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Test One Study Guide

by: Victoria Gonzalez

Test One Study Guide HUMNNTR 2310 - 0010

Victoria Gonzalez
GPA 3.2
Fundamentals of Nutrition
Irene Hatsu

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About this Document

This study guide incorporate notes from chapters 1, 2, 3, and 4, focusing on the points the professor recommended.
Fundamentals of Nutrition
Irene Hatsu
Study Guide
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Popular in Fundamentals of Nutrition

Popular in Human Development

This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Gonzalez on Sunday September 27, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to HUMNNTR 2310 - 0010 at Ohio State University taught by Irene Hatsu in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Fundamentals of Nutrition in Human Development at Ohio State University.

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Date Created: 09/27/15
Test One Study Guide Victoria Gonzalez Functions of nutrients 0 Energy production Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins 0 Growth promotion Proteins Lipids Some vitamins Some minerals Water 0 Bodily processes regulations Proteins Some lipids Some vitamins Some minerals Water My plate food groups 0 Fruits Eat a variety of fruit Fresh frozen canned or dried Decrease fruit juices Vegetables More dark green veggies broccoli spinach leafy greens More orange veggies carrots sweet potatoes More dry beans and peas Grains Half of grains whole grains Protein Low fat or lean meats and poultry Bake broil or grill More sh beans peas nuts and seeds Dairy Fat free milk and yogurt If you can t consume milk drink lactose free or other calcium and vitamin D products Make most vegetable oils Limit solid fats Decrease saturated fat trans fat and sodium Choose foods and beverages low in sugars 0 Essential nutrients must be consumed to maintain health 0 Has a speci c biological function 0 Removing it from diet declines the function 0 Adding it to diet restores the function 0 States of nutritional status 0 Optimal nutrition body tissues have enough nutrients to support normal function and build and maintain surplus o Undernutrition intake does not meet needs Reduced biochemical functions Clinical symptoms appear 0 Overnutrition nutrient intake exceeds needs Supplement overuse Obesity 0 Nutrient dense vs caloric dense 0 Nutrient density important tool to access nutrient quality offoods 0 Comparison of nutrient protein vitamin and minerals content to number of calories Divide the amount of the nutrient per serving by the recommended amounts Divide the calories in a serving by daily caloric need Compare the two 0 Nutrient dense greater contribution to nutrient need than calorie needs 0 Example 17 year old girlEER of 1800 calories Eats orange 65 calories 70 mg of vitamin c 52 mg of calcium RDA for vitamin C 65 mg Ca 1300 mg 0 Vitamin C 7065100 108 0 Ca 521300100 4 o Calories 651800100 4 o Calorie dense empty calorie junk food that provides calories but few nutrients o Macronutrient physiologic values 0 Carbohydrates 4 kcalgram 0 Proteins 4 kcalgram o Lipids 9 kcalgram 0 Alcohol 7 kcalgram 0 Calculating percent energy from food 0 Total Calories 4 G of Carb 4 G of Protein 9 G Lipids 0 Dietary guidelines for Americans Identi es key recommendations in categories 0 Balance calories to manage weight 0 Obesity prevention Physical activity Improved eating control of calories 0 Foods and food components to reduce 0 Sodium o Fats saturated trans cholesterol 0 Solid fats and added sugars o Re ned grains 0 Alcohol 0 Foods and nutrients to increase 0 Fruits and vegetables Whole grain Fat free or low fat dairy Variety of protein and seafood Oils to replace solid fats Foods with more potassium dietary ber calcium vitamin D 0 Building healthy eating patterns 0 Eating pattern that meets nutrient needs 0 Food safety 00000 0 Sites and functions of GI secretions including hormones o Hormones Gastrin triggers the stomach to release HCI and pepgnogen Released by stomach and duodenum in response to food reaching the stomach Cholecvstokinin stimulates the release of pancreatic enzymes and bile from the gall bladder Released by small intestine in response to dietary fat in chyme Secretin stimulates release of pancreatic bicarbonate Release by small intestine in response to acidic chime Glucosedependent insulinotropic peptide GIP inhibits gastric acid secretion stimulates insulin release 0 Released by small intestine in response to glucose amino acids and fat 0 Others Saliva mouth Mucus stomach large intestine mouth Digestive enzymes small intestine pancreas stomach Hydrochloric acid stomach liver stored in the gall bladder Bicarbonate ions secreted from pancreas into small intestine to cancel out HCl Hormones small intestine stomach 0 Different types of food label claims 0 Nutrient content claim Closely regulated by FDA Claims comparing food to other foods Calorie free low calorie reduced or fewer calories light fat free low fat reduced or less fat lean In order to use these terms you must meet certain requirements by FDA 0 Health claim Closely regulated by FDA Allow foods to bear certain science baked claims about disease prevention in their labeling without being regulated as drugs Permitted claims must have true scienti c agreement Claims must use quotmightquot or may quali er in statement Health claim requirements 0 Must be a good source at least 10 of DV of at least one nutrient Cannot contain more than 13 g of fat 4 g of saturated fat 60 mg of cholesterol and 480 mg of sodium 0 Product meet criteria speci c to health claim 0 Structurefunction claim Not FDA approved Ex helps build strong bones and teeth helps maintain a healthy heart promotes digestive health 0 Frontof package claims Nutrient speci c shows nutritional values large on the front Summary indicator has logos or points to help summarize nutritional content Food group information symbol for content in food whole grain Products can have these if they don t it doesn t mean they aren t healthy 0 Structure of GI 0 GI tract ow Mouth and salivary glands Esophagus 10 inches long Stomach 4 cup 1 liter capacity 0 Food remains here for 2 to 3 hours or longer for large meals Small intestine 10 feet total length food remains 310 hours Duodenum 10 inches long Jejunum 4 feet long 0 lleum 5 feet long Large intestine 3 feet total length food remains 72 hours Cecum Ascending colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Anus 0 Anatomy of the GI tract GI tract alimentary canal 15 feet long hollow muscular tube Four layers Mucosa innermost layer that forms the lumen hollow area inside Submucosa contains blood vessels to carry nutrients connective tissues nerves and glands Muscle double layer moves food forward Serosa outside layer protects the tract 0 What makes up a healthy diet 0 Healthy diet the consumption of a variety of foods balanced by a moderate intake of each food Variety Not always eating the same thing 0 Choosing different foods within each food group 0 Ensure sufficient nutrients Balance 0 Do not over consume any one food group 0 Eat foods from ve major food groups Moderation Moderate don t eliminate 0 Control portion size 0 No quotgood foodsquot or quotbad foodsquot 0 Structure of the small intestine 0 Organization of small intestine Interior wall is folded on folds to increase intestinal surface area M projections extend into lumen Enterocytes absorptive cells on villi o Microvilli on enterocytes form brush border W and microvilli increase surface area of the small intestine by 600x surface area size of a football eld Enterocytes absorptive cells Secrete digestive enzymes Produced in crypts New cells constantly migrate to replace dying ones 0 The body s entire supply of enterocytes is replaced every 25 days 0 High turnover 0 Causes small intestine to deteriorate during nutrient de ciency o Prone to injury from chemotherapy 0 Types of case studiesresearch 0 Use scienti c research starts with an observation or ques on 0 Experiments Laboratory animal studies Human experiments Casecontrol study observe people with and people without disease 0 Double blind intervention study blind the researcher and the people in experiment to reduce bias 0 Dietary reference intakes DRI provide guidance on the quantities of nutrients that are most likely to result in optimal heath o A collection of nutrient recommendations in the US and Canada to prevent chronic diseases 0 DRIs are set for all vitamins minerals water and other dietary compounds EAR estimated average requirements 0 Nutrient intake values estimated to meet the needs of 50 of the individuals in speci c life group RDA EER Set for 17 nutrients that have functional markers 0 Nutrient requirements are set based on the amount needed to keep these markers functioning Evaluates diet adequacy for groups not individuals recommended dietary allowances Daily nutrient intake amounts suf cient to meet the needs of nearly all healthy individuals 97 in a life stage not everyone has the same RDA Based on EARs only nutrients with EAR Generally RDA EAR x 12 Used to evaluate current intakes Prevent chronic diseases not just de ciency Al adequate intakes Based on estimates of average intake that maintains a de ned nutritional state Insuf cient information to set an EAR Covers the needs of 97 of individuals in a life stage Set for some vitamins and minerals UL tolerable upper intake levels Maximum daily intake 0 Unlikely to cause adverse effects 0 Refers to chronic daily uses not occasional high intake Not a goal to reach a ceiling Based on combined intake food water supplements estimated energy requirements Average daily caloric need to each lifestage group Based on height weight gender age and physical activity 0 O AMDRS acceptable macronutrient distribution ranges Range of intake as a percentage of energy 0 Associated with good health and reduced disease risk 10 Carbohydrates 4565 0 Fats 2035 0 Protein 1035 0 Essential fatty acids 0 Uses for DRls Diet planning Aim for RDA or Al Do not exceed UL on chronic basis For healthy population 0 May be different if you have a disease or condition 0 GI motility o Segmentation back and forth action in the small intestine that breaks food apart 0 Peristalsis ring of contraction in the intestines that propels material along GI tract 0 Food security access by all people at all times to enough food for an active healthy life style 0 Access consistent 0 Food safe adequate nutritious and acceptable 0 Access without Resorting to emergency food programs food stamps Scavenging Stealing Food insecurity not being able to achieve food security 0 Hunger discomfort weakness illness or pain caused by lack of food 0 GM crops 0 Makes food more available for consumers o Recombinant DNA technology Plant crops Cloned animals not approved for consumption 0 Top genetically modi ed foods Corn soybeans cotton sugar canola beets wheat dcepapaya o Irradiation of food 0 Radiant energy to extend shelf life and control growth of pathogens 0 FDA and AAP irradiated foods are safe for consumption 0 Irradiated food labeled with radura and statement about irradiation treatment Radura international symbol indicating that food has been irradiated Dry spices 11 0 Environment that bacteria need to thrive and the exceptions 0 Temperature In cold temperatures bacteria will stop dividing but will not die In hot temperatures bacteria will die endospores will not Danger zone 41 to 135 F room temperature too 0 Exception listeria will grow in cold temperatures too 0 Prions and toxins o Prions proteins Bovine spongiform encephalopathy BSE aka quotmad cow disease Fatal brain disease in humans Variant CreutzfeldtJakob disease VCJD o Toxins A atoxin on peanuts Ergot grows on rye causes hallucinations Solanine on potatoes can cause paralysis o Mold fungi Some algae ingested by sh Plants can produce natural toxins Lead absorption and nutrients that affect it 0 Lead paint plumbing and herbal remedies Damages organs CNS Absorbed more when iron de cient 0 Types of lipids in the body 0 Lipids fats and oils made up of carbon hydrogen and oxygen Fatty acid basic unit of lipids Saturated fat covered with hydrogen bonds no double bonds 0 Animal products 0 Solid at room temperature 0 Bad for health raises blood cholesterol Unsaturated fat has one double bond Oils at room temperature 0 Come from plants 0 Better for health Trans fats formed from cis fats to preserve food 0 Bad for health causes chronic health conditions Triglyceride major form of lipid in food and body 12 0 Made up of one glycerol and three fatty acid chains 0 Taste and smell 0 Taste buds on tongue and soft palate contain taste receptor cells Salty Sour Sweet Bitter Umami meaty taste 0 Olfactory cells in nose smell are stimulated with chewing 0 Food contamination 0 Can occur during Production Processing Distribution center Transportation Restaurant or retail Preparation 0 What causes contamination Microbial pathogens viruses and bacteria Contamination by feces o Diaper changing and then food preparation 0 Poor water sanitation in developing countries Contamination by an infected individual 0 Open cut with pathogens transferred during cooking Coughing and sneezing in food Crosscontamination Cutting board used for vegetables and raw chicken 0 Danger zone 41 to 135 F includes room temperature 0 Sphincters 0 Lower esoohadeal Sphincter prevent back ow re ux of stomach contents into the esophagus o Pyloric sphincter control the ow of stomach contents into the small intestine o Hepat0pancreatic Sphincter Oddi controls the ow of bile and pancreatic juice from the common bile and pancreatic ducts into the small intestine o leoceca valve prevent the contents of the large intestine from reentering the small intestine 0 Anal sphincters prevent defecation unti person desires to do so 13 Sa iuaw Upper esnphageal glan Luwer asuphageal Pyluric Sphlinctir f Oddi Liver f mach GarlhcladEr 39 39 39 r l 1 an ing m r Tj i L L l n I 1 H nm junum 1 J Ileuceca a mm Internal anal External anal The mimmlary tract


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