NUR 230 Test 2 Study Guide
NUR 230 Test 2 Study Guide NUR 230
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Issy Notetaker on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to NUR 230 at Ball State University taught by Marjorie Pyron in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 149 views. For similar materials see Health Appraisal Across the Lifespan in Nursing and Health Sciences at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/27/15
Test 2 Study Guide Chapter 11 What is the purpose of a nutritional assessment What is optimal nutritional status What is over nutrition De ne 0 Causes obesity hypertension and diabetes Nutrients are needed for daily functions Increased nutritional needs occur during growth pregnancy and illness Nutrition is affected by psychological psychosocial developmental cultural and economic factors What should a plate look like o 12 Veges and fruits o 12 whole grain and protein 0 Little sodium fats and cholesterol 04 months is the fastest growth period 0 Breast feeding is recommended for the rst 6 months Adolescent have a rapid growth period 0 Snacking nutritiously is an important way to get in needed nutrients Pregnancy and Lactation requires more nutritional demands 0 Weight gain is determined by weight of mother before pregnancy Nutrition needs stabilize in adulthood 0 Health education is needed in order to maintain o What are the symptoms of metabolic syndrome Aging adult has decreased nutritional needs but needs more nutrient dense foods 0 Lose mm mass and increase body fat 0 What affects an aging adults appetite 4 What are the caloric intakes for each age group What is nutritional screening 0 What are the tools included What is included in a comprehensive nutrition assessment 0 Methods 24 hour recall Complete interview Food Frequency Questionnaire Food Diary Direct Observations Subjective Data included 0 Eating Patterns Normal and changes Weight Normal Changes in appetite taste smell chewing swallowing Recent surgery trauma burn infection Chronic illness Nausea Vomiting Diarrhea Constipation Food Allergies Medications and Supplements OOOOOOO Patient Centered Care Alcohol or Drug use Exercise History What is the additional information needed for an infant An Adolescent A pregnant women 0 Aging Adult Objective Data 0 What are the normal labs taken 0 What are the BMI ranges o What is the Waist to hip ratio that is optimal Malnutrition Types Explain 0000000 0 Obesity 0 Marasmus o Kwashiorkor o MarasumsKwashiokor o Undernutrition all reserves are depleted What are the vulnerable populations 0 Over Nutrition Excess consumption What are the risk associated w this What are the features of a good eating plan What are some teaching moments Chapter 12 What are the purposes of skin There are 9 Skin is the largest organ in the body What are the layers of the skin their purpose and the structures win them 0 Epidermis o Dermis o Subcutaneous Hair Keratin cyclic growth Arrector Pili Vellus Fine and Faint Terminal Dark and thick Sebaceous Gland 0 Through hair follicles o Lubricates skin Sweat Glands o Eccrine o Apocrine Nails Keratin Hard Clear Pink nail bed What is Lanugo What is Vernix Casesoa What are the characteristics of newborn skin Hair growth increased oil production and increased fat deposits occur during puberty What skin changes occur during pregnancy What changes occur to an aging adult39s skin 0 What is senile purpura Subjective Data What are some questions to be asked in each category 0 0000000 00 History of skin disease Change in pigmentation Change in a mole Dryness or moisture Pruritus Excessive bruising Rashes or lesions Medications Why is this important to know Hair loss change in nails Environment or occupational hazards What are some additional areas for InfantsChildren Adolescents Again adults 0 Objective Should be incorporated into other assessments O O 0 Inspection and Palpation What is normal Color Even and consistent Abnormalities Freckle Moles Birthmarks What are characteristics of wide spread color changes 0 Pallor o Erythema o Cyanosis o Jaundice Temperature Hypothermia Hyperthermia Moisture Texture Edema Mobility and Turgor Vascularity and Bruising Lesions What is ABCDE What does each letter refer to o What are the different primary lesions Explain each Inspect and Palpate Hair Color Quantity Texture Distribution Lesions Inspect and Palpate Nails Shape and Contour Consistency Color Pitting peeling ridges Explain the different abnormalities 0 Teach the ABCDE and Selfchecks 0 Educate about prime time sun exposure When is this 0 What is the minimum SPF sunscreen a person should use 0 Do you need to wear sunscreen on an overcast day 0 What are the skin color changes that can occur in infants 0 How is their skin different from that of an adult 0 What is a common skin condition in o Adolescents 0 Pregnant Women 0 Aging Adults 0 What are the skin differences in an aging adult 0 Color Mositure Texture Thickness Hair Nails Mobility and Turgor Abnormalities in the Skin Explain each may look like or the things to watch outfor o Freckles Number and arrangement Junctional Nevus Mole Compound nevus Vitilago Jaundice Xerosis Edema Osteomyletitis 000000 0000000 Chapter 20 o A disease to the vascular system prevents 02 and nutrient delivery and waste removal Arteries Carry blood to and blood contains 0 High pressure 0 What are the different places a pulse can be felt o What is ischemia 0 What is periphery artery diease Veins absorb and 0 Low pressure 0 Greater amount hold more blood 60 0 Main veins Jugular Arm Super cial and Deep veins Leg Femoral and popliteal Great and Small Saphenous Venous Flow 0 Low pressure 0 Pumped by O Problems with any of these system cause venous disease risk 0 What are varicose veins Larger system Lymphatic System is a separate vessel system 0 O O O Retrieves and pumps it into the system What are the functions of the lymphatic system What are the main nodes and where are they located What are the related organs and their function By age 6 the lymphatic system is fully developed 0 Nodes are larger in children Edema is common in pregnant women Aging Adult 0 O O O 0 What is Arteriosclerosis What is Atherosclerosis What is Peripheral Artery Disease What is DVT What risks are associated with DVT What is it caused by Treatment Signs and symptoms What is an MI and its treatment Subjective 0 00000000 0 Leg painCramps Skin Changes in Arms or Legs Swelling in Arms or Legs Lymph Node Enlargement Chest pain SOB Coughing Fatigue Medications Smoking History Family note what side of family Diabetes HD Hyperlipidemia Hypertension Personal these affect circulation Objective 0 What should be taken note of when inspecting and palpating the arms Color Temp Texture Clubbing Cap re ll What pulse should be palpated What lymph nodes 0 What should be taken note of when inspecting and palpating the legs Color Temp Texture Hair Whatpulses Edema What are the 5 grades and their meaning Color changes 0 Same pitting is expected in a pregnant woman 0 What is arterial insuf ciency o What is it caused by 0 What are the signs and symptoms 0 Relievers o Aggravators What is venous insuf ciency Causes Signs and Symptoms Relievers Aggravators 0 000 Chapter 21 o The abdominal cavity reaches from the diaphragm to the pelvis The viscera is the internal organ cavity 0 What are the quotSolid Visceraquot What makes these solid 7 O o What are the hollow Viscera What makes these hollow O 0 These are not usually palpable Know this chart Upper Right Quadrant Liver and Gallbladder Duodenum Head of Pancreas Right kidney w adrenal gland Hepatic exure Part of ascending and transverse Colon Upper Left Quadrant Stomach Spleen Left Lobe of Liver Body of Pancreas Left kidney and adrenal Splenic Flexure Transverse and descending colon parts Lower Right Quadrant Cecum Appendix Ascending Colon Right ovary tube ureter Right spermatic cord Lower Left Quadrant Descending colon Sigmoid Colon Left ovary tube ureter Left Spermatic cord Midline Know Epigastric Stomach Transverse Aorta Colon NG tube placement Umbilical Uterus Hernia T 10 Aortic Aneurysm and Bladder Suprapubic right above pubic bone and on bladder and rectum Regions Each is 13 of abdomen In an infant and child the liver takes up more space bladder is higher and abdominal wall is thinner Pregnancy Constipation Indigestion Morning Sickness o Uterus pushes intestine upward less bowel sounds are present 0 What are some changes in an aging adult 0 What is lactose intolerance Subjective Data 0 Appetite Note changes What is Dysphagia What is Dysarthria Food intolerance Such as Abdominal Pain Nausea and Vomiting Constipation and Diarrhea Bowel Habits why is this important Past Abdominal History Medications Nutritional Assessment Blood and vomit in stool o What is Flatus ad Borborygmus What is additional questions for 0 Infants 0 Adolescents 0 Aging Adults 0 Why is the BMI so important What are the values 0 Objective Data 0 Inspection What are you looking for in each Contour Symmetry Umbilicus 000 0000000 Skin Pulsation Hair Demeanor o Auscultate This is in a different order than every other assessment Use diaphragm What quadrant do you start in Why What are you assessing about bowel sounds Character Frequency Pitch Activity If there are no sounds how long do you have to listen for What do vascular sounds sound like 0 Palpation How do you make the person relax When should you not palpate the abdomen What are you feeling for 0 Size Location Consistency masses tenderness Where all are you palpating How many cm do you press in light In deep An infant abdomen will be protruding o What is common to see in infants Hernia and diastasis recti A child will have a potbelly when standing An aging adult 0 Increase subcutaneous fat Organs are easily palpated Decreased salivation 000000 0 What is seen in a pregnant woman What is a hernia What is an ostomy What is appendicitis What is an in amed gallbladder Chapter 22 MS musculoskeletal system consists of Bones Joints and MM muscles What is the purpose of this system 5 things Components Explain a bit about each 0 Bones 0 Joints Types What is a bursa Less moveable more stable MM 0 What is the TMJ What is it used for What two bones are it formed from o Spine How many vertebrae Break them up into their sections What are the main landmarks What are the curves off the spine What are intervertebral disks 0 What do they allow for O o What type ofjoint is the shoulder joint What actions does this joint allow 0 Elbow joint is what type ofjoint What bones is it made of o What movements does the wrist joint allow for What about the nger o What type ofjoint is the hip What movements are allowed 0 Knee is the largest and most complex joint What are the ligaments in the knee 0 What are the movements of the ankle joint A fetus quotbonesquot cartilage are formed by three months 0 When does the epiphyses close 0 What spinal curve does an infant have C Shaped thoracic 34 months Cervical spine is formed 1218 months Lumbar is formed 0 MM growth during adolescents is rapid Why are joints more mobile in a pregnant woman 0 What spinal change occurs in a pregnant woman After 40 bone loss occur 0 What is osteoporosis Who is more likely to have it o What causes a decrease in height during aging o What is lqphosis What is Bone mineral density 0 Who has a higher BMD Subjective What are some questions to ask for each 0 joints Pain Stiffness swelling heat redness limitation of movement Knee if injured MM Bones Functional Assessment Safety of independent living need for services and QOL screening Pt Centered Care 0 Additional for Infants and Children Adolescents Aging Adult Objective 0 Assessment should be made from head to toe o What is the difference bw a screening assessment and a complete assessment 0 lnspchon Size contour swelling color masses deformities of each joint 0 What is swelling 0 What deformities are you looking for 0000 O o What are you looking for during palpitation ls being able to palpate uid normal What is Active Range of motion What is passive What is the grading scale What is crepitation Is this normal MM Testing 0 All joints should be symmetrical or equal bilaterally o What is the different between symmetrical and equal biateray What is done during strength testing 0 What is supposed to happen when palpating the TMJ What motions are made by the shoulderjoint o What is the best position for the patient to be in while performing What motions are made by the elbow 0 Best position 0 What motions are made by the wrist The hand Fingers 0 Best position Motions made by the Hip 0 Best Position Motions made by the Knee 0 Best position Motions made by the ankle Foot Toes 0 Best position 0 How do you inspect the spine 0 What does the bend test show for o What are some additional tests or things that should be noted for Infants Preschool and School age 0 What Does a child stand bowegged Knock knees Adolescence Screening for scoliosis is important Pregnant woman Waddling gait ordosis slumped shoulders kyphosis are all normal Aging adult 0 What is the get up and go test 0 What are common changes in posture What are some functional assessment tests Abnormal Findings Explain Osteoarthritis What is osteoporosis What is carpal Tunnel 0 O O 0 Who is this more common in What is scoliosis Chapter 23 What is the CNS made of What about the PNS Sensory To CNS Afferent Motor From CNS Efferent What is Dysphasia What is Dysarthria What is Dysphagia What are the different parts of the CNS Explain a bit about each 0 Cerebral Cortex What are the lobes Basal Ganglia Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Brain Stem o Spinal cord What are the two pathways of the CNS 0 Sensory Pathways include 0 Motor pathways include What are the differences between the Upper and Lower motor neurons What are the different Re ex Arcs o What is the re ex arc pathway 6 steps How many cranial nerves are there What is a dermatome What is the ANS An infant NS is not fully developed at birth 0 What is the main controller of activity 0 What are the primitive re exes If these are present after development of cerebral cortex it is a sign of dysfunction 0 Milestones should occur in an orderly manner Aging adults have a general loss of function 0 Strength and agility decrease with age Subjective o Headache Frequency Head Injury EVER had one and describe DizzinessVertigo Seizures Ever had and describe What questions should be asked Tremors Weakness lncoordination NumbnessTingling Dif culty Swallowing Dif culty Speaking Pt Centered Care Past History EnvironmentalOccupational Hazard 00000 000 00000000 0 Additional for Infants and children Aging Adult 0 Objective 0 When is a screening performed 0 When is a complete assessment performed 0 When are neurological rechecks done 0 CN What are they What do they test for and how are the tests performed 0 Motor System Compare R and L sides of body Symmetrical Test strength Note tone 0 Cerebellar Function Balance test Gait and arm swing are to be noted Coordination tests 0 What are they 0 Sensory system Stereognosis what is it Mono lament tests for what 0 Who it is super important to test this on Diabetics o Re exes Stretch or Deep Tendon What are the different ones There are 6 O O O O O O What does the plantar test show 0 What is the Babinski re ex When should this disappear o What are some primitive re exes that infants have 0 What else should be assess in preschool or school aged children 0 Aging adult 0 What is assessed during a neurological recheck 0 What is the Glasgow coma test Abnormalities O 0 What is Alzheimer39s What are some signs and symptoms What is a seizure disorder What are the types Phases What should you do if someone is having a seizure o What is Parkinsons What are the signs and symptoms o Bell s Palsy effects which CN It creates what kind of paralysis Unilateral o What is Muscular sclerosis What are the signs and symptoms
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