Human Health and Disease
Human Health and Disease BMS 100
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rigoberto Kuhic on Saturday September 26, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BMS 100 at Grand Valley State University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 59 views. For similar materials see /class/214357/bms-100-grand-valley-state-university in Biomedical Sciences at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 09/26/15
BMS Final Chapter 9 1 Proteins fats carbohydrates vitamins minerals and water 2 Amino acids are building blocks of protein Essential amino acids histidine isoleicine leucine lysine methionine phenylalanine threinine tryptophan and valine are required for basic bodily functions amp non essential can be produced by the body if the presence of the needed components are there 3 Complete proteins provide all essential amino acids And incomplete if they do not 4 Meat fish poultry eggs and milk cheese soy provide essential amino acids 5 Glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acid chains attached triglyceride a Saturated Solid at room temp Fast foods red meats NOT EXCEED 7 of total calories b Polyunsaturated Fish 2 groups 2530 of ur calories c Trans FattyDeep frying oil d Monounsaturated 2530 of calories e UnsaturatedFast foods i Men 17 grams of linoleic fats and 16 of alphalinoleic acid ii Females 12 and 11 6 Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acid radicals Animalfats butter cheese palm oil An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain Monounsaturated fatA fat with one available bonding site not filled with a hydrogen atom Olive and canola oil peanut butter plstachlos PolyunsaturatedA fat with more than one available bonding site not filled with a hydrogen atom Two groups Omega 3 Fish and chips and omega 6 oils and seeds 7 CholesterolWaxy substance found in blood and cells and needed for synthesis of cell membranes vitamin d and hormones LDLBAD lowdensity lipoproteinblood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues excess results in the accumulation in the artery walls HDLblood fat that helps transport chelst Out of the arteriesprotecting against heart disease 9 Polyunsaturated fatty acids commonly found in fish oils and beneficial to cardiovascular health to Process where hydrogen is added to unsaturated fats increasing the degree and turning liquid oils into solids A mixture of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids is produced Trans fatty is an acid with an atypical shape and has a different effect on the body 10 Sugars starches and dietary fibers are all carbs Simpleincludes sucrose fructose maltose lactose Provide much of the sweetness in foods Complex carbs include simple starches and dietary fibers Grains rice etc DisaccharideAny sugar such as sucrose maltose and lactose consisting of two monosaccharide combined together MonosaccharideA simple carbohydrate composed of one sugar molecule such as glucose and fructose Polysaccharide A carbohydrate made up of a long chain of simple sugar molecules joined together Starch and cellulose are examples of polysaccharides BMS Final 12 A unit representing the energy provided by food Carbohydrate protein fat and alcohol provide calories in the diet Carbohydrate and protein have 4 calories per gram fat has 9 calories per gram and alcohol has 7 calories per gram A unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree 13 Solubledissolves in water or broken down in large intestine Delay stomach emptying slows the movement of glucose into the bloodstream and reduces cholesterol absorption lnsoluble Fiber that does not dissolve in water or broken down in the Ll Helps prevent constipation bulks up fecal matter Reduce the risk of type II diabetes and heart disease and gastrointestinal diseases 14 We need 13 vitamins 4 are fat soluble A D E K and the other 9 are water soluble C and the 8 B complex vitamins thiamin riboflavin niacin vitamin B6 folate vitamin B12 biotin pantothenic acid Fruits veggies processed foods and cereals Sunlight for vitamin D and essential bacteria make vitamin K 15 Vitamin A NOT ENOUGHNight blindness dry scalping skin anemia TOO MUCHliver damage miscarriage diarrhea Vitamin D NOT ENOUGH Rickets softening of bones TOO MUCHKidney damage calcium deposits death Vitamin B6 NOT ENOUGH anemia convulsions cracks at the corners of mouth TOO MUCHNeurological abnormalities Vitamin C NOT ENOUGH Scurvy joint pain loosened teeth TOO MUCHurinary stones headache diarrhea 16 Milk veggies eggs leafy greens whole grains fish meats 17 Vegans only plants Lactoveggie allows dairy Lactoovoveggie dairy and eggs Partial and semi pesco fish 18 Focus on beans nuts seeds eggs and tofu Fruit veggies etc 19 Serving size calories nutrients Daily values Look at serving sizes and eat accordingly Read definitions and decipher catchy words OTHER NOTES Essential means we have to ingest it Digestion is where food is broken down to absorb these nutrients usually in the small intestinewater and such in the large intestine Lack of B6 and 812 have been linked to lt3 disease MineralsInorganic non carbon containting Micronutrients required in smaller amounts CHAPTER 10 1 Physical Fitness The body s ability to respond or adapt to the demands and stress of physical effort Exercise Planned structured repetitive movement of the body intended to improve or maintain physical fitness Exercise training Increasing your ability to do more to improve one s body 2 cardiorespritory endurance muscular strength muscular endurance flexibility and body composition 3 Cardio BMS Final a Activities that involve continuous rhythmic movements of large muscle groupsike the legs Running etc Muscles strength b Train with weights or use the weight of the body for resistance during callisthenic exercises Muscular endurance c Developed by stressing the muscles with a greater load than they r used to Flexibility d Stretching exercises can help ensure a health range of motion for all major joints Body Comp e Sensible diet and exercise Muscle mass can be added through resistance training such as weight training 4 Aerobic with air increases endurance and cardiovascular performance Anerobic exercise without the use of oxygen as an energy source short bursts of vigorous exercise 5 22018202max lt3 rate 1212 is target rate 6 lmprover cardio respiratory functioning more efficient metabolism improved body comp disease prevention and management improved physiological functions emotion wellness benefits improved immune functions prevention of injuries 7 EnduranceConditioning your heart and lungs 35 days a week StrengthDevelop muscular strength and endurance 8 Cardio 35 daysweek 5590 if max HR 2060mins Do activities that are related to the activity being done in relation to warm upcool down Stress large muscles walking running swimming etc Muscle Resistance exercise isometric force wo movement amp isotonic with movement 2 consecutive days a week Reps vs resistance have to be equal and proportionate Flexibility DON T BOUNCEll Don t stretch to pain use an outside force if you know you can go further 23 days a week ideally 57 days a week 1530 seconds per muscle 2030min in total 9 Resistance Forces muscles to contract Weights lsometric or static exercise wo movement lsotonicMovement exercise 10 Weights or your own body weight 11 Ligament injuries bone injuries internal disorders 12 Reststop using the injured part Icereduces swelling Compressionwrap it between icings Elevation RICE CHAPTER 11 1 Men gt20 of body weight Women gt30 BMS Final 2 Obesity double mortality rate 1020 years Unhealthy and cholesterol and triglyceride levels Hypertension many cancers impaired immune functions 3 Composed of bone muscle organs and body fluids 4gt Storage 37 in men and 1012 in women Essential 37 in men and 915 in women U Hydrostatic underwater measurements Submerged underwater and weighed calculated by body density Skin fold measurements measures fat under the skin taken at several sites then calculated for an average Electrical impedance Electrical impulse is ran though the body and measured how fast it takes to come out Electricity favors fat Diabetes Physical exercise keeps metabolism in tack and burns calories to reduce any excess amount 3500 calories in one pound of fat lncrease physical activity and decrease caloric intake 99 F Fat energy more exercise 10 FALSEDepends on total energy output 11 Not getting enough nutrients VLC or 1000 to 1200day Female triad syndrome 12 Anorexiarefusal to maintain body weight at a minimally health level and having an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat Selfstarvation Bulimia Reoccurring episodes of binge eating and purgingovereating and then puking it all up Excessive exercise to prevent weight gain Bingeeating disorder Lack of control over eating can t stop No purging OTHER NOTES 0 BMI Greater than 35 Obese o Anorexia Fear of gaining weight 0 Dimorphic Disorder Sever problem with body image 0 Fat percentage is what it more important not so much weight BMI CHAPTER 12 1 Oxygen deprived blood from the body into the heart from the superior and inferior venae cavae Right atrium into the r ventricle via tricuspid valve Then pumped through the pulmonary arteries into the lungs where it is oxygenized in the capillaries The pulmonary veins to the left atrium thru the bicuspid valve to the l ventricle Aorta to the rest of the body or where oxygen is needed most 2 Atherosclerosisthickening of the walls of the arteries Coronary Heart disease CHD caused by 6 in the arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle Myocardial Infarction heart attack Strokeimpeded blood supply to some part of the brain resulting in the destruction of cells cerebrovascular accident BMS Final 3 High blood pressure coronary artery disease valvular heart disease stroke or rheumatic feverrheumatic heart disease 4 CAN Theredity aging Being male fuck Ethnicity inflammation and C reactive protein protein released during the inflammatory stage increase risk of lt3 attack coming CAN CHANGETriglyceride levels blood fats smoking low activity type II diabetes stress chronic hostility anxiety social isolation 5 Endothelial cells artery lining cells become damaged and the result is an inflammation of the artery lining that creates a magnet for LDL platelets and other cells 9 plaque accumulates on the walls and they lose their elasticity and restrict blood flow clot 6 Physical activity stress nervousness smoking etc 7 Arrhythmia a change in the normal heart beat An interruption of the electrical impulses in the brain 8 Refers to a problem with the heart39s structure and function due to abnormal heart development before birth Congenital means present at birth 9 Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which the heart valves are damaged by rheumatic fever Rheumatic fever begins with a strep throat also called strep pharyngitis Strep throat is caused by Group A Streptococcus bacteria It is the most common bacterial infection of the throat 0 lmpeded blood supply to some part of the brain resulting in the destruction of brain cells 9 Blockage of a blood vessel Wandering blood clot embolus Bursting vessels hemorrhaging Hypertension is the expansion of blood cells result of high blood pressure Hastens arteriosclerosis Hypermyocardioplasia Angina pronounced either ANginuh or anJIG Hnuh means quotpainquot It is caused by a lack of blood flow to the heart which in turn is caused by atherosclerotic disease of the coronary arteries N Abnormal cellular multiplication UJ lnactivity and obesity ingested chemicals pollution environment radiation the sun P MEN New Cases745180294120 WOMEN New Cases 69220027153O U39I Breast genetics early onset of menstruation having a child after 30 Hormone replacement and obesity Prostate Men over 65 African American men high calorie diets type II diabetes Lung Smoking environmental factors Endometrial never been pregnant many years of menstruation diabetes estrogen therapy replacement Skin UV radiation moles high altitudes all the time Colon Old age African American diabetes alcohol use lowfiber high fat diet Rectal Age polyps history smoking sexual stuff OTHER NOTES Cardiovascular Disease affects 80 million Americans and is the leading cause of death in the US 1 life every 37 seconds Tumor Neoplasm Benign non cancerous Metastasis Spreading the cancer Common in the pancreas when it is affected by cancer Carcinomas Cancer that originates in the epithelia tissues Membranes that surround the organs
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