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Mid Term

by: Akanksha Maity

Mid Term GEOG 1113

Akanksha Maity
GPA 3.7
Introduction to Landforms
Larry Kleitches

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Introduction to Landforms
Larry Kleitches
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Akanksha Maity on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1113 at Georgia State University taught by Larry Kleitches in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Landforms in Geography at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 09/27/15
Introduction to Landforms The four stages of The Scientific Method 0 The recognition and formulation of a problem 0 Collection of data through observations and experiment 0 Creation of models 0 Formulation and testing of hypotheses The scientific method uses applied common sense in an organized and objective manner The quotFour W s of geography o What 0 When 0 Why 0 Why there The study of spatial patterns and relationships is accomplished by employing the following components known as the five themes Location absolute and relative Place Human environment interaction Movement Region Reference and Thematic Maps Reference Map shows the location of geographic areas It includes physical features of a place like roads railroads river lakes and even places of cultural importance Thematic Maps are types of maps used to show a particular theme like political social economic agricultural The four great spheres realms 0 Atmosphere is the gaseous layer surrounding the earth that sustains life form on earth 0 Lithosphere consists of the crust and portion of the upper mantle This realm provides a platform for life forms quotLithosquot means rock 0 Hydrosphere includes the Earth s water It is an abiotic nonbiological open system 0 Biosphere is the interaction of the all the living organisms with their physical environment Dynamic Planet Exogenic System is the external system of agents that contributes to the change in the surface of the earth while Endogenic System is the internal system of agent The geological time scale is organized into E approximately 1 billion years Phanerozoic EJmch is usually less than 10 million years Holocene usually at least 50 million years Cenozoic Periods are longer than an epoch and included in an era Quaternary Uniformitarism believes that the same physical processes active today have been contributing to the development of the Earth throughout geologic time quotPresent is the key to the past describes the principle best Catastrophism attempts to fit the vastness of Earth s age into a shortened time span However it is considered more of a belief than a scientific hypothesis due to little physical evidence The three compositional layers of the Earth 0 Crust is the thin outer skin that ranges from 3 km 2 miles at the oceanic ridges to 70 km 40 miles in some mountain belts o Mantle lies below the crust It is the solid silica rich that is 2900 km 1800 miles deep 0 Core is the iron rich sphere having a radius of 3486 km 2161 miles A discontinuity is a place where a change in physical properties occur between two regions in the Earth s interior Mohorovicic Discontinuitv is between the crust and upper mantle Seismic waves change at this depth due to sharp contrasts of materials and densities Gutenberg Discontinuitv is between the mantle and the liquid outer core The base of mantle is located 2900 km 1800 miles below the Earth s surface Igneous Rocks are formed when lava solidifies and crystalizes Sedimentary Rocks are formed when sediments are cemented compacted and hardened through pressure Metamorphic Rocks are formed when igneous and sedimentary rocks go through physical or chemical changes and increased temperatures Divergent Boundaries are characteristics of seafloors spreading along a fault line The upwelling magma forms new seafloor and spreads apart the crustal plate Leads to the formation of oceanic ridges Convergent Boundaries occur when two plates oceanic orand continental crust collide with each other These are zones of compression Leads to the formation of mountains and oceanic trenches Transform Boundaries occur when plates laterally slide past each other at right angles No new land is formed Tectonics Tectonic Plates move 110 centimeters per year ie the rate at which fingernail grows The San Andreas Fault is a strike slip fault lateral shearing The process of mountain building is known as orogenesis literally meaning quotbirth of a mountain A mountainbuilding episode is known as orogeny which thickens the continental crust Two types of seismic waves Prima waves are of pushpull compress and expand motion changing the volume of intervening material Travels through solid liquid and gases Secondary waves quotshakequot motion at right angles to their direction of travel They travel only through solids They have a slower velocity than primary waves Intensity is a measure of the degree of the earthquake s effect It is used to measure the amount of damage Magnitude is the estimate of the amount of energy released at the source of the earthquake Shield Volcanos are created by effusive volcanos Shaped liked an shield of armor lying face up on the ground Composite Volcano is formed by layers of hardened lava and volcanic ash They have steep sides and conical in shape The Piedmont Georgia Piedmont is approximately 18100 square miles and covers onethird of Georgia The Piedmont mostly consists of rolling hills Faulting has produced the ridge of the Pine Mountain near Warm Springs Types of Rock found in the Piedmont Piedmont has moderate to high grade metamorphic rocks such as schists amphibolite gneiss and migamite o Amphibolite is used for construction and paving It is hard dark colored polish able and easily available 0 Gneiss is a very hard rock and is used as a substitute for granite o Migamite is mostly used for decorative pieces and functional pieces like paper weights and book ends The Brevard Fault Zone is a listric thrust fault running SWNE and passing through Centralhatchee in Heard County northwest Atlanta Duluth Buford and Gainesville before leaving Georgia at the westernmost point on Tugloo River in northern most Stephen s county The Chattahoochee River follows the pathway created by the Brevard Fault Zone Georgia minerals include saprolite soapstone kyanite European immigrants made their pottery by turning clay on a wheel called throwing using glaze and a fire kiln The Fall Line is the boundary between the Piedmont and the Coastal Plains There are many waterfalls and rapids along this boundary It is a boundary of bedrock geology marking the geologic boundary of hard metamorphosed terrain and the sandy relatively flat outwash plain of the upper continental shelf It is formed of less consolidated Cretaceous and Tertiary sediments Weathering Erosion Deposition and Landscape Soil horizons are the different layers of soil 0 There is a very thin surface covering the soil horizon This is not really a layer 0 Topsoil is the dark surface soil that contains living materials and dead plant and animal remains known as humus This layer has all the nutrients needed for plants to grow 0 Subsoil lies below the topsoil It is the lighter colored soil with lesser nutrients o Regolith is the bottom most layer consisting of larger fragments of rocks It sits on top of a layer of unweathered rock Three ways water can transport sediment 0 Solution the smallest particles are dissolved in water and transported 0 Suspension clay sized particles that are carried with water during erosion They are suspended in the middle of the running water 0 Saltation solid sediments which are more dense rolls and bounces along the bottom of a river stream The sediments that are being transported by the riverstream travels a little slower than the running water due to friction Erosion happens on the outside of river turns and deposition happens on the inside of the river turns Deltas are triangular deposits that forms at the mouth of a riverstream when it enters a larger body of water The particles are horizontally sorted and more under the water Alluvial fans are a deposit of sediments that forms when a stream river flows out of a mountain onto a flat dry plain The deposits are visible It is also known as quotland delta


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