BIO EXAM #1 study guide
BIO EXAM #1 study guide 207/41320
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Biology 207 Exam 1 Study Guide Chapters 1 1316 Chapter 1 The Chemistry of Life 1 2 What is the definition of Biology Organs are made up of two or more different types of Which of these is an organ system a Stomach b Gamete c Dog d Digestive What are the two main types of cells DNA is composed of building blocks called What characteristic do both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells share a The use of proteins as information storage molecules b The use of DNA as the information storage molecule c Generally about the same size d Membrane enclosed nucleus Why does competition occur TF A hypothesis must be testable and falsifiable to be used in science TF A scientific theory must demonstrate the effect of one variable by testing control groups and experimental groups 10 In animal populations DDT causes 11 DDT is soluble so it accumulates in 12 The universal genetic language of DNA is common to virtually all organisms on Earth however diverse Which statement is the best explanation for this fact a All living things share a common genetic language of DNA because they share a Common ancestry b The universal nature of the genetic language of DNA is due to coincidence c The universal genetic language is explained by the chemistry of DNA and proteins 13 TF It is possible to test hypotheses such as those involving historical events without conducting experiments 14 Vocabulary Matching Scientific method A comprehensive explanation supported by abundant evidence Science A proposed explanation for a set of observations Theory Science based off of solid data Natural selection A way of knowing based on inquiry ecosystem Unequal reproductive success Inductive reasoning A place where organisms interact w their environment Hypothesis Observation question hypothesis prediction experiment Discovery science Attempts to create generalizations base on many specific observations Chapter 13 Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Fill in the Blank Word bank chromatin centrosomes centromeres sister chromatids interphase mitotic spindles kinetochores cytokinesis 10 11 DNA Replication produces two identical DNA molecules called which separate during mitosis After chromosomes condense the is the region where the identical DNA molecules are most tightly attached to each other During mitosis microtubules attach to chromosomes at the In dividing cells most of the cell s growth occurs during The is a cell structure consisting of microtubules which forms during early mitosis and plays a role in cell division During interphase most of the nucleus is filled with a complex of DNA and protein in a dispersed form called In most eukaryotes division of the nucleus is followed by when the rest of the cell divides The are the organizing centers for microtubules involved in separating chromosomes during mitosis When do sister chromatids form When do sister chromatids become individual chromosomes Tell which stage the statement occurs in S phase 61 checkpoint 62 Phase M phase 61 phase a Replication of the cell s DNA b Replication of the centrosome c Nondividing cells exit the cell cycle d Cell divides forming two genetically identical daughter cells e Centrosomes move away from each other towards opposite poles of the cell in the process of organizing the formation of mitotic spindle f Cell divides 12 TF nucleoli are present during interphase 13 Chromosomes become visible during a interphase b metaphase c prophase danaphase 14 Given the descriptions name the stage at which it occurs anaphase telophase metaphase prophase or cytokinesis a Centromeres come apart and sister chromatids become chromosomes and migrate to opposite poles of the cell b Cells begin the formation of a cleavage furrow c The chromatin begins to condense and the nucleoli is dispersed d Chromosomes align along the middle line of the cell e Nuclear envelopes and nucleoli re form 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of chromosomes and chromatids What process occurs when a single individual is reproducing Human gametes are produced by Normal human gametes carry chromosomes A diploid organism whose somatic cells each contain 32 chromosomes produces gametes containing chromosomes TF homologous chromosomes pair and then separate during Meiosis When does crossing over occur During of both meiosis and II the DNA content in a cell is halved TF During interphase a cell is metabolically active Only cells contain two sets of chromosomes one maternal and one paternal A human cell containing 22 autosomes and a y chromosome is a a Zygote b Egg c Somatic cell of a male d Sperm Homologous chromosomes move toward opposite poles of a dividing cell during a Meiosis II b Meiosis c Mitosis TF Meiosis II is similar to mitosis in that sister chromatids separate during anaphase 27 If the DNA content of a diploid cell in the 61 phase of the cell cycle is x then the DNA content of the same cell at metaphase of meiosis I would be 28 The DNA content of a single cell at metaphase of meiosis would be 29 30 31 32 33 How many different combinations of maternal and paternal chromosomes can be packaged in gametes made by an organism with a diploid number of 8 a 16 b 2 c 8 d 32 Synapsis occurs during When during meiosis do homologous chromosomes pair up What is the key difference between meiosis and mitosis If a species has a diploid number of 2n18 how many homologous pairs of chromosomes does it have in its somatic cells a 6 b 9 c 18 d 36 How many chromatids does a cell from this species have at metaphase of mitosis How many chromatids does it have at metaphase II of meiosis Chapter 14 Mendel and The Gene Idea 1 What is a test cross 2 Suppose a botanist carried out a test cross and determined that a green pea pod plant was heterozygous Gg when crossed with a yellow pea pod gg Which of Mendel s findings does her test cross show a Law of independent assortment b Linkage c Law of segregation 3 During which part of meiosis do the two alleles of a gene separate 4 During which phase does the separation occur 5 TF Meiosis is responsible for the independent assortment of alleles 6 How do cells acquire homologous chromosome pairs that carry the alleles that are independently assorted a Fusion of gametes b Mitosis c Meiosis d DNA replication 7 TF Independent assortment is best illustrated by the events that take place during metaphase during which sister chromatids segregate independently of each other 8 In mice black fur B is dominant to white b At a different locus a dominant allele A produces a band of yellowjust below the tip of each hair in mice with black fur This 10 11 12 13 gives a frosted appearance known as agouti Expression of the recessive allele 0 results in a solid coat color If mice that are heterozygous at both loci are crossed what is the expected phenotypic ratio of their offspring agouti black white Charles was married once before and he and his first wife had a child with cystic fibrosis The brother of his current wife Elaine died of cystic fibrosis Neither Charles Elaine nor their parents have cystic fibrosis What is the probability that Charles and Elaine will have a baby with cystic fibrosis n maize corn plants a dominant allele I inhibits kernel color while the recessive allele i permits color when homozygous At a different locus the dominant allele P causes purple kernel color while the homozygous recessive genotype ppcauses red kernels f plants heterozygous at both loci are crossed what will be the phenotypic ratio of the offspring colorless purple red What does the term incomplete dominance mean What does the term codominance refer to A mouse with agouti fur is shown here along with a mouse with solid color fur which is the recessive phenotype A agouti a solid color A separate gene which is not linked to the agouti gene can result in either a dominant black pigment or a recessive brown pigment B black b brown A litter of mice from the mating of two agouti black parents includes offspring with the following fur colors solid color black solid color brown agouti black agouti brown What would be the expected frequency of agouti brown offspring in the litter a 316 b 12 c 18 d 916 14 In addition to A and a the quotagoutiquot gene has a third allele AY Here is some information about the inheritance of the Ayallele The AV allele is dominant to both A and a The homozygous genotype AYAY results in lethality before birth The heterozygous genotypes AYA or AYa result in yellow fur color regardless of which alleles are present for the Bb gene This effect exhibited by the AV allele is known as epistasiswhen the expression of one gene masks the expression of a second gene Suppose you mate two mice with the genotypes AYaBb x AYaBb Considering only the live born offspring what would be the expected frequency of mice with yellow fur 15 TF If an individual has a genetic condition that neither parent has then that condition must be recessive 16 A man has six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot His wife and their daughter have the normal number of digits Remember that extra digits is a dominant trait What fraction of this couple39s children would be expected to have extra digits 17 A man with type A blood marries a woman with type B blood Their child has type 0 blood a What is the genotype of the man b What is the genotype of the woman c What is the genotype of the child d What genotypes would you expect in future offspring e In what frequencies would you expect the offspring genotypes IAA IAB IAA i IAB i li 18 A black guinea pig crossed with an albino guinea pig produces 12 black offspring When the albino is crossed with a second black one 7 blacks and 5 albinos are obtained What is the best explanation for this genetic outcome a Albino CAA and black CAB exhibit incomplete dominance b Albino A and black B exhibit codominance c Albino b is a recessive trait and Black B is a dominant trait 19 What are the genotypes of the parents in the first cross x 20 What are the genotypes of the gametes and offspring in the first cross 12 a Gametes all B offspring all BB b Gametes all b offspring all bb c Gametes all B and b offspring all Bb 21 In tigers a recessive allele causes an absence of fur pigmentation a white tiger and a crosseyed condition If two phenotypically normal tigers that are heterozygous at this locus are mated what percentage of their offspring will be cross eyed 22 What percentage of cross eyed tigers will be white 23 When a dominant allele coexists with a recessive allele in a heterozygote individual how do they interact with each other a They do not interact at all b The dominant allele prevents transcription of the recessive allele c The dominant allele prevents expression of the recessive allele by an unknown mechanism 24 Define epistasis 25 Define pleiotropy Chapter 15 The Chromosomal Basis of Inheritance 1 TF The separation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis I can be observed to visualize the Law of Segregation 2 Identify the mutation that led to each result shown 1 2 3 3 4 5 6 X DIElKllelNlFIG m 7 WWW 3 What phenomenon occurs when a particular allele will either be expressed or silenced depending on whether it is inherited from a male or female a sex linkage b aneuploidy c polyploidy d genomic imprinting 4 How are human mitochondria inherited 5 What is a nondisjunction 6 Which syndrome is characterized by the XO chromosome abnormality aTurner b Trisomy X c Down Syndrome 7 What kind of cell results when a diploid and a haploid gamete fuse during fertilization a monosomic b trisomic c triploid d monoploid 8 A man with hemophilia recessive sex linked condition has a daughter of normal phenotype She marries a man who is normal for the trait a what is the probability that a daughter of this mating will be a hemophiliac b what is the probability that a son will be a hemophiliac c If the couple has four sons what is the probability that all four will be born with hemophilia 9 Red green color blindness is caused by a sex linked recessive allele color blindness is X linked A color blind man marries a woman with normal vision whose father was color blind a What is the probability that they will have a color blind daughter b what is the probability that their first son will be color blind Chapter 16 The Molecular Basis of Inheritance 1 Which of these is a difference between a DNA and a RNA molecule a DNA is usually double stranded whereas RNA is single stranded b DNA contains nitrogenous bases whereas RNA contains phosphate groups c DNA contains uracil whereas RNA contains thymine 2 What are nucleotides composed of 3 things 3 Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not in RNA a Cytosine b Guanine c Uracil d Thymine 4 In a nucleotide the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar s carbon and the phosphate group is attached to the sugar s carbon 5 Nucleic acids are assembled in the to direction 10 11 12 13 In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with an of the complementary strand and a guanine pairs with a Who demonstrated that DNA is the genetic material of the T2 phage The radioactive isotope 32P labels the T2 phage s What kind of bond is used in the DNA molecule TF The role of DNA polymerase is to add nucleotides to the template strand of DNA TF DNA polymerase can only add nucleotides to the 5 end of a new DNA strand What moves along the parental DNA and separates the strands by breaking apart hydrogen bonds TF The synthesis of the leading strand differs from the synthesis of the lagging strand
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