Study guide for exam 1
Study guide for exam 1 Anth 1113 003
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Anth 1113 003
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Red-Roe on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to Anth 1113 003 at University of Oklahoma taught by Samuel G. Duwe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 290 views. For similar materials see General Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
Exam 1 Study Guide Renee Roe Vocab for matching fillinthe blanks and definitions Cultural Anthropology also known as Ethnography Science that analyzes and compares human cultures as in social structure language religion and technology Study of contemporary human societies through crosscultural comparison Biocultural Approach human behavior shapes human evolution Ethnocentrism judging other cultures using one s own cultural standards Cultural Relativism idea that in order to know another culture requires full understanding of its members beliefs and motivations Culture sets of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire as members of society Humans use culture to adapt to and transform the world in which they live in Culture is learned not from conditioning is not genetically acquired is acquired through symbols and is shared Symbolsomething verbal or nonverbal that stands for something else Ethnography Anthropology s distinctive strategy attempts to understand the whole of a particular culture and provides a foundation for generalizations about human behavior and society Salvage ethnography document cultures in danger of disappearing Participant Observation the method anthropologists use to gather information by living as closely as possible to the people whose culture they are studying while participating in their lives as much as possible Linguistic AnthropologyStudy of the variation in human languages the roots of human languages and the role of language in shaping human thought and behavior Economic Anthropology the part of the discipline of anthropology that debates issues of human nature that relate directly to the decisions of daily life and making a living Market Exchangethe exchange of goods trade calculated in terms of a multipurpose medium of exchange and standard of value money and carried on by means of a supplydemandprice mechanism the market Reciprocity nonmarket exchange of goods or labour ranging from direct barter immediate exchange to forms of gift exchange where a return is eventually expected delayed exchange as in the exchange of birthday gifts Affluence an abundant supply of money goods or property wealth Powertransformative capacity the ability to transform a given situation Authority socially recognized right to exert power power legitimacy Evolutionary Political Scheme band the characteristic form of social organization found among foragers Small groups of people usually less than 50 labor is divided based on age and sex and all adults have roughly equal access to materials or social valuables tribe a form of social organization generally larger than a band members usually farm or herd for a living Social relations in a tribe are relatively egalitarian although there may be a chief who speaks for the group or organizes group activities chiefdoma form of social organization in which the leader a chief and the chief39s close relatives are set apart from the rest of the society and allowed privileged access to wealth power and prestige statea stratified society that possesses a territory that is defended from outside enemies with an army and from internal disorder with police A state which has a separate set of governmental institutions designed to enforce laws and collect taxes and tribute is run by an elite that possesses a monopoly on the use of force Kinshipsocial relationships that are prototypically derived from the universal human experiences of mating birth and nurturance Lineage the consanguineal members of descent group who believe they can trace their descent from known ancestors Descent Groups kin groups that are lineal descendants of a common ancestor Matrilineage a social group formed by people connected by motherchild links Patrilineage a social group formed by people connected by fatherchild links Clan a descent group formed by members who believe they have a common sometimes mythical ancestor even if they can not specify the genealogical links Nuclear Family a family pattern made up of two generations the parents and their unmarried children the transfer of certain symbolically important goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride on the occasion of their marriage It represents compensation to the wife s lineage for the loss of her labor and childbearing capacities Dowrythe transfer of wealth usually from parents to their daughter at the time of her marriage Incestsexual intercourse between people who are very closely related definitions are different across culture Languagethe system of arbitrary vocal symbols we use to encode our experience of the world Exogamymarriage outside a defined social group links people to wider social network Endogamymarriage within a defined social group Religionquotideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses belief in and worship of a supernatural being power and force Myth stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be they way they are Ritualset of acts that follow a sequence established by tradition formal repetitive behavior Tabooa social or religious custom prohibiting or forbidding discussion of a particular practice or forbidding association with a particular person place or thing Ethnicityl ethnic groups Ongkathe tribe leader or big man of the kawelka tribe tries and succeeds to create the biggest moka his tribe or the tribe he is trading with has ever seen Moka the exchanging of pigs and other culturally significant goods between tribes that creates and sustains an alliance EvansPritchard Observed the Nuer wrote about their allowance of two women marrying and the rules that applied to those marriages and ghost marriage Nuer African tribe that allows women to marry another woman with some stipulations one of the woman must take on the male role as husband and that one has to own some cattle that she must give to the wife s lineage She becomes the pater to the wife s children and a family member or friend can be used as the genitor sire of the children The female husband is for all intents and purposes a man and has almost all the rights of a man One of the exceptions is that the genitor of the wife s children must do the jobs and chores around the house that this culture believes should only be done by a man Ghost marriage if a man died before or without getting married he supposedly left behind an angry spirit To appease the spirit a kinsman of the deceased man would often marry to his name and pay the bridewealth to the patrilineage of the woman She therefore was technically married to the dead man and lived with one of his surviving kinsmen Azande Linguistic Relativity Principle AKA the SapirWhorf hypothesis the idea that the varying cultural concepts and categories inherent in different languages affect the cognitive classification of the experienced world in such a way that speakers of different languages think and behave differently because of it Pidginmay arise when two speakers of different languages with no common language try to have a makeshift conversation Dialecta particular form of a language that is peculiar to a specific region or social group Tewa Worldview a particular philosophy of life or conception of the world Short Answer and Essay Questions 1 Put the following scales of political organization in order of complexity one being least complex and 4 being most complex band tribe chiefdom and state Then provide both a definition for each and characteristics that make it unique from other scales of political organization 2 What are four of the five characteristics that all cultures have in common You may provide your answer in the form of a list 3 Thinking about Ongka s Big Moka What motivates Ongka to work so hard 4 Thinking about Ongka s Big Moka What purpose does moka have Give three purposes and supply examples 5 What specific contributions can cultural and linguistic anthropology make in identifying and solving problems stirred up by contemporary economic political social and cultural change including globalization Identify three areas and include specific examples in your discussion 6 What supernatural force drives Azande religion and society How did the examination of this system help to revolutionize anthropology 7 Thinking about American Tongues Why is there so much diversity in dialects across the United States 8 Thinking about American Tongues How are different dialects across the USA linked with social political and economic prestige or prejudice Please give two examples and you may use examples from the movie we saw in class 9 What are the key elements of Marshall Sahlins s argument about the original affluent society that was discussed in class and especially in the textbook 10 How can cultural relativism improve outsiders understanding of a cultural practice that is unfamiliar and disturbing to them Give an example of a particular cultural practice we you read about in the textbook to answer your question 11 Why is worldview important to understand a culture and a people Give two examples from the lecture andor textbook 1 1 bands groups of people with roughly an equal amount of rights and is not centralized everybody works together division of labor by age and sex 2 tribes bands that combined can be unified under chief They use herding and farming as their subsistence system 3chiefdom politicalsocial hierarchy based on lineage and power the closer to the chief you are the more power and prestige you possess 4 state most complex bc it has a hierarchy of power that is centralized with a ruler that only has certain amount of power and the rest is delegated to people of lesser power Has military and police force to protect state within itself and from outside forces 2 Culture is a 996 learned not genetically acquired not acquired by conditioning acquired through symbols shared 3 Ongka wants to give the biggest moka because he wants to gain prestige for himself and his tribe But mostly for himself 4 Three purposes for a moka would be a political and social gain from increase in prestige the bigger the gift the more 5 prestige given to the Big man and his tribe so we see Ongka trying to give the biggest moka ever so that he can have ultimate bragging rights which he definitely uses as soon as he can by saying l have won I have knocked you down by giving you so much in his speech at the moka ceremony exercising reciprocity Onka not only has to give a gift to this other tribe but he has to give a moka bigger than the last one he recieved This system also ensures a sort of loyalty between the tribes so if one went to war depending on moka giving the other tribe would support andorjoin them for Ongka to exert his power Setting the date for the moka and delegating pigs to the people of his tribe allows Ongka to hold power over them Those who take care of the moka pigs get an elevation of power because they possess pigs and therefore owe Ongka also he gets to boss them around And the date setting allows him to use his persuasive power on his fatherinlaw to get a desirable date set 6 Witchcraft is the driving force of the Azande tribe because they believe it is inherited and dangerous to the community and they put up safeguards such as oracles to protect 11 themselves from magic The study of this cultural phenomenon revolutionized anthropology because it made anthropologists have to consider the difference between nature and significance of beliefs in witchcraft and sorcery and about the similarities and differences between traditional39 thought and Western science Because when settlers started to travel west their language ideals mixed with other groups of people creating different variations of the same accents and over time they have become more and more pronounced and different from each other Some accents are attributed with dumb or slow people or smart people Example People with southern accents are portrayed as dumb and unintelligent in many movies and some Brooklyn accents are seen as trashy and therefore make it hard for people with those accents to get higher up jobs Cultural relativism means that one must first fully understand another culture before they can judge it This helps outsiders understand another culture that may be very different than their native culture because they will come to fully learn the culture before judging it and labeling it as weird or strange An example of a cultural practice would be the genital cutting in some parts of Africa because in America that is not a normal part of our overall culture I might automatically judge this practice as weird By using cultural relativism I can learn and understand what it represents in their culture and why it is important to them A culture s worldview is the foundation of everything its people believes in and understanding it makes understanding the overall culture easier Examples myths and religion are tied into worldview because they shape how the people of a certain culture interact or their social hierarchies
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