ENE 280 Exam 1 Study Guide
ENE 280 Exam 1 Study Guide ENE 280
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Daphne Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ENE 280 at Michigan State University taught by Allison Cupples in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Principle of Environmental Engineering and Science in Engineering and Tech at Michigan State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Study Guide for ENE 280 Units of Measurement Understand how to convert from mquot3 to liters and how many micrograms in a gram how many milligrams in a gram Understand how to convert within liquid concentrations it is always mass of a substance per unit volume of mixture An example would be mgL With liquids understand that 1mgL1ppm and 1microgramL1ppb ln solids mass ratios are based on dry material and by weight percent For example 4 quotby weightquot means 4gkg ln gases concentrations of air pollutants are expressed in volumetric terms so ppmv Conversion between ppmv and percent by volume is 1 ppmv10quot4 Gas concentrations are also expressed as mass per unit volume so converting between ppmv and mgmquot3 for gases Know how to use the ideal gas law PVnRT and how to calculate mass moles volume etc Material balance 0 Understand what a material balance is and the steps for solving problems de ne the system fate of mass once it enters the control vmume Set control volume and gure out whether the mass accumulates leaves or encounters a reaction 0 Mass Balance Equation accumulation rateinput rateoutput rate reaction rate 0 In a steady state conservative system there is no accumulation of mass the concentration in control volume is constant the accumulation rate is set to 0 and no reaction occurs so no decay and no generation of mass Steady State equation is input rateoutput rate so CstCwaCQO and QmQsQw In a steady state nonconservative a reaction occurs and it will reach equilibrium The equations are inputoutput decay so input output KCV C is the concentration within the control volume V is the volume within the control volume and K is the rst order reaction rate coef cient 0 ln solving a problem with steady state nonconservative remember these steps Determine the input rate determine the output rate determine the decay rate and then solve for C Reactor Analysis Batch Reactor is a fully mixed reactor where there is no in ow or out ow from the reactor and substances are completely mixed Plug Flow Reactor is a long pipe or channel where there is no mixing of one parcel of uid with other parcels in front or in back of it in control volume uid is mixed in radial direction but mixing does not occur in axial direction Batch Reactor equation CtC0equot kt Energy Balances and Energy Transfer Speci c Heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by 1 degree Speci c Heat capacity of water is the energy required to raise 1 pound of water by 1 degree Fahrenheit Change in stored energy is calculated by mcchange in T where m is the mass in pounds or kilograms c is the speci c heat and change in T is the temperature change Energy associated with phase changes energy is absorbed or released without a change in temperature this is called latent heat of fusionenthalpy of fusion This is basically the energy required to go from a solid to a liquid state Latent heat of vaporization is the energy required to go from liquid to a gas also known as the enthalpy of vaporization The energy released or absorbed in phase changes is calculated by mL where L is the latent heat of fusion or vaporization and m is the mass Know the difference between conduction direct physical contact convectionliquid or gas medium and radiation absence of any physical medium Chemistry Understand what is an element eg Pb compound eg HCHO anioneg Cl and cation Na Organic compound is anything that contains carbon and an inorganic compound is any other compound that does not contain carbon The atomic number is the number of protons of an element and de nes an element An isotope is the atom of an element that has the same number of protons but a different amount of neutrons Understand that the molecular formula shows the number of atoms of each element and the molecular weight is the sum of molecular weights Molarity is the number of moles of solute dissolved in one liter of solution so moles of soluteliter of solution It is abbreviated as M Normality is the number of equivalents of solute in 1 L of the solution units are N of equivalentsmassmol weightcharge Normality of equivalents volume of solution in Liters Know how to solve examples Practice stoichiometry and balanced equations Understand that theoretical oxygen demand is the oxygen required to completely oxidize a chemical substance to carbon dioxide and water Biochemical oxygen demand is the oxygen by a substance in a standard test using microorganisms for oxidation Understand how to calculate the change in enthalpy H so Hproducts Hreactants the change in enthalpy When heat is absorbed the reaction is endothermic so H is positive When heat is released the reaction is exothermic so H is negative Understand that pHogH and H10quot pH where H is the concentration of protons in molL Understand that KwHOH10quot 14 where OH is the concentration of hydroxide ions in molL and this equation can be used to solve for concentrations of protons or hydroxide ions
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