signi cance Negative reinforcement is the removal of unpleasant consequences following a desired behavior Expectancy theory suggests that people are motivated more by how much they want something than by how likely they are going to get it False The rst step in the Job Characteristics Model is to diagnose the work environment to see if a problem eXists CHAPTER 13 Test Your Knowledge Style of Handling Con ict 0 5 styles of con ict management 7 l 39 39 39 avoiding quot 39 and compromising O Competing 7 assertive and uncooperative assumes pursuit of one s goals at eXpense of others through argument authority threat Appropriate when quick decisive action is vital or when necessary but unpopular actions must be implemented 0 Accommodating 7 obliging or smoothing unassertive and cooperative behavior Appropriate when issue is more important to the other party 0 Avoiding 7 unassertive and uncooperative pursue neither their own concerns nor those of others Sidestepping an issue postponing it or withdrawing from the situation Appropriate when issue is relatively unimportant O Collaborating 7 problem solving or integrating assertive yet cooperative behavior Involves working with the other person to nd a situation that fully satis es both parties Info sharing is key so both parties can identify common ground and potential solutions Appropriate when concerns of both parties are too important to be compromised O Compromising 7 midway on both assertive and cooperative scale goal is to nd a mutually acceptable middle ground splits the difference Appropriate when goals are moderately important but not worth the effort of collaboration or the possible disruption of competition SelfAssessment Exercise What is your primary con icthandling style 0 Integrating problem solving 7 confront the issue and cooperatively identify the problem generate and weigh alternative solutions and select a solution 0 Appropriate for complex issues plagued by misunderstanding o Inappropriate when group members disagree because of opposing value systems 0 Strengths longer lasting impact by dealing with the underlying problem and not just symptoms 0 Weakness time consuming Obliging Smoothing 7 satisfy the other party s wishes or at least cooperate with little or no attention to your own interests 0 Appropriate when the other party has substantially more power or the issue is not as important to you as to the other party Strengths temporary smoothes over tensions and disagreements Weakness not confronting the underlying problem and instead relying on satisfying the other party 0 Dominating forcing 7 require that the other parties follow your wishes without signi cant consideration of their needs or concerns Using authority to force compliance 0 Necessary when an unpopular solution must be implemented minor issue deadline is near 0 Inappropriate in an open and participative climate 0 Strength speed of implementation 0 Weakness breeds resentment O O o Avoiding 7 passive withdraw from the problem or active suppression of the issue 0 Appropriate for trivial issues or when the costs of confrontation outweigh the bene ts of resolving the con ict 0 Strength buys time to clarify the problem 0 Weakness temporary x that sidesteps underlying problem 0 Compromising 7 reaching a middle ground with the other party both parties seek to offset losses by equally valued gains 0 Appropriate when parties have opposite goals or possess equal power 0 Inappropriate when overuse would lead to inconclusive action 0 Strength 7 democratic process with no losers 0 Temporary x that can reduce the incentive to solve the cause of the con ict SelfAssessment Exercise Team Roles Preferences Scale 0 Encourager 7 praises and supports the ideas of other team members thereby showing warmth and solidarity to the group 0 Build and maintain greater enthusiasm and commitment by group members 0 Gatekeeper 7 encourages and facilitates participation of all team members 0 Team members do not automatically contribute equally since some individuals may attempt to dominate discussions while others are reluctant to express their viewpoints o Harmonizer 7 mediates intragroup con icts and reduces tension o Realizes that con ict is a healthy natural part of group interactions but some disagreements need to focus on solving problems and meeting goals set by the group and not become personal Always nd ways to bridge gaps and identify the reasons behind con icts o Initiator 7 identi es goals for the meeting including ways to work on those goals 0 Summarizer 7 takes notes of meeting and summarizes the discussion when requested 0 Team can assess its progress and where it needs to go Manager s Hot Seat Working in Teams CrossFunctional Dysfunction 0 Joseph Tanney Simon Mahoney Cheng Jing Rosa Denson 0 Groups and teams 0 Formal GroupsTeams created by managers I Cross functional I Cross cultural I Top management I Research and development I Command I Task forces I Virtual o Informal group created by company members I Friendship I Interest groups 0 Stages of group development 0 Forming 7 reach common understanding 0 Storming 7 experience con ict and disagreement o Norming 7 reach consensus build camaraderie 0 Performing 7 accomplish the work 0 Adj ouming 7 disband group 0 Process for group cohesiveness 0 Factors I Group size Effectively managed diversity I Group identity and healthy competition I Success 0 Group cohesiveness 0 Consequences I Level of participation within a group I Level of conformity to group norms I Emphasis on group goal accomplishment 0 Model of Team effectiveness 0 Team environment I Team design I Team processes 0 Team effectiveness 0 Team spent more time complaining rather than planning what needed to get done 0 Joe says that he should have taken into account people s personalities rst 0 Think through who would be appropriate for various tasks ahead of time 0 Should be committed to your job Chapter 13 Video Can office friendships work 0 Gary s ideas 0 Good for the company and good for employees I Foolish to isolate and imprison employees I We are social animals need social interaction 0 Needs to be woven into the way work is done I People need to cooperate with each other 0 Non productive I relationship goes sour 0 have to split up and transfer I competitive super productive places forces talent to leave 0 Mary Lou 0 Don t want to see schoolyard ghts o No clicks 0 Best mentoring relationships are built on friendships 0 Work marriages I Doesn t seem to work out Chapter 13 Notes Group two or more freely acting individuals who share collective norms collective goals and have a common identity Team small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose performance goals and approach for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Stages of Group and team development fumun naming a anmmn mm Amuumma Gawng mammav cum l answer a perslmahhzs mm gm Am mm g MW mi ms Perl Sn mg la web em a 1m alelng amamm sum 5 ulmssguu ask Small teams 2 9 members better interaction and better morale Disadvantages Fewer resources Possibly less innovation Unfair work distribution Large Teams 10 16 members More resources and Division of labor 3939 Disadvantages Less interaction Lower morale Social loa ng Roles a socially determined expectation of how an individual should behave in a speci c position 39v Task roles maintenance roles Norms general guidelines that most group or team members follow Cohesiveness tendency of a group or team to stick together Groupthink a cohesive group s blind unwillingness to consider alternatives Ways to Build collaborative teams Investing in signature relationship practices Modeling collaborative practices Creating a gift culture Ensuring the requisite skills Supporting a strong sense of community Assigning team leaders that are both task and relationship oriented Building on heritage relationships Understanding role clarity and task ambiguity Symptoms of Groupthink Invulnerability inherent morality and stereotyping of opposition Rationalization and selfcensorship Illusion of unanimity peer pressure and mindguards Groupthink versus the wisdom of the crowds Con ict process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party High opurm mew ac cnlhzl Fenomnnce comm Seven Causes ofCon ict Competition for scarce resources Time pressure Inconsistent goals or reward systems Ambiguous jurisdictions Status differences Personality clashes Communication failures SQM WNH Avoiding Maybe the problem will go away Accommodating 7 Let s do it your way Forcing 7 You have to do it my way Compromising 7 Let s split the difference Collaborating 7 Let s cooperate to reach a winwin solution that bene ts both of us Devices to stimulate constructive con ict 1 Spur competition among employees 2 Change the organization s culture amp procedures 3 Bring in outsiders for new perspectives Use programmed con ict Chapter 13 Quiz A team is a small group of people with complementary skills who are committed to a common purpose for which they hold themselves mutually accountable Small teams tend to have more resources and better division of labor FALSE In a crossfunctional team members are composed of people from different departments such as sales and production pursuing a common objective Group cohesiveness is developed in which stage of the group and team development process Norming Social Loa ng is the tendency of people to exert less effort when working in groups than when working a one A maintenance role consists of behavior that fosters constructive relationships among team members Groupthink refers to a group s unwillingness to consider alternatives Political in ghting is a sign of too much con ict in an organization All con ict is dysfunctional therefore bad for any organization FALSE The Dialectic method is the process of having two people or groups play opposing roles in a debate in order to better understand a proposal CHAPTER 14 SelfAssessment Exercises Do you have what it takes to be a leader MANAGERS LEADERS Mainly cope with Complexity Change Look at what needs to be done by Flaming and budgeting Setting a direction Pull together the people needed to Organizing and staffing Alignment get the job done through Ensure that people do their jobs by Controlling and problem solving Motivating and inspiring Seven Leadership Qualities 0 Personal stability Productivity Self management Boundary setting Communication Work quality Teamwork Personal Stability o Leaders must possess personal stability in order to keep those they are leading on track and focused on the goals they are pursuing together 0 Demonstrated by exhibiting mental and emotional maturity in their words and actions by remaining con dent in their own abilities even when they are pressed to limits being optimistic when circumstances around them are anything but positive Productivity 0 Followers count on their leaders to be dependable and effective using their time and resources well 0 Must set priorities goals and deadlines delegate tasks appropriately and use time to focus on solutions rather than dwelling on problems SelfManagement o Implies leaders have such abilities as managing their emotions holding themselves personally accountable for what they say and do having their schedules under control and displaying selfdiscipline in the way they live their lives Boundary setting 0 Must establish boundaries in their lives 7 boundaries that keep them from or at lease minimize the effects of becoming overloaded 0 Important to establish margins or reserves that they can save for uneXpected demands Communication 0 Comfortable talking with people from all walks of life place a priority on keeping others informed work hard at understanding others perspectives are good listeners and can successfully articulate their ideas 00000 0 Work Quality 0 High quality is achieved by focusing on the task at hand with a desire to produce the best outcome 0 Leaders who give their all to what they doitheir skills talents passion and hard worki perform at their highest level and earn the respect of their followers Teamwork 0 Modeling how to work well with others to successfully achieve the group s goals 0 Being a good team player requires personal stability productivity communication and work quality problem solving skills people skills and con ict resolution SelfAssessment Exercises Assessing your emotional intelligence Emotional intelligence E1 7 emotional quotient EQ differs from mental intelligence IQ in that EI involves awareness and insights into emotions rather than into other mental functions and refers to measurements of an individual s ability to understand and manage his or her emotions and interpersonal relationships Basic dimensions of emotional intelligence 0 Selfawareness ability to recognize and identify your feelings o Selfmanagement ability to handle your feelings in a productive and appropriate manner o Selfmotivation ability to set and achieve goals delay the immediate grati cation of an impulse and maintain a positive outlook o Empathy ability to be sensitive to and understand other people s feelings 0 Social skills ability to interact with others in a positive and productive manner SelfAssessment Exercises Assessing your exibility o Flexibility 7 person who is open to change and new information adapts behavior and work methods in response to new information changing conditions or unexpected obstacles 0 Flexible managers tend to Enjoy tacling new problems that have no familiar or straightforward solutions 0 Have a high tolerance for ambiguity 0 Stay loose by exploring various approaches to a problem without prematurely categorizing or structuring any of its elements 0 Be able to drop one line of thought and take up another when new developments arise they can quickly shift gears without losing sight of the overall goal 0 21 Competencies 0 General competencies I Written communications I Oral communications I Interpersonal skills I Flexibility I Decisiveness I Leadership I Selfdirection I Technical competence o Supervisory Competencies I Managing a diverse workforce I Con ict management I In uencingnegotiating I Human resources manager I Team building 0 Managerial Competencies I Creative thinking I Planning and evaluating I Financial management I Client orientation I Technology management I Internal controls and integrity 0 Executive Competencies I Vision I External awareness O SelfAssessment Exercises Assessing your LeaderMember exchange 0 Referent power 7 comes from the willingness of others to do something because they admire identify with like or respect the person making the request 0 Mutual affection o loyalty 0 Expert power 7 supervisor s knowledge skills or experience 0 Professional respect Chapter 14 Video The McFarlane Companies Leadership 0 Todd McFarlane Good at both the artistic mind and business mind Compared to Walt Disney 7 got people to stick to aesthetic visions Todd the artist and Todd the CEO Started at marvel comics drawing Spiderman than began his own business Bought record homerun baseballs for 3 million than made 20 million in the baseball business Right brain left brain personality Privately owned company so Todd can make decisions on his own quickly Product is key Quality is high price is reasonable Don t focus on income ratios Considers his company to have a 100 percent of collectables market Careful nancial management practices Chapter 14 Notes 0 Leadership 7 ability to in uence employees to voluntarily pursue organizational gains 0 Five sources of power Legitimate power results from managers formal positions within the organization 2 Reward power results from managers authority to reward their subordinates 3 Coercive power results from managers authority to punish their subordinates 4 Expert power results from one s specialized information or expertise 5 Referent power derived from one s personal attraction o Approaches to Leadership i Trait approaches Koiizes amp Posner Ive traitsehonnst competenr lorwardrlnoking inspiring intelligent Gender producing highr quality work and so on Leadership lessons rem rho GLOBE proiocrevlsionary and Inspirational charismatic leaders who are good team builders are best worldwrue 2 Behavioralapproeehns Michigan model two leadership styles jobcentered and employeecentered Ohio Stato n iodelitvo dimensions Initiatingvslructure behavior and consideration behavior 3 contingency approaches Fl 39 e er style and style and three dimensions of controi leadermember task lruclure position power O House39s path 3 y or i goals and employee characteristics and environmental factors that arrect leadership behaviors Hersey amp Bionenara39s sizuarienai leadership madevadjusting leadership style to employee readiness 4 Full range approach Transactional Ieaderslupiclariiy employee roles and tasks and provide rewards and punishments r rransormarionai ieaaersiwipetrnnslnrrn employee to pursue organizational gaals over selrelnlnrests using lnsplralional motivation loeanzea inilucncc Indtvi uallzcd consideration intellectual stimulation 5 Four a ltlonal porepecuves sorts oi relationships wllh dlffergnl subordinates snor aadersnlpimutual lnrluenco process in which people share responsibility for ieading Greenears servant leadershlp model providing service to Others not oneselr ELeadership u5ng iniormatlon technology or oneeto one oncetoemany and between group anci collective interactions m E Positive Leadership Traits 0 Intelligence Selfconfidence Determination Problemsolving skills EXtraversion o Conscientiousness Michigan Leadership Model 0 Job Centered behavior 7 principal concerns were with achieving production efficiency keeping costs down and meeting schedules 0 Employee centered behavior 7 managers paid more attention to employee satisfaction and making work groups cohesive Ohio State Leadership Model 0 Initiating structure 7 behavior that organizes and de nes what group members should be doing 0 Consideration 7 eXpresses concern for employees by establishing a warm friendly supportive climate Contingency leadership model 7 determines if a leader s style is task oriented or relationship oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at han Dimensions of situational control 0 Leadermember relations 7 re ects the eXtent to which the leader has the support of the work group 0 Task structure 7 eXtent to which tasks are routine and easily understood 0 Position power 7 refers to how much power a leader has to make work assignments OOOOOO mlnmgG me m p u 5 mm mm gt87 momma INwIlvIIB Situational Leadership Model 0 Paul Hersey and Kenneth Blanchard proposed the situational leadership theory which suggests that leaders should adjust their leadership style according to the readiness eXtent to which employees are willing and able to complete a task of followers relatioriship behavior is the eXtent to which leaders maintain personal relationships with their followers 0 task behavior is the eXtent to which leaders organize and eXplain the role of their followers 0 The HerseyBlanchard model is widely used as a training tool but because it has not been strongly supported by scienti c research managers should be cautious when using prescriptions from the mo e 0 FullRange Model 0 Transactional leadership 7 focuses on clarifying employees roles and task requirements and providing rewards and punishments contingent on performance Transformational leadership 7 transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over selfinterests I In uenced by individual chamcteristics and organizational culture 0 Secrets of Successful ELeaders o Chapter 14 Quiz 0 Management is about coping with change whereas leadership is about coping with complexity FALSE 0 Studies show that men make better managers than women FALSE Power is the extent to which a person is able to in uence others so they respond to orders 0 Referent power is derived from one39s own personal attmction 0 Transactional leadership is a fullmnge approach to leadership 0 Jobcentered and employeecentered are the two forms of leadership style in the University of Michigan leadership model 0 The contingency leadership model determines if a leader39s style is taskoriented or relationship oriented and if that style is effective for the situation at hand 0 Transformational leadership helps employees pursue organizational goals over selfinterests 0 Consideration is leadership behavior that organizes what group members should be doing FALSE 0 Shared leadership focuses on providing increased service to others7meeting the goals of both followers and the organization rather than one39s own goals FALSE CHAPTER 15 SelfAssessment Exercises 7 What is Your Communication Style under Stress 0 Crucial conversation 7 stakes are high opinions vary and emotions run strong 0 Seven Dialogue Skills Equot W 5 U 9 gt1 Start With heart 7 remember that the only person you can directly control is yourself Begin high risk discussions with the right motives and stay focused no matter what happens Staying focused means knowing what you want and resisting the urge to ght or take ight because you know dialogue is always an option Learn to Look 7 Instead of getting so caught up in the content of the conversation that you are blind to the conditions make an effort to tune into how people are feeling and acting If you can see when people are becoming upset or holding back their views or even going silent you can do something to get the conversation back on track Make it Safe 7 both you and the other person in the conversation must believe that you are working toward a common outcome in the conversation that you both care about each other s goals interest and values and that you both respect one another Master My Stories 7 addresses how you handle the intermediate step between what others do and how you feel The intermediate step occurs just after you observe what others do and just before you feel some emotion about it when you tell yourself a story You add meaning to the action you observed State my Path 7 when you have a tough message to shre or when you are so convinced of your own rightness that you may push too hard you remember you ll be more effective if you STATE your path I Share your facts I Tell your story I Ask for others paths I Talk tentatively I Encourage testing 0 rst 3 tell what to do last 2 tell how to do it EXpolore other s paths 7 start with an attitude of curiosity and patience Listening involves asking mirroring paraphrasing and priming Move to Action 7 determine how decisions will be made and then put the decisions into action SelfAssessment Exercises Active Listening Skills Inventory 5 dimensions of active listening OOOOO avoiding interruption postponing evaluation showing interest maintaining interest organizing information Avoiding interruption 7 must avoid interrupting the speaker give other person opportunity to complete the message and allow a brief pause before responding Postponing Evaluation 7 stay open minded about someone else s opinions and ideas and delay your evaluation of the message until the speaker has nished There is a big difference between feigning interest and showing genuine interest Decide in advance that you will genuinely show interest by focusing on what the other person is saying Maintaining interest 7 it s easy for the mind to wander or to become impatient and distracted since you can think much faster than someone can speak the subject may be boring and you believe that the other person knows less than you 0 start with the mindset that every conversation has the potential to reward you with useful information Organizing Information 7 listening objective is to organize the useful information from a speaker into key points Manager s Hot Seat Listening Skills Yeah Whatever Pilar G1imualt and Miguel Valentino The Communication Process 0 Transmission phase I Sender to message to encoding to medium to decoding by receiver to receiver 0 Feedback Phase 39Receiver now sender to message to encoding to medium to decoding by sender now receiver Communication skills for managers 0 send messages that are clear and complete 0 encode messages in symbols that the receiver understands 0 select an appropriate medium for message 0 select a medium that receiver monitors 0 avoid ltering and distorting information 0 ensure that a feedback mechanism is built into message 0 provide accurate information to ensure that misleading rumors are not spread Components of Active Listening 0 Responding 7 show interest and clarify the message 0 Sensing 7 postpone evaluation avoid interruptions and maintain interest 0 Evaluating 7 empathize and organize information Communication Skills for Managers 0 Pay attention 7 focus on the immediate project or issue 0 Be a good listener 7 maintain eye contact ask questions paraphrase key statements 0 Be empathetic 7 try to understand the message from the sender s perspective 0 Be aware of linguistic styles cross cultural differences and gender differences Communication Networks 0 Chain 7 information ows in a predetermined sequence 0 Wheel Network 7 information ow to and from central member of group 0 Circle Network 7 information ows between colleagues in similar location area of eXpertise o All channel network 7 information ows to and from each individual within the group Information Processing 7 the volume of information received may exceed the person s capacity to process it 0 causes episodes of information overload Pilar feels that Miguel s response is missing the point he upset a client through poor communication and disregard for procedure Pilar is certain that the trouble with this meeting is that Miguel is distracted Pilar decides to reiterate the problem in clearer terms Pilar feels the meeting was a failure she was unable to communicate with Miguel Pilar thinks the second meeting was different because Miguel s afraid Disciplinary action has shaken him Pilar nds that miguel s behavior is motivated and he illustrates active listening and a cooperative approach to problem solving Chapter 15 Video Email Etiquette in the Workplace In general email less formal than written letters No lowercase letters use spell check Keep in mind who you are talking to Talk through email more than face to face remember what impression you are giving Never going to look bad for looking professional in an email Subpar Grammar and short hand can be appropriate depending on who you are talking to Be careful with reply all No personal emails at work Don t risk emailing jokes Employers are looking over your shoulder don t want to look unprofessional Chapter 15 Notes Communication the transfer of information and understanding from one person to another 81 of a manager s time in a typical workday is spent communicating The Communication Process Barriers to Communication 1 Physical barriers sound time and space 2 Semantic barriers when words matter 3 Personal barriers individual attributes that hinder communication Nonverbal communication consists of messages sent outside of the written or spoken word 3939 Expressed through interpersonal space eye contact facial eXpressions body movements amp gestures touch setting and time Toward Better Nonverbal Communication Skills Dn Don t m w M m m um mm W mm mm nunylnvu n Srmi M a mmlu mw mn 501k um mm SLL39JJVN mm wmw mum Smut mm mm mnmhon 0ta arm139 mad wad m spunan am am eye Formal communication channels follow the chain of command and are recognized as of cial 3939 Vertical horizontal external Informal Communication Channels 3939 Grapevine unofficial communication system of the informal organization 3939 Management by wandering around term used to describe a manager s literally wandering around his organization and talking with people across all lines of authority Communication Tools of Information Technology The Internet intranet and eXtranets Email Videoconferencing Group support systems Telecommuting Handheld devices Blogs Tips for Better Email Handling Treat all email as confidential Pretend every message is a postcard that can be read by anyone Be careful with jokes and informality Avoid sloppiness but avoid criticizing others sloppiness When replying quote only the relevant portion Not every topic belongs on email Communication Tools of Information Technology 3939 Videoconferencing uses Video and audio links along with computers to enable people in different locations to see hear and talk with each other 3939 Telepresence technology highde nition Videoconference systems that simulate face toface meetings between users Communication Tools of Information Technology 3939 Benefits of Telecommuting owewwr fl39l39l39 1 Reduce capital costs 2 Increase exibility and autonomy for workers 3 Provide a competitive advantage when recruiting 4 Increase job satisfaction 5 Increase productivity 6 Ability to tap into nontraditional workers Being an Effective Listener Judge content not delivery Ask questions summarize remarks Listen for ideas Resist distractions show interest Give a fair hearing Being an Effective Reader Realize that speed reading doesn t work Learn to streamline reading Do topdown reading 7 SQ3R Being an Effective Writer Don t show your ignorance Understand your strategy before you write Start with your purpose Write simply concisely and directly Telegraph your writing with a powerful layout Chapter 15 Quiz Noise occurs in verbal communication but not in nonverbal communication FALSE Semantics is terminology specific to a particular profession or group FALSE The transfer of information and understanding from one person to another is communication Which type of communication has the highest media richness Facetoface presence Organizations in which linesupervisors deliver information to middle and uppermanagement are using which flow of information Upper Horizontal communication flows within and between work units with coordination as a main purpose Management by wandering around helps to reduce the problems of distortion that inevitably occur with formal communication flowing up a hierarchy Instructions related to a particular job task involve downward communication Information overload occurs when the amount of information received exceeds a person39s ability to handle or process it When laying out ideas in writing it is best to start with the least controversial ideas and finish with the ideas that are most controversial CHAPTER 16 Test Your Knowledge Exercises Categories of Managerial Control Four managerial functions 0 Flaming o Organizing 0 Leading o Controlling Control represents the process of ensuring that organizational activities are going according to plan 0 Accomplished by comparing actual performance to predetermined standards or objectives then taking action to correct any deviations 0 Purpose is to alert the manager to an existing or potential problem before it become critical Managers monitor and evaluate whether organizational strategy and structure are working as intended how they might be improved and how they might be changed if necessary Control is also concerned with keeping employees motivated focused on important problems facing the organization and working together to take advantage of opportunities that will help the organization perform successfully Two major concerns when practicing managerial control 0 Stability 7 manager must ensure that the organization is operating within established boundaries of constraint as determined by policies budgets ethics and laws o Realization of objectives 7 requires constant monitoring to ensure enough progress is being made toward established objectives Control process has four basic requirements 0 Establishing standards 0 Measure performance 7 main purpose is to gather data and detect problem areas 39Issue is deciding when where and how often to inspect or measure 0 Comparing performance to the standards 0 Correcting deviations if the standard is not being achieved Standard 7 value used as reference point for comparing other values 0 Should be easy to de ne and measure 0 Effective standards are objective rather than subjective and are not easily sabotaged or falsi ed Two categories of control methods 0 Behavior control personal control based on direct personal surveillance 39EXpensive demotivate subordinates may not be feasible for compleX jobs 0 Output control 7 impersonal control based on the measurement of outputs 39Managers must be sure the goals set do not foster unethical behavior on the part of employees Methods for exercising control 0 Feedforward 7 preliminary precontrol or steering controls attempt to prevent a problem from occurring 0 Concurrent 7 screening controls focus on things that happen as inputs are being transformed into outputs 39Designed to detect a problem as it occurs 0 Feedback 7 postaction controls designed to detect eXisting problems after they occur but before they reach crisis proportions 39Implies that performance data were gathered and analyzed and the results returned to someone in the process and used to make corrections Chapter 16 Notes Productivity outputs divided by inputs where outputs are the goods and services produced and inputs are labor capital materials and energy Managing for Productivity and Results Controlling de ned as monitoring performance comparing it with goals and taking corrective action as needed Why Is Control Needed To adapt to change amp uncertainty To discover irregularities amp errors To reduce costs increase productivity or add value To detect opportunities To deal with complexity To decentralize decision making amp facilitate teamwork Steps in the Control Process owbwpe The Balanced Scorecard Four Perspectives PEEP m N Barriers to Effective Measurement Objectives are fuzzy Managers put too much trust in informal feedback systems Employees resist new measurement systems Companies focus too much on measuring activities instead of results SiX Areas of Control 1 Physical 2 Human resources Informational Financial Structural Cultural Financial Statements 3939 Balance sheet summarizes an organization s overall nancial worth at a speci c point in time 3939 Income statement summarizes an organization s nancial results over speci ed period of time Ratio Analysis 3939 Liquidity ratios indicate how easily a rm s assets can be converted to cash 3939 Debt management ratios degree to which a rm can meet its longterm nancial obligations 3939 Return ratios how effective management is generating a return or pro t Deming Management 1 Quality should be aimed at the needs of the consumer 2 Companies should aim at improving the system not blaming workers 3 Improved quality leads to increased market share increased company prospects amp increased employment 4 Quality can be improved on the basis of hard data The PDCA Cycle 0 mm qeslre e an lmpmIau rung 3 4 5 6 0 no minim m tunmmm ml39zille me E 5 Qd 39qu ww lung rsu y untamed m macaw mmammm ilpnnllnhmmnhn urnme mm quotmum Total Quality Management TQM a comprehensive approachled by top management and supported throughout the organizationdedicated to continuous quality improvement training and customer satisfaction Chapter 16 Quiz The balanced scorecard establishes both goals and performance measures Operational control is monitoring performance to ensure that daytoday goals are being implemented Controlling is concerned with seeing that the right things happen at the right time in the right way Management by exception is a control principle that states that managers should be informed of a situation only if data show a significant deviation from standards A strategy map is a visual representation of the balanced scorecard that enables managers to communicate their goals Incremental budgeting allocates increased or decreased funds to a department by using the last budget period as a reference point A reduction of steps in a work process is referred to as reduced cycle time An income statement summarizes an organization39s overall financial worth by analyzing assets and liabilities at a specific point in time FALSE Continuous improvement is defined as ongoing small incremental improvement in all parts of an organization The ISO 9000 series consists of qualitycontrol procedures companies must install that can be audited by independent qualitycontrol experts


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