Study Guide BIOL 2040 Exam 1: 30 Sept. 2015
Study Guide BIOL 2040 Exam 1: 30 Sept. 2015 BIOL 2040
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This 24 page Study Guide was uploaded by Chris Hicks on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2040 at Bowling Green State University taught by Daniel Pavuk in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 208 views. For similar materials see Concepts in Biology I in Biological Sciences at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Study Guide BIOL 2040 Exam 1 30 Sept 2015 Book Notes Chapter 1 The Study of Life 11 The Science of Biology Biology study of living things their interactions with each other and their environments Is a Scienceknowledge of general truths or their operations especially when found with the scientific method research method with specific steps or fields of study trying to understand the universe s nature Hypothesistestable explanation for something must be falsifiable can be disproven Theory tested and confirmed explanation for an event Natural sciences science fields related to what goes on in the physical world Life Sciences sciences studying living things Physical Sciences Sciences studying nonliving matter Inductive Reasoning many observations reach a conclusion Deductive Reasoning Using a principle to predict results Scientific Method observationgtask a questiongthypothesisgtmake predictiongtdo experimentgtanalyze resultsgtreport results Variable any part of the experiment that can change Control grouppart of experiment that s not manipulated 12 Themes and Concepts of Biology Properties of Lifeorder made of cells homeostasis constant internal conditions evolution response to external stimuli reproduction metabolism growth Levels of Organization atomgtMoleculesgtmacromoleculesgtorganellesgt smallest fundamental unit of structure and function in living thingsgttissamp groups of tissues performing certain functiongtgg tissues grouped together to perform common functiongtorgan systems consists of functionally related organsgtorganisms living individualsgtpopulation all individuals of species in area gtcommunity all populations in areagtecosystem all living and nonliving things in an environmentgtbiosphere all ecosystems on Earth Prokaryote no membranebound nuclei Eukaryote membranebound nuclei source of life s diversity is evolutiongradual change from Where new species come from old species evolutionary relationships shown by phylogenetic tree Chapter 44 Ecology and the Biosphere 441 The Scope of Ecology Ecology the study of organisms interactions With their environment organism adaptations helping organisms survive population number of individuals in area and howWhy their population size changes community interactions and the consequences of these interactions among species in an area ecosystem ecology extension of organismal population and community ecology ex Karner Blue Butter y and Wild lupine 442 Biogeography Biogeographystudy of how organisms are geographically distributed and the abiotic factors affecting their distribution Biomes large areas With similar climate ora and fauna Endemic speciesspecies found in specific geographic area Energy and light sources can affect the distribution of organisms in aquatic biomes Ocean upwelling prevailing winds causing deep water to rise and turnover thermoclines cause cold surface water to sink and displace bottom water cause nutrients and oxygen trapped at bottom to reach the top Temperature also determines where organisms can live some use migration as an adaptation to combat adverse temperatures Waterorganisms have many adaptations to retain water inorganic nutrients soil fire oxygen availability in water wind and many other things affect organism distribution 443 Terrestrial Biomes distinguished by temperature and precipitation Tropical Wet Forest Savannas Subtropical Deserts Chaparral Temperate Grasslands Temperate Forests Boreal Forests Arctic Tundra 444 Aquatic Biomesdistinguished by light penetration and temperature Pelagic Zone whole body of water Benthic Zone along body of water s oor Photic Zone where light can penetrate 200 m Aphotic Zone where light cannot penetrate gt200 m majority of ocean Mlargest marine biome Intertidal Zone zone between high and low tide Neritic Zone from intertidal zone to edge of continental shelf Oceanic Zone open ocean Abyssal zon 4000 m or greater Coral Reef made from marine invertebrates in shallow photic parts of ocean Estuaries where source of fresh water meets ocean Lakes and Ponds standing water temperature and nutrient levels are important in these Rivers and Streams Flowing water continuously moving bodies of water carrying water from source to lake or ocean Wetlands soil is permanently or temporarily saturated with water has emergent vegetation plants rooted in soil but comes above water s surface have characteristic hydrology hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils include swamps marshes and bogs Chapter 45 Populations and Communities 451 Populations Demography Demographystudy of population dynamics Population Size N Population Density number of individuals in specific areavolume Most accurate way to find N is to count all individuals in area hard to do though so they use representative sampling techniques like quadrats slowimmobile organisms or mark and recapture mobile organisms Species Dispersion Patterns Uniform clumped random Survivorship Curves Type Ihigh percentage of deaths are at later ages small offspring numbers Type 11 equal chances of dying at all ages few offspring Type III few offspring survive early ages a lot of offspring Class Notes Week 1 24 Aug28 Aug 2015 Biologv 2040 General Biological Concepts 1 Fundamental Characteristics of living organisms 2 The Cell Theory 1 All organisms are made of cell 2 All cells come from preexisting cells 3 Cell is the fundamental unit of structure and function of all living things 3 Evolution everything in biology can be explained by evolutionary theory 4 Adaptations of organism survive in environments at optimal rates Evolution has led to those adaptations 5 Levels of biological organization hierarchal structure to Earth s life Biosphereincludes living things and nonliving parts in the living s environment 6 Ecosystem dynamics 1 Energy flows from higher to lower energy levels most ecosystems rely on solar energy 2 matter nutrients cycle there s only so much matter on Earth 7 DNA deoxyribonucleic acid every cell in our bodies has DNA humans have a genome gametes have half of What other cells have Why do organisms occur in speci c habitats Asian leaf frog looks like a dead leaf to avoid predators camou age only works When certain behaviors are performed Staying motionless Polar bears very vulnerable habitat glaciers are melting adaptations for cold habitat black skin absorbs solar radiation hollow hair insulation fat insulation wide paws for walking on ice a lot of hairfur small ears to retain heat behaviors group hugging Cacti dry environment less stomata gas exchange waXlike coating cuticle altered photosynthetic pathway roots soak up water Lab Recitation Causation vs correlation cause and effect or coincidence Dependent variable measured variable Independent variable manipulated only want one want replication Control set independent variable to zero Control variable remains constant throughout experiment Class Properties and Processes of Life 1 2 9 P U 9 gt1 Reproduction Evolutionary adaptation Response to stimuli Homeostasis maintain constant internal conditions like water and ion content temperature pH g Sweating is a form of regulation Growth and development Order cell organization Energy processing autotrophs and heterotrophs Levels of biological organization atoms gt biosphere Range microscopic gt Biosphere 1 2 Biosphere all living and their environmentshabitats nonliving largest level Ecosystem all living and abiotic components g Deciduous forest Communities all biotic within ecosystem Overall community all biotic in ecosystem Component community tree mammal fungal etc Populations one species group interactions between populations and within population Organisms make up populations Organs and organ systems make up organisms Organ collection of different tissues working towards a certain function g Leaf Organ system collection of organs for a common function g Shoots and root systems 7 Tissues group of cells working together for certain function Q Epidermis protects from outside gas exchange 8 Cells need specific set of conditions 9 Organelles g Chloroplast 10 Molecules made up by atoms that are covalently bonded make up organelles Lab Experimental design dependent variable measured counted observed can have multiple g Time to germinate growth rate ower Independent variable manipulated or changed only one because you want to know which factor is affecting the dependent variable g Soil compaction Control variables variables that are kept constant Class Ch 44 Introduction to Ecology What s ecologv The scientific study of interactions between organisms and their environment distribution and abundance of organisms what organisms are where and why Distribution determined by temperature humidity dwelling type etc Modern Ecologv old observe patterns in distribution and abundance Modern observation and experimentation manipulate various variables Q Discovery of new frog species in 2008 Cornell University undergraduate Michael Grundler discovered Paedophryne swiforum and Paedophryne amauensis very small example of an endemic species localized geographic distribution Raises ecological questions What environmental factors limiting distribution What biotic components are there predators etc Scope of Ecological Research which scales addressed Giant snake problem Everglades travelers took them home and couldn t handle them Hurricane Andrew took out a reptile storage facility Global Ecologv Biosphere all living things on Earth plus their environments Research question How does ocean circulation affect the distribution of marine crustaceans Landscape Ecologv A landscapeseascape collection mosaic of different types of ecosystems exchange of energymaterialsorganisms between ecosystems Research question To what extent do trees lining a river serve as a dispersal corridor Ecosystem Ecologv energy ow and matter cycle how s energy owing through the ecosystem Recycling of dead Research question What factors affect photosynthetic output in a grassland Ecosvstem Dynamics Community Ecology living in ecosystem interactions between living in a community Research question What factors affect a community s plant diversity Population Ecologv Species in same area at same time factors in uence population size overtime Research Question What factors affect reproductive rate Organismal Ecologv includes evolutionary physiological and animal behavioral ecologies how organisms meet environmental challenges polar bears Research question How do hammerhead sharks choose mates Week Two 31 Aug 4 Sept 2015 BIOL 2040 Ch 44 Cont Biogeographv The Geographic Distribution of Organisms Thompson Gazelle fast small and can cutback and forth prey of the cheetah help it survive on the open savannahs Distribution and Abundance of Organisms Biogeographv study of how organisms are distributed geographically and their interactions with abiotic and abiotic components of the environment these affect Where organism is and how much of it there is Abiotic Factors Range geographic distribution of species don t nd species all over EX Venus Fly Traps only in SE US m ability to survive and number of offspring left for the next generation tradeoffs of organisms Specific range of physical factors Temp pH light etc Zone of tolerance Death Zone of Physiological Stress Optimum Range Range of ToleranceOptimum Range Zone of Physiological Stress Historical Factors history of distributions EX Where islands occur etc Physical Conditions Current conditions Biotic Factors often limit organism s persistence Species Biotic Interactions Predatorprey Competition Parasitehost Reproductive Factors Ex Interspecific competition between the Townsend s and Hermit Warblers live in evergreen forests of Pacific NW experiments interactions in each other s territories geographic ranges EX Phytophagous insect specialization of host plants Yucca Moth limited by Yucca plant distribution It eats it Historv Matters Past AbioticBiotic Factors In uence Present Pattern of Organism Distribution Factors are dynamic change over time Geological Events tectonics Landforms and Oceans island submergenceemergence sea level Climate Change sea levels precipitation temp change History of Dispersal Some species can t disperse over large areas but some can Ex Gypsy Moth Butter y females can t y so they live in the same tree they grow up in Dispersalmovement of individual organism from where it s born to where it livesbreeds as an adult Physical Barriers to Dispersal ex Mountains desert ocean roads forests like Karter Blue butter y EX Isthmus of Panama came up 3 MYA formed a land bridge terrestrial animals could move across causing new biotic interactions however this also created a barrier for marine life Lab Independent variable Xaxis Dependent variable yaXis Richness number of species in area Evenness relative abundance of individual species Diversity made up of richness and evenness Class Introduced Invasive Species transported by humans to new area In uence of Humans on Geographical Distribution of Organisms impact of human activity humans can get species past their physical barriers humans have transported many species Introduced Species moved by humans from native geographical new geographical locations EX Kudzo help prevent soil erosion and cattle eat it out competes most plants EX Giant African Land Snails What happens when species are moved to a geographic location without natural enemies and competitors Generally grow to enormous population sizes and have serious disruptive effects gtpossible extinctionendangerment of native species EX Emeral Ash Borer Agrilus Plannipennis Coleoptera Buprestidae live in Ash tree larvae eat xylem and phloem 2002 serious problem came from E Asia and emerged in Detroit eat all types of Ash tree Initially suspected to be Ash Yellow similar symptoms to Ash Borer predicted to actually have entered US in early 905 started to spread because of firewood transport nursery stock tree exportation etc Adult beetles 36 week lifespan feed on ash leaves only problem they cause is laying of eggs Larvae bore into Ash 4 larval stages Instars growing shedding exoskeleton pupation etc eat Ash s xylem and phloem Interferes with nutrient transport in tree girdles the tree One generation per year larvae overwinter in Ashes and pupate in spring cause Dshaped emergence holes Trees live 24 years once canopy decline begins EX Asian Cgp Silver Catfish ponds 1973 Bighead Catfish Ponds 1972 Black Accidental early 70s Grass 1963 canal clearing they feed on algae overpopulate waters 2 million eggs per female per year Black and Silver are the biggest problem electric barrier may have been breached however Climate prevailing long term weather conditions in an area often confused with weather 4 Mai or Abiotic Components of Climate 1 Temperature 2 Precipitation 3 Sunlight 4 Wind Macroclimate occurs on large geographic scales global regional landscape Microclimate small scale g Under a log Global Climate Patterns dependent upon how much solar energy and movement of Earth around Sun Solar Energy warming effect varies on Earth drives evaporation and air movement Latitudinal Climate causes sunlight to vary angle at Which sunlight strikes Earth Most intense between 235 degrees N Tropic of Cancer and 235 degrees S Tropic of Capricorn Global Air Circulation and Precipitation Patterns Water evaporates in tropics rising air masses becomes dry because it rains ascending air masses pick up water from US 030 degrees cooling trade Winds 3060 degrees westerlies Week Three 811 Sept 2015 Climate and Terrestial Biomes Earth s Climate Regional and Local Effects on Climate Climate is affected 3 Mai or Factors Seasonalitvmore pronounced farther from equator Large Bodies of Water EX Lake Erie westerlies are cold pick up water and C USC SHOW can in uencemoderate climate Mountains Seasonality seasonal light and temperature variations increases farther towards poles high latitudestowards poles pronounced because of Earth s tilt Solsticessummer longest day winter shortest day N Hemisphere belts of wetdry air straddling the equator shift changing wind patterns alters ocean currents EguinoxN and S hemispheres have 12 hr day 12 hr night Bodies of Water oceanslakes moderate climates of neighboring land masses Currents move in different directions coldgtequator Wargtpoles gyres have garbage islands gulf stream etc During Dayland s warminggt moves offshore causing cool winds off the water Land cools at night draw warm air from water to land Mountains rising air releases moisture why warm air getting high in tropics causes rain one side s wet and other s dry Sunlight plays role Northem Hemisphere South side of mountainsa lot of sun Elevation and Temperature 1000 m rise 6 degree Celsius drop highthin air Microclimate EX Under logrock very small scale area cleared compared to interior forest cleared is warmer and dryer very different than interior logs and stones in forest Mosaic of small scale differences abiotic and biotic temperature pH etc Lab Species richness number of species Species evenness population of each species Diversity takes both into account ShannonWienergtdiversity higher numbergreater diversity Class Terrestrial Biomes Ecosystem at certain latitudes MPrecipitation and temperature Biomesmajor life zones occurring over earth and characterized by vegetationgt determines ecosystem aspects Aguaticdetermined by physical characteristics climate s very important latitudinal patterns of terrestrial biomes more landmass in North than South Hemisphere climates dramatically change as you go North and South Climograph plot of temperature and precipitation What Affects Biomes Precipitation temperature climategt driven by Sun Features of Terrestrial Biomes Named for major physicalclimatic factors and vegetation aren t usually sharp boundaries between terrestrial biomes Ecotone transition zone between 2 terrestrial biomes narrow or Wide mixing of different communities generally high diversity Vertical layering is important feature of terrestrial biomes Canopy plants uppertall treesgtmost leaves at top require a lot of energy midlayer subcanopy Shrub understory Herbacious plant no wood tissue provides opportunities for different organisms and diverse habitats How characterized physicalabioticprecipitation temperature average and patterns over year distribution living factors plants Video Life Scars on Seabed dolphins stir up bottom of seabed and swim in circles to create mud rings traps fish like net and they jump and get eaten only in Florida Everyday full of challenges needing overcome to survive Cheetahs fast to bring down fast small prey hunt in band strength in numbers bring down large prey in numbers like ostrich Madagascar Preying Mantis Chameleon can change skin color and independently move eyes tobgue shoots at 15 ms and grasps target for preygt hunt is life or death Sealson guard from Killer whales most eat fish but some eat who use agility and protection of ice ows to survive Open Ocean safety in numbers Flying Fish can glide 200 m above water to escape predators Boa Vista Brazilpitted rocks Monkevs Nut palm seeds have strong shells monkey dry nuts in sun for a week uses hammer and anvil rocks to crack nuts infants imitate up to 8 years to learn this technique Week 45 1425 Sept 2015 Biology 2040 Ch 44 Aquatic Biomes Oligotrophic Lake not many plantsalgae rockybottoms lower sedimentnutrient count clear How much of biosphere is aquatic biome 7075 water latitudinal variation not as big as terrestrial Freshwater and marine biomes physical and chemical features determine distinction salt concentration in seawater 3 freshwater 1 Largest marine biome oceansgt water evaporates from them providing most of Earth s precipitation effects of ocean temperature large effects on coastlines and global climate and wind patterns Marine algae and photosynthetic bacteriaimportant benefits for global scale a lot of oxygen because of sheer scale and takes carbon dioxide out of water C02H20gt02C6H1202 Freshwater Biomes in uenced by Wind speed current rainfall and bioticabiotic factors especially from terrestrial biomes and terrestrial biomes close interchange between bordering ecosystems Aquatic biomes characterized by various features determinants of type of aquatic biomes physical environment chemical environment geological features biotic components Zonation determined by light penetration depth temperature characterized by stratified organization Photic Zones1i ght penetrates Aphotic Zone no light Palagic Zone open water Abyssal Zon 20004000 m Benthic Zone bottom along ocean oor Benthos organisms at bottom Detritus debriswaste Thermoclineboundary between water of different temperatures Turnover Communities varv most are in photic zones Lab EcosystemBiological community of livinginteractive organisms and their physical environment Biomagnificationhigher trophic levels eat a lot of the lower levels causing a buildup of things like toxins in the higher levels Producercreate biomass through photochemo synthesis Consumer eat other organisms for energy Food Chainhow energy ows through biotic elements of ecosystem trophic levels one pathway through which energy ows Detritivoreconsume dead things Decomposerturn organic matter into inorganic matter that producers can use Unicellular organismsingle celled all life processes occur in that one cell Aggregates of cellsrandomtemporary clusters of cells M maintain consistent number of cells can depend on one another Multicellular2 or more cell types specialized functions take 1 cell type away and it won t survive Ch 45 Population Ecology Population number of individual organisms of same species in certain area within a community Population Ecologv focuses on how biotic and abiotic factors in uence size density and distribution of populations Descriptions of populationssize and boundaries Population Size N Density how many per unit area more terrestrial or volume more aquatic Dispersion arrangement of individuals Population size and densityoften used to understanddescribe populations health size density resource use enough individuals to reproduce in uence on survivaladaptation big populationmore genetic diversity so they have heightened ability to adapt too densebehavioral issues aggression reproduction etc body size smaller higher densities than bigger ones Almost impossible to count entire population easier to count bigger organisms Sampling techniques population density can be estimated indirect count bird nests feces feathers feeding damage Quadrat Samplinguseful for nonmoving or slowinfrequent movers quadratsquare put in habitat to estimate indiVidual number in habitat area Mark and Recapture Methoduseful for mobile organisms captured and marked and population sampled again later provides estimate Disadvantagescaptureshy or want to get captured EX Study of Whitetail deer 80 capturedmarkedreleased 100 captured 20 already marked Calculation N1St catchtotal 2nd catch Already marked in 2nd catch What s density a result on Interactions between variety of processes that addremove organisms from population Add to populationreproduction immigration Decrease population death emigration Videomarkrecapture assess population and organism condition pit tag Dispersiondistribution survivorship curves Population growth What affects the Dispersion arrangement of individuals in population relative to eachother environmental factors social factors Clumped dispersionpopulation s individuals occur in patches or aggragations Causesterritoriality resources not spread evenly behavioralsocial ex Sea stars most common Uniform Distributioneven space between individuals mechanisms to reduce competition for scarce resources ex seagulls Territoriality stake out territory to reduce competition for resources Allelopathy occurs in some plantsgtmake chemicals coming out of roots to clear zones around each individuals Random Dispersion no pattern no particular attractionrepulsion Demography study of population s vital statistics and how they change over time interested in birthdeath rates life expectancy emigrationimmigration Birth rateshave large effects Large populationsmore individuals with pregnancy potential grows faster predators and waste accumulation Life table track organism s life Cohortbest way to make life table Survivorship curveslow death rate early even death rates across ages a lot of death early on many offspring Lab Msomatic cells produce 2 identical cells Meiosis gametes sex cells produce 4 distinct cells Haploid 1 set of chromosomes M 2 sets Cancer cells uncontrollable mitotic division maybe telomeres not shortening Ch 45 Cont Population growth growth potential of population abundant resourceshigh potential to grow ex Bacteria generate individuals very rapidly with binary fission asexual process in ideal conditions would fill Earth unlimited population growth continue in nature No What happens when population grows Factors limit growth Biotic predators disease etc and abiotic drought etc Per capita rate of increase change in population sizebirthsimmigrantsdeathsemigrants IncreasebirthB immigration DecreasedeathD emigration Equation ANAtBDbNmNNbmNr per capita per individual birth rate number of offspring produced per aV individual per unit time Population ecologists interested in bmr per capita rate of increase rgt0growth rlt0decrease r0same Zero Population Growth ZPG Instantaneous growth rate dNdtfinstN rinstinstantaneous rate of increase Exponential population growth increasing ideal conditions what happens with EPG results in J shaped growth curve reaches limitations not sustainable and characterizes introduced and rebounding species African Elephants dNdtrmaxN Carrying CapacityEPG not sustainable more realistic population model Kmaximum population size that can be supported in an enVironment Varied with limiting resources Interspecific competitionbetween different species Intraspecific speciesbetween organisms of same species
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